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Sixteen years progress in recanalization of chronic carotid artery occlusion: A comprehensive review

Journal of Cerebrovascular and Endovascular Neurosurgery / Journal of Cerebrovascular and Endovascular Neurosurgery, (P)2234-8565; (E)2287-3139
2023, v.25 no.1, pp.1-12
https://doi.org/10.7461/jcen.2022.E2022.03.008
Stanishevskiy Artem (Department of Neurosurgery, Main Military Hospital Named after N.N. Burdenko, Moscow, Russia)
Babichev Konstantin (Department of Neurosurgery, Military Medical Academy Named after S.M. Kirov, Saint-Petersburg, Russia)
Savello Alexander (Department of Neurosurgery, Military Medical Academy Named after S.M. Kirov, Saint-Petersburg, Russia)
Gizatullin Shamil (Department of Neurosurgery, Main Military Hospital Named after N.N. Burdenko, Moscow, Russia)
Svistov Dmitriy (Department of Neurosurgery, Military Medical Academy Named after S.M. Kirov, Saint-Petersburg, Russia)
Davydov Denis (Department of Neurosurgery, Main Military Hospital Named after N.N. Burdenko, Moscow, Russia)
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Abstract

Objective: Although chronic carotid artery occlusion seems to be associated with significant risk of ischemic stroke, revascularization techniques are neither well established nor widespread. In contrast, extracranial-intracranial bypass is common despite the lack of evidence regarding neurological improvement or prevention of ischemic events. The aim of current review is to evaluate the effectiveness of various methods of recanalization of chronic carotid artery occlusion. Methods: Comprehensive literature search through PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane and Web of Science databases performed. Various parameters were assessed among patients underwent surgical, endovascular and hybrid recanalization for chronic carotid artery occlusion. Results: 40 publications from 2005 to 2021 with total of more than 1300 cases of revascularization of chronic carotid artery occlusion have been reviewed. Further parameters were assessed among patients underwent surgical, endovascular and hybrid recanalization for chronic carotid artery occlusion: mean age, male to female ratio, mean duration of occlusion before treatment, rate of successful recanalization, frequency of restenosis and reocclusion, prevalence of ischemic stroke postoperatively, neurological or other symptoms improvement and complications. Based on proposed through reviewed literature indications for revascularization and predictive factors of various recanalizing procedures, an algorithm for clinical decision making have been formulated. Conclusions: Although treatment of chronic carotid artery occlusion remains challenging, current literature suggests revascularization as single option for verified neurological improvement and prevention of ischemic events. Surgical and endovascular procedures should be taken into account when treating patients with symptomatic chronic carotid artery occlusion.

keywords
Carotid artery stenosis, Transluminal angioplasty, Carotid endarterectomy, Bypass surgery, Stroke

Journal of Cerebrovascular and Endovascular Neurosurgery