Sexual homicides are difficult to solve as they often appear to be random and motiveless. To help police investigations in apprehending criminals, the present study aimed to classify different types of sexual homicide offenders based on crime-scene behavior. Using the multidimensional methodology of Smallest Space Analysis, the present study showed that sexual homicide crime-scene actions could be differentiated in terms of expressive and instrumental aggression: the expressive theme consisted of violent behaviors centering on hurting the victim, whereas the instrumental theme consisted of behaviors focusing on the benefits the victim provided for the offender. For a more comprehensive examination of the results, crime-scene actions were placed into five behavioral categories: sexual, wounding, planning/control, disposal, and weapon behaviors. Further exploration using the Multidimensional Scalogram Analysis showed that three of these categories, sexual, planning/control, and disposal, were most effective for differentiating sexual homicides.
범죄 청소년과 일반 학생의 부, 모, 교사 및 친구에 대한 표상이 비교되었다. 학생 292명(남, 148; 여, 144), 교정 시설에 수감 중인 비행청소년 337명(남, 274; 여, 63)을 대상으로 조사하였다. 결과는 각각의 인물에 대한 표상의 강도에서 범죄 청소년의 경우 친구표상이 가장 높았으며, 교사 표상이 가장 낮았으며, 친구표상과 부ㆍ모 표상의 괴리가 매우 크게 나타났다. 이와는 달리 청소년의 경우 친구표상과 부ㆍ모 표상의 괴리가 범죄 청소년의 괴리보다 유의하게 작았다. 각각의 인물표상에 대한 청소년과 범죄청소년의 차이 분석에서, 청소년은 부ㆍ모 표상에서 범죄 청소년보다 유의하게 높았으며, 범죄 청소년은 친구표상에서 청소년보다 유의하게 더 높았다. 청소년의 경우, 남여 각각 동성 부모에 표상값이 이성 부모에 대한 표상값보다 유의하게 높았지만, 범죄 청소년의 경우 각각 이성 부모에 대한 표상값이 높게 나타났다. 이들 결과는 대인표상의 양상이 청소년 범죄와 관련이 있음을 시사해준다.
This study aims at comparing the parent, teacher and friend representation of general teenagers with that of delinquent juveniles. 292 students (148 male students and 144 female students) and 337 delinquent juveniles (274 males and 63 females) in correctional facilities were interviewed. As for delinquent juveniles, the friend representation was the highest, while the teacher representation was the lowest. The gap between the friend representation and the parent representation of delinquent juveniles was very significant. In contrast, the gap between the friend representation and the parent representation of general teenagers was less significant than that of delinquent juveniles. The analysis on the difference in personal representation between general teenagers and delinquent juveniles showed that the parent representation of general teenagers was significantly higher than that of delinquent juveniles, and the friend representation of delinquent juveniles was significantly higher than that of general teenagers. General teenagers showed significantly higher representation on homosexual parents than hetrosexual parents, while delinquent juveniles showed significantly higher representation on hetrosexual parents than homosexual parents. The results imply interpersonal representation is related to the crimes of teenagers.
Psychopathy is known to have a better discriminating capability than any other factors in predicting recidivism. In Western society including Canada, Britain, and the U.S., the meta-analysis of PCL-R, an assessment tool, has been known to have more excellence than any other criminal records, demographic variables or environmental factors, and presents even more excellence than subordinate criteria of MMPI, a self-report test in numerous studies. This study analyzed predicting capability of recidivism through PCL-R scores collected from 82 inmates in prisons in Korea, and 31 offenders on probation under intensive supervision in order to confirm the recidivism prediction capability of PCL-R in Korean offender population. As a result, PCL-R which was developed in the North America still predicts recidivism even of criminals in Korea. This fact suggests that PCL-R will be used very usefully within Korean justice system in which risk assessment issues are not dealt with importance.
The present study examined whether enhanced motivation for beating deception detection measures in people who score high on the Machiavellianism scale improves the detection efficiency of P300-based GKT. Forty-six participants chose for themselves to be deceptive or honest in a mock crime procedure based on information or feedback they would be given following the result of physiological detection. There were significant group difference in Machiavellianism scores between the guilty group and the honest group, which allowed us to confirm the fact that the people who score high on the Machiavellianism scale have predispositions for duplicity and lying over honesty. After experiencing a mock crime, the P300-based GKT was carried out. An one-way ANOVA revealed that only in guilty group, the P300 amplitude of the crime relevant item (the probe) was significantly higher than that of irrelevant items. However, when we conducted an ANCOVA by designating Machiavellianism as a covariate, this difference between the crime relevant item and the irrelevant items was not observed. This result implies that the increased motivation in manipulative people to cope with the deception measure may have an ironical role of improving the detection efficiency of the P300-based GKT.
