The evolution of the Communist programs in colonial-era Korea went through several stages. The first Communist groups of the early 1920s were keen to emphasize that their revolution aims at Communizing Korea as a part of the world revolution project initiated by Russian Bolsheviks, although such Communist groups as the “Shanghai” Communist Party were in reality more nationalist than socialist in orientation. Then, the underground Korean Communist Party, founded in April 1925, following the current Comintern theories, defined Korea’s coming revolution as “bourgeois-democratic” in character, and stronger emphasized the importance of united front struggle together with the more radical nationalists. Changing Comintern line and general radicalization brought by the Great Depression led Korean Communists of the later 1920s-earlier 1930s to revise their programs and accentuate the mobilization of broad social strata to the anti-colonial struggle, rather than alliance with nationalists. The post-colonial political system was redefined as a “people’s democracy.” The “agrarian revolution”—land redistribution—was emphasized as its main project. After 1936, the Communists switched back to the united front strategy, but “agrarian revolution” retained a prominent place in their programmes. These programmes, with their visions of democratized new nation state, played a role in forming the Left’s visions after Korea’s liberation in 1945.
This essay examines the play Compatriots (Dongpo), published in the San Francisco-based Korean newspaper, The New Korea (Sinhan minbo), in 1917. This play illustrates an imagined process of Korean independence from Japanese colonization through the form of chain-drama (yeonswae-geuk), i.e., a hybrid form combining both theatrical and cinematic elements. In introducing this little-known play, I challenge the prevalent Korean theatre and film historiography that denounces chain-drama merely as a colonialist hybridity as well as the nationalist historiography that frames the history of colonial Korea as a binary struggle between Japan and Korea. Specifically, I demonstrate that chain-drama was a globally practiced popular art form, and suggest that the playwright Hong Earn was likely inspired by American popular theatrical and cinematic productions, including their hybridity of 1910s San Francisco. By developing an alternative chain-drama format, Hong affectively promotes the audience’s belief and participation in Koreans’ advancement towards a modern independent nation building, and successfully embodies pure modern Korea through the impure form. My discussion of Compatriots will ultimately reveal the fragility of a fantasy of the purity concept that developed in the colonial context to define the nation and its arts.
This study seeks to look into the role of political leadership in development in South Korea and the Philippines. The central question revolves around what are the major points of convergence and divergence of leadership in these two countries. Moreover, the focus will be on leadership in democratic settings. This study will build on previous comparative studies on political leadership in South Korea and the Philippines, most of which have been focused on the dictators Park Chung Hee and Ferdinand Marcos. After the Park and Marcos experience, both South Korea and the Philippines experienced democratization. It is in this context that this comparative study is situated. It aims to continue the comparison and see if the conclusions made before still persist today. To what extent does leadership still play an invaluable role in shaping the development of these countries? This study then focuses on the political nature, mechanics and concrete outcomes of leadership in two different political systems.
Vietnam and Korea established official foreign relations in 1992. For more than 20 years, the Vietnam-Korea cooperation relationship has been ceaselessly developing and now attains a level of “Strategic Partnership.” Looking forward to a happy future, the two nations have to try to close a sad past when more than 320,000 Korean soldiers participated in the American war in Vietnam. Korean and Vietnamese post-war literary works have contributed significantly to building a bridge for the two nations to getting closer, becoming more mutual understanding. This paper focuses on Korean and Vietnamese literary works on war wounds in Vietnam with regard to Korean participation.The issue is approached from thematic criticism and comparative study.
This article is a study on Warabi-za’s Musical Tsubame つばぬ and Korean Changgeuk Company's changgeuk Jebi 春燕 based on Joseon tongsinsa 朝鮮通信使 (Korean delegation) with the theory of cultural translation. Changgeuk Jebi is a recreation of musical Tsubame. Korean director and composer translated Tsubame into Korean performing arts changgeuk. Both performances dramatized the story of Joseon woman who lived in Japan, but it was found that the tragic emotion of main characters has been more emphasized as it was culturally translated into Korean changgeuk Jebi. And this paper analyzes this transformation with a diasporic discourse. In the process of the study, this paper examined similarities and differences between two shows focusing on their structure, stage space, bodies of singers on stage and audiences’ response of East and West using cross-cultural methodology. As a result, it was found that Tsubame showed a self-reflective attitude on Japanese militarism but still maintained Japanese chauvinist way of thinking. On the other hand, Jebi asserted Joseon woman as diaspora with empathy not only to criticize Japanese invasion but also to console victims of war with Korean traditional ritual. It had a great effect on Korean, Japanese, and German audiences and helped them to realize the violence of militarism and self-examine the ordeals of Korean history depicted through Korean traditional ritual arts. Therefore this article commented that Jebi accomplished “glocalization” by embracing Japanese culture on stage and expressing awareness against recurrent wars and diaspora.
The selection of the creative writings of Go Eun What?:108 Seon Poems is specified as the spirit of Seon. It is true that the Seon is inherent in all his works, but it is considered that in this selection this spirit of Seon accomplishes Realism, especially. First of all, Go Eun pays attention to the history which is duly regarded as the whole reality of the past because he saw the origin of Seon as a historic event. In his opinion, Seon as the sphere of practice is generated from “the protests of people” against authority of tradition. So, in the theme of historicity, it represented the old scriptures as the Lotus Sutra, included the episode of burning the Blue Cliff Records, and also parodied the linage of patriarchs of Seon. In this way, Go Eun insists that old scriptures and teaching of patriarchs are only a hindrance to awakening, so, if a practitioner depends on such things, it is impossible to attain the goal of liberation. Along the same lines, it is strongly emphasised in the theme of awakening that while practicing Seon meditator must go his own way because going one’s own way is the only way to find the true self and attain the enlightening. Meanwhile, the world of mindfulness is the ultimate goal of Seon practice, and to achieve this aim one should be mindful at every time and every place, referred to as ordinary mind. Therefore, in Go Eun’s poems it is emphasised that everyday life is very important. The scenes of ordinary life in which we live come to the fore for Seon practice in the theme of “everyday life.” At last, recognizing that whole cosmos is united each other, the poet represents this sense of unity as insight into nature and in the theme of “nature” every creature is being in the very state of existence in whole reality —“here and now.”