This article examined the characteristics of rule by culture, which Joseon established based on the learning of principle, from the following three aspects: the use of Family Rites in the enactment and revision of state rites and ritual; the education of the sovereign during royal lectures based on the ideology of the learning of principle; and the reliance on revering the Confucian king and practicing the Confucian king as the ideology guiding state affairs based on the Sino-barbarian dichotomy of the learning of principle after Qing was founded. The main findings include first, that the public aspect of the king’s rites was strengthened through Family Rites, and the king was led to practice the duty of filial piety and veneration through the performance of rites to naturally carry out virtuous rule by observation of and absorption of ritual practices. Second, when educating the king on the learning of the sages, the appropriate control of the human mind and the simultaneous training of fostering and the perfection of knowledge based on learning of the sages according to the learning of principle were emphasized. The system included the inviting scholars that were not in power called rustic literati to royal lectures and having them teach the learning of the sages to the king and express their opinions regarding state affairs. In addition, using Classic of the Mind and Heart as a textbook of royal lectures was a unique characteristic of Joseon and shows that the royal lectures were an important space of political activity. Third, before the emergence of Qing, Joseon believed itself to be the legitimate heir of the learning of Zhu Xi. The initial policy towards Qing of repelling the barbarians by stabilizing domestic affairs based on revering the emperor and expulsing the barbarian was the application of the policy of the learning of principle that had been taken in the past against the threat of the Jin dynasty. As things stabilized in Qing, practicing the Confucian king, or using Sino-culture and civilization to transform barbarians, and thereby realizing monarchy in Joseon so that it would spread to Qing became the basic direction of policy. King Jeongjo carried out compilation projects that saw the study of the principle of the ChengZhu learning as orthodox, and the establishment of the manual of state ritual including Comprehensive Study of the Board of Rites and Comprehensive National Code were products of the will to realize a system of monarchy in Joseon.
This article examines the relationship of Korean classical literature and NeoConfucianism. By looking at the historical process of how thought and ideas influenced literature, it reviews the way Neo-Confucianism was introduced during late Goryeo and became the exclusionary state ideology throughout Joseon. The article reveals that after late Goryeo, the Way assumed dominance over literature, thelatter of which was regarded as an instrument, and Confucian values deeply permeated the themes of literature. The article also analyzes the conceptual tendency, the absorption into nature, and the centrality of interiority in literature as the influence of Neo-Confucianism and concludes that the two—literature and Neo-Confucianism—are closely linked.
The Confucian tradition puts a strong emphasis on practicality. Although this characteristic is often exemplified in the Confucian firm advocates for filial piety and brotherly respect, faithfulness and sincerity, and the sense of propriety, justice, honesty, and honor in one’s daily life, what clearly shows the practical philosophy of Confucianism is its concept of li 禮. The establishment of Confucianism was closely connected to the issue of “disruption of li” at Confucius’ time, and it influenced the development of the vital Confucian concepts of humaneness and righteousness. However, li has either hardly been brought up in a discussion in the sphere of Confucian philosophy or has been discussed only in terms of religious ceremonies and practices, social norms, institutions, or cultural phenomena at utmost, rather than being fully explored. If we acknowledge the significance of the role of li in the rise and development of Confucian philosophy, we should reconsider the way in which li has been studied. To this end, in this article, I attempt to explain how the meaning of li transformed from “worship rituals” to “governance norms,” Confucius’ insight into the deterioration of the Zhou rites and its impact on the formation of Confucianism, and Confucius’ philosophical questions about humaneness and righteousness regarding li.
The article examines housewives and professional women’s roundtable discussions, housemaids’ writings, and hostesses’ writings featured in the magazines for women in the 1930s, including Singajeong (The New Family) and Yeoseong (The Voice of Women), through which I will interrogate the significance and the limits of women’s right to speak, and performativity of these women’s speech acts and their involvement with one another. In the discursive space of the 1930s’ new family, the figure of housewife or professional woman functioned as a form of “veil” to grant women access to the public space. However, in this space, the right to speak was confined to the topic of family or matters that were considered “feminine.” Although such simultaneous permission and restriction made their position precarious, these women were able to appropriate and transform these “veils” and deploy various rhetorical strategies to bypass the limits imposed on their right to speak. Although women were divided and hierarchized along the lines of class, ethnicity, and race, it turned out that they were deeply involved with one another in reproductive and affective labor, which hints at the possibility of a new form of commons. The case in point includes the way in which the housemaids and hostesses were “addressed” in the housewives and professional women’s roundtable discussions, the role of rumor in housemaids’ writing, and the hostesses’ attempt at forming a new public forum. Thus, the paper signals the need for listening to and translating the performative speech acts by women who had been involved with one another in spite of their difference in class and position within the sphere of family, even as they were marginalized from the public forums and fragmented by capitalism, colonialism, and patriarchy.
The purpose of this study was to examine the life histories of Koreans to determine how their return to Sakhalin occurred. The meaning of “hometown” for Koreans was also explored. It is explained why Koreans miss their lives in Sakhalin as they adapt to Korea after returning to their homeland. In this article, missing Korea while in Sakhalin and then missing Sakhalin after returning to one’s homeland is referred to as “double nostalgia.” Sakhalin Koreans were forced to remain separated from their parents in Korea during the Japanese occupation. We noted that while in Korea, Sakhalin Koreans miss Sakhalin. Generally, longing has a certain direction. In other words, the hometown Sakhalin Koreans missed was the object and destination of the longing before returning. However, they havea double nostalgia. In Sakhalin, before returning, the longing for the homeland manifests as a “personification of the hometown,” “longing for the homeland to die in,” and “struggle to return home.” In addition, after returning to Korea, various meanings were revealed through the following statements: “They miss their family remaining in Sakhalin,” “They miss life in Sakhalin,” “Wanting to return to Sakhalin, I came to realize that Sakhalin the other home,” “My home country is Sakhalin,” and “Parents’ diaspora.”
In earlier contrastive research on weather verbs (weather expressions) (cf. Ogawa et al. 2014; Kienpointner 1995, 2016), a typological model called “meteoscale” has been established as a tertium comparationis. With the help of this meteo-scale, weather expressions can be located on a continuum of the verbal presentation of weather events, with an entity pole and a phenomenon pole, and an area in between. In this paper, a further empirical contrastive study, comparing data from German and Korean and assigning German and Korean weather expressions to the most frequent and prototypical syntactic patterns of these two languages, has been undertaken. The Korean data have led towards a more comprehensive view and interpretation of these fascinating expressions, both in Indo-European and in non-Indo-European languages. Moreover, the first of the three tentative implicative universals established in Ogawa et al. (2014, 141) has been corroborated by the Korean data.