The Cognitive Model of Panic Attacks (the CMP) proposes that panic attack results from the catastrophic misinterpretations of bodily sensations, which may on many occasions be so fast that patients may not be aware of them. In the present study, 2 experiments were conducted to evaluate the predictions derived from the hypothesis of automatic catastrophic misinterpretations of bodily sensations. Using a word report task in which both bodily sensation and non-bodily sensation words were presented at 70-85% accuracy threshold, Experiment I explored the perceptual sensitivity to bodily sensations in panics. Panics were more accurate in reporting bodily sensation words than were normals. Using a contextual priming task in which subjects should read the remaining part of each sentence as quikly as possible after looking at the early part, Experiment II tested one of the basic assumptions of the CMP. Panics showed a greater priming effect in reading catastrophic words in a sentence than did the normal subjects. This result supports the notion that catastrophic misinterpretations are automatic, probably due to strong associations between bodily sensations and catastrophic cognitions. These two experiments showed that bodily sensation informations are more quickly labeled by panics than other informations, and that such interpretations are catastrophic in nature. These two characteristics can be regarded as cognitive sets for panic attacks. All these results are consistant with the assumptions of the CMP.
The aim of the present study was to examine the surface as well as the deep aspects of self-cognition of depressed people with a self-reporting measurement and a experimental cognitive task. The surface or conscious aspect of self-cognition of depressed people was examined with the Multiphasic Self-Concept Inventory(MSCI) which had been developed to tap the multifaceted-ness and multidimensionality of self-concept, whereas the deep or unconscious structure and process of their self-cognition were evaluated with a self-referential judgment task in which subjects were asked to decide whether some positive or negative descriptors are self-referential or not. Subjects were 25 depressed college students and 25 nondepressed students selected by their score of BDI. The results show that the depressed group made more negative and less positive self-evaluation on the most self-subareas and evaluative dimensions(except the dimension of importance) of the MSCI than the nondepressed group did. The most noteworthy result on the self-referential judgment task was that the depressed group showed more difficulties in accepting positive descriptors and denying negative descriptors with longer response latency than the nondepressed group did, whereas the two groups showed no difference in denying positive discriptors and accepting negative descriptors. Some implications of these results were discussed for further research and psychotherapy of depression.
Research has shown that an elevated level of depressive symptomatology serves as a strong predictor of postpartum depression. As part of a prospective study of postpartum depression, we examined the prevalence of prepartum depression and on the basis of stress-vulnerability model, various intrapersonal and interpersonal vulnerability factors were examined in explaining prepartum depression. Two hundred and seventy-five women were recruited both through the obstetrics department of a large hospital and private practices. They were assessed on sociodemographic variables and on measures of depressive symptomatology, stress factors and intrapersonal vulnerability factors(depression history, personality characteristics, self-esteem) and interpersonal vulnerability factors(marital adjustment, social support). As a result, 12.0% of subject(N=275) had prepartum depression. we found out that sociodemographic variables, intrapersonal(personality characteristics and self-esteem) and interpersonal(marital adjustment and social support) vulnerability factors, and interaction of stress and vulnerability accounted for 47% of the variance in depressive symptomatology during pregnancy. Overall, results supported the stress-vulnerability model and implications for identification and preventive intervention of high-risk pregnant women for depression were discussed.
Korean teachers' and parents' attitudes concerning child's psychological problems were investigated in order to understand the referral process for professional evaluation and treatment. 375 of elementary school teachers and 261 of parents were given 2 vignettes and asked to give their opinions about the prevalence, degree of their concern and expected prognosis, cause and treatment of choice for each of the cases described in the vignettes. One of the vignettes described a child with externalizing problem, while the other described a child with internalizing problem. The results can be summarized as follows: 1) Korean adults reported that the number of boys with externalizing problem was larger than those with internalizing problem while there was no significant difference for girls. They also rated the child with externalizing problem as more serious, more worrisome to teachers and parents, and less likely to improve than the child with internalizing problem. 2) The Korean adults chose stress as the most likely cause of the child's problem regardless of the problems type, 3) As for treatment, they chose psychological counseling. The above results were compared with the data obtained from Thai and American adults. Thai and American also rated externalizing problem as more serious than internalizing problem. But, for level of concern, perceived cause and treatment of choice, there seemed to exist considerable differences among the cultures. These cultural differences in the adults' attitudes concerning the cause and treatment of child psychological problem are likely to have significant influence on the referral process of children with psychological problems and thus need to be considered when designing mental health programs for children.