본 연구의 주요 목적은 90명의 비행청소년(소년수용자)들을 대상으로 실시된 선행연구인 “비행청소년의 분노조절과 분노감소를 위한 웃음치료(LT)와 인지행동치료(CBT)의 효과 비교”(류창현, 이수정, 2009)에 대한 종적연구로써, 처우집단들 간에 따른 효과성과 범제억제에 관해 살펴보고자 생명표방법(life-table method)과 36개월(3년) 기간 동안의 재범율과 생존율을 추적조사하기 위해 생존분석(survival analysis, 사건사분석(事件史分析))을 활용해 검증하는 것이다. 또한 개별적 처우집단 프로그램 이후 재범에 영향을 미치는 요인을 파악하기 위해서 로지스틱 회귀분석을 실시하였다. 인지행동치료(CBT)와 웃음치료(LT)의 처우에 따른 실제적․효과적 재범억제와 재범예방에 직접적․간접적인 영향을 미치는 주요한 분노특성에 관여한 귀인요인들과 자기분노조절(Self Anger Management), 자기통제치료(Self Control Therapy), 자기교시훈련(Self-Instructional Training), 자기코칭기술(Self-Coaching Skills), 자기교시긍정심리치료(Self-Instructional Positive Psychotherapy) 등을 토대로 분노통제와 분노감소에 따른 재범억제와 재범예방에 대한 통합적 심리치료의 함의(含意)와 처우모델의 적합도를 살펴보았다. 치료집단 프로그램에 따른 재범율을 분석하기 위해 전체 대상자 82명을 36개월(3년) 기간 동안의 추적조사를 실시하였다. 대상자 82명들 중 천안소년교도소에서 형기가 만료 되지 않은 13명의 복역자(인지행동치료집단 5명, 웃음치료집단 8명)들을 제외시킨 대상자 69명을 추적조회를 실시하였다. 추적조사결과, 총 69명의 대상 중 17명(24.6%)이 재범을 하였으며, 52명(75.4%)은 생존하였다. 개별적 치료집단 프로그램에 따른 추적조사결과를 자세히 살펴보면, 인지행동치료집단은 대상자 38명 중, 재범자 6명(15.8%)과 생존자 32명(84.2%)을 나타났으며, 반면에 웃음치료집단은 대상자 31명 중, 재범자 11명(35.5%)과 생존자 20명(64.5%)을 보이고 있으며, 이는 통계적으로 유의하지 않은 것으로 나타났다(p = .059). 즉, 인지행동치료집단과 웃음치료집단의 단순 생존율은 차이가 없는 것으로 나타났다. 이러한 결과를 중심으로 비행청소년의 재범억제와 재범예방을 위한 보다 효과적․실용적인 통합적․절충적 심리치료개입과 처우집단 프로그램에 대한 시사점, 본 연구의 임상적 의의와 제한점과 더불어 후속연구에 대한 방향을 제시하였다.
The main purpose of this study is to develop and examine effectiveness comparison between cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and laughter therapy (LT) for deterring juvenile offenders as a fellow-up study of Chan-Hyun Ryu and Soo-Jung Lee's “Comparison of laughter therapy and cognitive behavior therapy on anger reduction and management institutionalized juvenile delinquents (2009).” While there's been a growing accumulation of longitudinal studies by using the life-table method in survival analysis and logistic regression analysis to identify cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) as a particularly effective intervention for reducing and deterring the recidivism of juvenile offenders with anger management programs, including self anger management, self control therapy, self-instructional training, self-coaching skills, and self-instructional positive psychotherapy, there's been dearth of clinical trials on the therapeutic effects of laughter therapy (LT) in these areas of research. Hence, the specific aim of this clinical trial was to compare the differential therapeutic effects of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) and laughter therapy (LT) on recidivism deterrence and prevention of juvenile delinquents in a 3-year (36 months) follow-up study. 69 delinquent male participants (mean age 20.12 yrs) were traced to be a recidivism rate of 24.6% (n=17) and a survival rate of 75.4% (n=52). Specifically, the positive effects of best practice of the CBT group (n=38) on a recidivism rate of 15.8% (n=6) and a survival rate of 84.2% (n=32) compared to the LT group (n=31) on a recidivism rate of 35.5% (n=11) and a survival rate of 64.5% (n=20) were shown (p = .059). In addition, the mere survival rates between the CBT group and the LT group represented no difference. The following implications and limitations of this study were discussed along with the suggestions for future studies as well.