This study aimed to investigate the trajectories of academic achievement of male Korean high school students over a period of 3 years and the effects of perceived parental overprotection. 539 Participants completed the Korean Version of the Parental Bonding Instrument at the beginning of the study, and their language and mathematics scores from the National Achieve- ment Test were recorded every semester for 3 years (n = 494 for language and n = 493 for mathematics). Latent growth curve models, latent class growth analysis, and multinomial logistic regression analysis were conducted to evaluate the longitudinal data. The results showed an overall decline in academic scores in both subjects; in addition, three latent classes for language scores and four latent classes for mathematics scores were identified. For language, higher maternal overprotection was nega- tively associated only with Time 1 scores, collected at the beginning of the first year of high school, while higher paternal overprotection was negatively associated with Time 1 scores, as well as changes over time. Higher maternal or paternal over- protection increased the possibility of having lower language scores at Time 1. For mathematics, only higher paternal over- protection was negatively associated with Time 1 scores and changed over time, in addition to increased chances of having lower mathematics scores at Time 1. The results indicate that parental overprotection, especially that of the father, negatively affected male high school students’ academic achievement, suggesting a new perspective of interpreting fathers’ role in sons’ academic achievement in Korean culture, in which mothers’ roles have been emphasized.
Previous studies have reported that emotional expression carries different meanings for different people depending on eth- nicity and the context of measuring emotional expressiveness. This study examined the effects of ethnicity, implicit audience, and ethnic identity on emotional expressiveness. We collected data from 136 female undergraduate students (68 East Asian Americans and 68 European Americans). Self-disclosure, emotional expressivity, and ethnic identity were also assessed. The participants were asked to write an essay about their traumatic experiences. For half of the participants, their ethnic identity was primed before writing the essays. Within each of the two conditions, half of the participants were asked to imagine that their own ethnic group would read their narratives, whereas the other half were asked to imagine that another ethnic group would read theirs. A multivariate analysis of covariance was conducted. Contrary to expectations, Asian Americans expressed more pride and sad words in their narratives, and more sadness in the ingroup condition than European Americans. Across both ethnic groups, participants with higher ethnic identity expressed less affect and positive emotions. Ethnic identity prim- ing did not affect emotional expressiveness. The findings indicate that cultural differences in emotional expressiveness are complex, with ethnic identity, participants’ ethnicity, and ethnicity of the implicit audience assuming significant roles.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of behavioral parent training (BPT) on problem behaviors in Ko- rean children with developmental disabilities (DD) using a single-group pretest-posttest treatment design. Additionally, the collateral effects on Korean mothers with respect to levels of depression, stress, self-efficacy, and knowledge of behavior mod- ification were analyzed. Participants were 60 mothers of children with DD who received 12 weeks of BPT in groups of five to six participants. Data regarding changes in children’s’ problem behaviors and parenting stress, depression, efficacy, and knowledge were collected through self-reports at pre-, post-, and 3-month follow-ups. The results showed significant de- creases in children’s aggression, but no changes were detected for self-injury and stereotypy. For mothers, depression and stress levels decreased, and efficacy and knowledge increased. These findings were present post-treatment and were main- tained at follow-up. The data collected show strong evidence for the beneficial effects of BPT on parents and children with DD. Implications and challenges are discussed further.