This study was designed to ascertain the characterist of cognitive function depend upon positive/negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Cognitive function was assessed with 6 KWIS subsets(information, comprehension, digit span, picture completion, block design, coding) and Grooved Pegboard Test, Trail Making Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Wechsler Memory Scale in patients with positive type(N=13) those with negative type(N=18) and neither type(N=11). Analysis was peformed by ANOVA, and followed by correlation analysis. According to the ANOVA results, the differences between 3 groups were significant in comprehension and block design, thus neither group showed the most superior results, and compared to the positive group, negative group showed significantly worst result. And in picture completion, coding, trail making, negative group of schizophrenia showed significant reduction in performance compared to nether group. Results from correlation analysis on total score of positive/negative symptom and cognitive function, positive symptom showed significant negative correlation in picture completion, pegboard test, negative symptom in comprehension, and block design, trail making test, wisconsin card sorting test, information and logical memory of wechsler memory test. On order to obtain more definite conclusion, we have to use standardized testing tools, as well as larger number of subjects with clear-cut positive or negative schizophrenic symptoms.
This study investigated how the family of mentally ill person perceive about social stigma and whether the views of his/her family are different or not in according to diagnosis. It is for the sake of helping about directing establishment of family education in accord that recently family was contained as a member of therapist. A questionnaire was administered to 171 family of mentally ill person divided neurosis, schizophrenia and psychosis patient group except schizophrenia. The results were following. In general, the impact of stigma perceived by respondents, most identified that stigma was moderate level associated with mental illness regardless of diagosis. And, Social stigm seems to be experienced because of their attending the mental hospital rather than by the kind of disgnosis, for there aren't any differences among three groups. Second, the patient got because of stigma, they identified moderate level they had difficult in getting marriage, willingness to admit mental illness, in working a job, ability to make & keep friend and in hurting self-esteem. But, they identified that they hadn't difficult in illness & treatment. This trend didn't affect the diagnosis itself. Third, the parients got because of stigma, they had been little affected by stigma. Only talking about their relative's mental illness to other people identified moderate level. Fourth, as perceived contributors to mental illness stigma, most identified the casual use of terms like "crazy", "psycho" etc, and the defensive attitude of avoiding the insane regardless of idiagnosis. In accordance with diagnosos, only schizophrenia of family saw jokes about mental illness and wrong policy of government about psychiatric hospitals. Except that perceived aids in coping with social stigma produced research findings which establish a biological basis for mental illness and interaction with other families with mentally ill relatives, many respondents said much responding to all items. This result appeared regardless of the sort of diagnosis.
This study investigated the social appropriateness and perspective of inpatient schizophrenics, nonschizophrenic inpatients and a normal control group by role-playing in mock social situations. Schizophrenics were rated significantly lower on social appropriateness than normals and showed an impaired perspective of self behavior. Schizophrenics rated their own behavior of social appropriateness to a higher degree than did judges, but normals rated their own behavior lower than did judges. Schizophrenics were able to appraise the behavior of others' social appropriateness but had difficulty in appraising the socially inappropriate behavior of others. Schizophrenics showed particular impairment when judging their own social behavior. The nonschizophrenics inpatient group also showed significant social inappropriateness and an impaired perspective of self behavior in the general situation. But there was no problem with the nonschizophrenics perspective of the social behavior of other persons. The results indicate that a rehabilitation program with schizophrenics needs to particulary focus on a perspecitive of self.
The purpose of this study is to investigate characteristics of the hypomanic personality group as a potential high risk factor for affective disorders, particularly the bipolar disorder. Hypomanic group(n=40) and nonhypomanic control group(n=40) were selected on the basis of the hypomnic personality scale. And their mental heath and daily adjustment status were investigated using the SADS-L and the SAS. Aspects of the subjects' cognitive style were assessed through the Picture Recognition Test. The results indicated that college students with hypomanic tendency tend to be vulnerable to symptoms of affective disorders and also showed an elevated level of general mental problems such as psychotic-like symptoms, alcholoism, and antisocial traits. Compared to control group, they were socially outgoing, perceived themselvse as creative and unique person with high energy level. No differences in academic-related behaviors of the two group were found. On the cognitive measure, adaptive aspects of the hypomanic group were found. The hypomanic group showed shorter response time to ambiguous stimuli, not due to impulsiveness but to superior recognition ability. They also manifested superior concept formation ability. These results are principally due to the extreme scores obtained by only a few individuals and there seems to exist various subgroups within the hypomanic personality group. Therefore, admitting the importance of hypomaic personlity as a high risk factor, the results of the present study indicate that future research should focus on effectively calssifyng different subgroups within the hypomanic group and identifying mediating variables that account for the differences in the adjustment levels.
