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Carotid cavernous fistula: Redefining the angioarchitecture

Journal of Cerebrovascular and Endovascular Neurosurgery / Journal of Cerebrovascular and Endovascular Neurosurgery, (P)2234-8565; (E)2287-3139
2022, v.24 no.4, pp.356-365
Keshav Mishra (Fellow Skull Based Surgeon, PGIMER Chandigarh, Haryana, India)
Vivek Kumar (Department of Neurosurgery, Pt. B. D. Sharma, PGIMS Rohtak. Haryana, India)
Vinay (Department of Community Medicine, Pt. B. D. Sharma, PGIMS Rohtak. Haryana, India)
Ashok Gandhi (Department of Neurosurgery, SMS Medical College and Hospital, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India)
Trilochan Srivastava (Department of Neurology, SMS Medical College and Hospital, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India)
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Abstract

Objective: Numerous classification schemes have been used for carotid cavernous fistula (CCF), each describing some aspect of the disease process but none of them provides a complete description of the fistula including its clinical features, natural history, arterial and venous architecture. Methods: Retrospective clinical and radiological review was done for all the patients diagnosed with CCF and treated at our institute. The CCF were classified according to the proposed API-ACE classification along with Barrow and Thomas classification. Results: Overall 28 patients (M=21, F=7) were diagnosed and treated during the 6-year period. 89.2% of CCF developed following an episode of head injury. Orbital symptoms were the most common presenting complaints. Barrows type A was the most predominant subtype (n=24) and most of the patients (n=23) demonstrated decreased ipsilateral carotid filling. Combined anterior and posterior drainage pattern was the most common drainage pattern and anterior drainage was more commonly observed than posterior drainage. Conclusions: API-ACE classification helps to better understand and classify the angioarchitecture of CCF which could

keywords
Carotid cavernous fistula (CCF), Thomas classification, Venous angioarchitecture

Journal of Cerebrovascular and Endovascular Neurosurgery