ISSN : 0023-3900
In the last decades of the nineteenth century, every important and complex issue representing international rivalry and collaboration was played out in Korea with the country serving as a pawn in the game of power politics. Korea’s strategic importance, its military weakness, its deficiency of accurate information, and a continuous flood of rumors and suspicions all contributed to its subordination by imperialistic forces. Among other things, the advent of Russia in power politics in Korea meant meaningful challenges not only for the Russophobic powers but also for Korea. This article seeks to reexamine some controversial issues on the rivalry and collaboration of the powers in Korea by providing materials never cited before, and thereby reevaluate Russia’s expansionism in Korea. Its scope covers some basic chronology of events in Korea, including the opening of Korea in 1876; political disturbances before and after the treaties with the West in the mid-1880s; the decade of Chinese dominance, 1885-1894; and the Russo-Japanese rivalry and collaboration,1895-1898. And each period in this study is characterized by the viewpoint not only of rivalry but also of collaboration in power policies.
Choi, Moon Hyung. 2004. Minbi-wa tareni gosaretanoka gorosaretanoka (Who Killed the Queen Min?). Tokyo: Sairyusa.
____________. 2005. “Minbiansatsutowa nanika.” Kan 23 (Autumn).
____________. 2006. Myeongseong hwanghu sihae-ui jinsil-eul balkinda (The Truth of the Assassination of the Queen Min). 3rd ed. Seoul: Jisik Sanupsa.
Daniels, Gordon. 1996. Sir Harry Parkes, British Representative in Japan, 1865-1883. Richmond, Surrey: Japan Library.
Dickens, F. V. 1894. The Life of Sir Harry Parkes. Vol. II. London: MacMillan and Co.
Jones, F. C. 1938. “Foreign Diplomacy in Korea, 1866-1894.” PhD diss., Harvard University.
Lee, Yur-Bok. 1988. West Goes East. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.
Lee, Yur-Bok, and Wayne Patterson, eds. 1986. One Hundred Years of Korean-American Relations, 1882-1982. Alabama: University of Alabama Press.
Lensen, George A. 1982. Balance of Intrigue: International Rivalry in Korea and Manchuria, 1884-1899. 2 vols. Tallahssee, FL: University Presses of Florida.
Malozemoff, Andrew. 1958. Russian Far Eastern Policy. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Möllendorff, Paul Georg von, and Rosalie von Möllendorff. 1987. Moellendoreupeu munseo (Möllendorff Diary). Translated by Sin Bok-ryong and Keum Un-gyeong. Seoul: Pyungminsa.
Mutsu, Munemitsu. 1982. Kenkenroku, edited and translated by Gordon Mark Berger. Tokyo: Japan Foundation.
Narochnitskii, L. 1956. Kolonialnai Politika Kapitalisticheskikh Derzhav na Dalem Vostoke, 1860-95. Moscow: Akademia Nauk SSSR.
National Assembly Library. 1964-65. Guhanmal joyak hwichan (Treaties in Late Yi Dynasty). 3 vols. Seoul: National Assembly Library.
Nikhamin, V. P. 1948. “Russko-iaponskie otnosheniia I Koreia 1894-1898.” Candidate dissertation, Vysshaia diplomaticheskaia shkola ministerstva inostrannykh del SSSR.
Pak, Bella. 2009. “The Opening of Korean Ports and Russia’s Position in the Late Nineteenth Century.” Paper presented at the first East Asian Conference for Slavic Eurasian Studies 2009, Hokkaido University, Japan.
Pak, Boris D. 2001. Rossya i Koreya (Russia and Korea). IVRAN: Moskba.
Palmer, Spencer L., ed. 1963. Korean-American Relations, Documents Pertaining to the Far Eastern Diplomacy of the United States. Vol. II. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.
Park, Jong-hyo. 2002. Reosia gungnip munseo bogwanso sojang hanguk gwangye munseo yoyakjip (Russian Documents concerning Korea in AVPRI, RGVIA, and GARF). Seoul: Korea Foundation.
Pooley, A. M., ed. 1915. The Secret Memoirs of Count Hayashi Tadasu. London: G. P. Putnam’s Sons.
Popov, A. 1932. “Pervye Shagi russkago imperializma na Dalnem Vostoke, 1888-1903.” Krasnyi Arkiv LII: 55-56.
Remmey, Paul Baker, Jr. 1964. “British Diplomacy and the Far East War, 1892-1898.” PhD diss., Harvard University.
Research Foundation of Korean Church History, trans. 2008. Mwitel jugyo ilgi (Archbishop Mutel’s Diary). Vol. II. Seoul: Research Foundation of Korean Church History.
Tsiang, T. F. 1933. “Sino-Japanese Diplomatic Relations, 1870-94.” The Chinese Social and Political Science Review XVII: 4-16.