This study is to assess main defense mechanisms of neurotic patients with chief complaint of somatic symptom using 'Ewha defense mechanism tests'. Subjects were 50 of somatic complaint patients among neurosis(mean age=37.4 years), control were 48 of social phobic patients(mean age=33.9years) and 50 of normal control(mean age=36.1years). Results were as follows: Firstly, the highest score among the psychiatric population with somatic complaints is 'somatization', 'dissociation', 'evasion', 'projection', 'acting out' in decending order. 'humor' was the lowest defense mechanism score. Defense mechanisms such as 'somatization', 'dissociation' were predominent among somatic complaint patients comparing to normal control and social patients. Secondly there were no statistically significant differences in defense mechanism score in both sex among the somatic patient group. Male patient group used more 'identification' and 'bluff' defense mechanisms. Where as 'suppression' was more common in female patients. Lastly, there were no statistically significant differences in the subdefense mechanism score in educational level among the patients with somatic complaints.
This preliminary study was conducted to verify the reliability and the validity of the Korean version of Dyadic Adjustment Scale(Spanier, 1976). For this, 136 adults(normal group=108, marital discord group=28) were selected and based on their responses, verification of reliability and validity was carried out. The internal consistency coefficients(Cronbach alpha) of each of subscales ranged from .76 to .95. Other statistical evidence was presented suggesting criterion-related validity. Overall, internal consistency and criterion-related validity was good for the Korean Dyadic Adjustment Scale. But in the result of factor analysis, the original factor structures were not replicated. Several limitations and suggestions of the present study were discussed.
The present study explored the reliability and validity of our newly translated test, the Korean version of the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire(DEBQ). We gave the DEBQ to 292 female college students in Seoul. The DEBQ consisted of three subtest, Restrained Eating Scale(DEBQ-R), Emotional Eating Scale(DEBQ-EM), and External Eating Scale(DEBQ-EX). Estimated internal reliability using Cronbach's α of each test was .90, .93, .79, respectively. The correlation between the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire(TFEQ)-CR(cognitive restrained scale) and DEBQ-R was .86, Eating Disorder Inventory(EDI)-B(bulimia scale) and DEBQ-EM or DEBQ-EX were .54 and .41, respectively. Validity of the DEBQ was investigated by principal component analysis, yielding 3 factors of restrained eating pattern, emotional eating pattern, and external eating pattern. The present results indicate that the DEBQ is a useful tool in the analysis various eating patterns. Some limitations of this study and implications for further studies are discussed.
An aim of the study was to examine the Korean version of MMPI in a psychometrical perspectives. The study attempted to more accurately reestimate the theoretical reliabilities of the MMPI subscales utilyzing the cases in the restandardization. It was found that although the computed α reliabilities for most of the scales were similar to those in the restandardizaion, α for the Mf sclae was much lower than before. It was pointed out that because the α values less than .7 estimated for many of the MMPI scales, which were not high enough for the individual disgnoses, may cause the scale scores to be unstable, diagnoes based on the scores should be done very cautiously. The item analysis revealed that the 52 items were negatively correlated with the scale scores. To explore the possiblities that the negative item-total correlations were due to the negative correlations among the dimensions of each scale, an exploratory principal component analyses were performed. The present results suggested that most of the negative item-scale score correlations did not result from the negatively correlated scale dimensions. A cross validation using the response proportions of the criterion group and the normal group confirmed the results of the item-total correlations. The results indicated that an item analysis be indispensible prior to norming. Some considerions for future research study and the limitations of the present study were discussed.
The present study was conducted to investigate attention problem in ADHD, LD, Depression, and Tic disorder. KEDI-WISC and TOVA were administered to 4 diagnostic group(ADHD=15, LD=15, Tic disorder=15, Depression=15). On KEDI-WISC, FSIQ, VIQ, PIQ and 11 subtest measures and 4 factors by Bannatyne classification(1974) were used to analyse differences among four groups. On TOVA, 4 variables(omission error, commission error, responce time for correct response, variability for correct response) were analysed. The Results showed significantly lower level of performance of ADHD group and LD group than the other two groups on coding of KEDI-WISC, and showed siginificant difference among four diagnostic groups on three variables of TOVA except for commission error. In order to specify the similarity and the difference among the cognitive ability of each diagnostic group, Discriminant analysis was conducted. In this analysis, 11 subtest of KEDI-WISC and 4 variables of TOVA were used as independent variables and each diagnostic group was dependent variables. As a result of discriminant analysis, overall percentage of correct classification was 68.33%. The clinical implifications, and limitations of the present study were discussed.
This study was investigated to find out the necessity of the mental health assessment as well as physical illness examination for persons under health examinations. Using the data of two hundred MMPI profiles, one hundred males and one hundred females, randomily sampled from the profiles of the health examinees in D Health Examination Center, I carried out a multivariate cluster analysis, and also catergorized profile types based on the paticular scales which have increased over 70 T-score. The scales increased most frequently were Hs, D, Hy, Pt scale. The result of the cluster analysis showed that MMPI profiles of the health examinees can be catergorized into three types. Furthermore, 31% of the health examinees showed 2, 7, 2-7, 1-3, 1-3(2)-7 profile types. In paticular, 18% of the cases showed 2-7, 1-3, 1-3(2)-7 profile types in which more than two scales have increased over 70 T-score. These cases tend to have more physical problemes associated with emotional problemes or mental health problems than the cases in which only one scale have increased. These resultes can be interpreted to suggest that about 31% of health examinationees may have strong neurotic tendencies or can be diagnosed as a neuroses. In conclusion, it is necessary to inclued mental health assessment as well as physical health examination in Health Examination Center in order to contribute to comprehensive health and therapeutic aid for over 30% of the persons under health examinations.
The present study tried to know the characteristics of DAP performance on depression. Human figure drawings were obtained from 30 depressed patients who had been selected from admitted or out patients in three mental hospitals. 30 college students were used control group. The index of assessing the drawings was structual and formal aspects of drawing such as size, omission, line, placement. The results were as follows: a) The drawings of depressed patients were shorter than that of normals. b) Depressed patients made more omissions in their drawings than normal subject. c) Depressed patients drew figures with a lighter line than normal subjects. d) The drawings of depressed patients were found to be more frequently on the upper left side.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of test anxiety and stress on the processing of test-related stimuli. The subjects in this study were sixty university students with high or low test anxiety. In order to manipulate stress experience they received success or failure feedback through a anagram task. Subsequently a modified Stroop task was used to assess the selective processing of test-related stimuli in high and low test-anxious subjects. The results were as follows: High test-anxious subjects were slower in color naming all words than low test-anxious subjects, but anxiety groups x types of words interaction was not significant. Although there was only a nonsignificant tendency of selective processing of test-related stimuli in high test-anxious subjects, these results failed to demonstrate selective processing of test related stimuli in high test-anxious group. And also stress groups x types of words interaction was significant. High stress group subjects were slower in color naming threat words than low stress group subjects: the difference between two groups in color naming positive words and neutral words was not significant. This result suggested that a stressful experience directly primed cognitive representations of threat in memory, and this activation then resulted in selective processing of threat stimuli in the environment.
Cerebrovascular Accidents(CVA) is a chronic illness with sequalae of hemiplegia, speech disturbance, sensory and perceptual disturbance and gait disturbance as well as psychological dysfunctions including depression. Since post stroke depression, in particular, is an important factor in determining psychological adjustment and rehabilitation, an accurate understanding of depression is needed. However, previous research on post stroke depression yielded inconsistent findings. This article critically reviews lierature concerning post stroke depression, it's prevalence, course and relation to lesion location along with pertinent conceptual and methodological issues. In addition attempts were made to integrate various research findings and implications for CVA's rehabilitation and directions for future research are suggested.
The rehabilitation of person with psychiatric disabilities depends on improving functional skills. Functional assessment then is the most important part of psychiatric rehabilitation diagnosis. The model of psychiatric rehabilitation gives a framework for understanding rehabilitation assessment. This article describes the rationale of functional diagnosis by contrasting it with traditional psychiatric diagnosis. The values and procedures of functional assessment and issues of existing instruments of functional assessment are described. Finally implementation of functional assessment technology in Korea is considered in terms of the role of the clinical psychologist in the present mental health system.