This study examined how childhood maltreatment experiences affect reactive and proactive aggression of intimate partner violence behavior through rejection sensitivity and callous-unemotional traits. We measured childhood maltreatment experience, rejection sensitivity, callous-unemotional traits, pure reactive and proactive aggression, and intimate partner violence behaviors among a community sample of adults. Among the 328 participants, 134 people with intimate partner violence behaviors were selected. Mediation effects were analyzed using a regression analysis and a bootstrapping technique. Childhood maltreatment experiences were not related to pure reactive aggression; however, using a multiple regression analysis, it can be inferred that rejection sensitivity, but not callous-unemotional traits, was related to pure reactive aggression. Childhood maltreatment experiences were related to pure proactive aggression, and callous-unemotional traits showed complete mediation. Theoretical and clinical implications of childhood maltreatment, aggression types of intimate partner violence and limitations of this study are discussed.
The present study focuses on the phenomenon of social avoidance in a stressful situation and examines an integrated model involving rumination and emotional exhaustion. In addition, this study investigates the role of self-presentational motivation in these mechanisms. For this purpose, undergraduate and graduate students were recruited to complete a survey. Data were collected from 387 students using the Perceived Stress Scale and the participants who scored 16 or more were included in the final analysis. First, the results show that emotional exhaustion partially mediated the relationship between rumination and social avoidance. Second, self-presentational motivation had a moderating effect on the relationship between emotional exhaustion and social avoidance. Third, the moderated mediating effect of self-presentational motivation, which moderates the mediating effect of emotional exhaustion, was significant in the relationship between rumination and social avoidance. This study depicts that ruminative thoughts may predict social avoidance directly, and also may influence social avoidance through the mechanism of emotional exhaustion. In addition, this study found that when individuals are emotionally exhausted as a result of rumination and they have a strong motivation to present the desired impression to others, they will show greater avoidance regarding social interaction.
Eating has been regarded as a regulatory behavior in coping with negative affect. However, individual differences in the relationship between negative affect and eating behavior remain relatively unexplored. This study aims to investigate this association while examining the role of potential moderators, namely thin-ideal internalization and impulse control difficulties using ecological momentary assessment (EMA) methodology. Female participants (N=72) aged 18 to 29 years completed a 7-day EMA protocol and questionnaires. Daily EMA measures included negative affect (NA) and caloric intake. Hierarchical linear modeling was applied to analyze the data. NA did not significantly predict caloric intake at the within-person level. However, the non-significant association between NA and caloric intake was negatively moderated by thin-ideal internalization on the between-person level. The moderating role of impulse control difficulties was not significant. These findings extend prior research on risk factors of emotional undereating and they highlight the importance of further research. The limitations of this study and suggestions for future research have been discussed.
In this study, 8 competing general psychopathology factor models from previous studies were compared and analyzed using the confirmatory factor analysis method in order to test the factor structure of general psychopathology and The Child Behavior Checklist-dysregulation profile for children from child welfare facilities. The general psychopathology factor models were limited to one-factor, 2-factor, and 3-factor models. The goodness-of-fit levels for each of these models was significantly lowered; however, among them, the bifactor model showed the best goodness-of-fit. When examining whether the specific and general factors of general psychopathology (GP) and dysregulation profile (DP) in the selected bifactor models may significantly predict the negative psychological factors among children, it was found that GP and DP were more closely related to attention, hostility, impulsivity, depression, and anxiety in children with mental disorder(s) in child welfare facilities. Further, the level of influence of the specific factors of GP and DP varied with the child's negative psychological factors. The attention problem, which was included only in DP, showed a particularly close relationship with maladaptation for children. Since DP predicted children’s maladaptation more significantly and diversely than GP, DP may be regarded as an efficient diagnostic indicator for predicting child psychopathology. Based on the above results, the purpose and limitations of this study, as well as the direction for future studies, are discussed within the manuscript.
The purpose of the current study was to examine the efficacy of a cognitive defusion intervention for undergraduate students at risk for smartphone addiction. Thirty-eight undergraduate students who, based on the Smartphone Addiction Scale, had a total score of at least 40, or had an impairment of daily living subscale score of at least 14 were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: (1) the cognitive defusion intervention condition (n=19) or (2) the psychological education condition (n=19). Both the conditions consisted of four weekly 70- to 80-minute sessions and included education about the causes of smartphone overuse. The cognitive defusion intervention group showed significantly greater reductions in smartphone overuse, depressive symptoms, and psychological inflexibility. In addition, the cognitive defusion intervention group showed a significant reduction in functional impairment. However, changes in mental well-being and decentering were not significantly different between the two conditions. In conclusion, these results suggest that the cognitive defusion intervention is efficacious for relieving smartphone overuse, depressive symptoms, functional impairment, and psychological inflexibility of undergraduate students at risk for smartphone addiction. Lastly, the implications and limitations of this study are discussed.
In this study, we developed a brief unified, transdiagnostic intervention for subclinical anxiety and depression on the basis of the Unified Protocol for Transdiagnostic Treatment of Emotional Disorders. We then examined its effects on negative mental health variables (i.e., depression, anxiety, social anxiety, generalized anxiety, negative emotion, and stress symptoms), positive mental health variables (i.e., positive emotion and mental well-being), and emotion regulation variables (i.e., difficulties in emotion regulation, mindfulness, and psychological inflexibility) among subclinical undergraduate students with anxiety or depression symptoms. Participants were forty-three undergraduate students who met the criteria for at least a mild level of relevant symptoms on one or more of the five self-report scales, including two depression scales and three anxiety scales. The participants were divided into two groups, among which 20 from one group completed the brief unified, transdiagnostic treatment and 20 from the other group completed the psychoeducational intervention. Each intervention consisted of five semiweekly 90- or 120-minute-long sessions. Compared to the participants in the psychoeducation intervention condition, those in the brief unified, transdiagnostic intervention condition showed improvements on all of the outcome measures. These improvements were maintained at a two-week follow-up. In conclusion, these results suggest that the brief unified, transdiagnostic intervention is efficacious for promoting mental health and cultivating emotion regulation ability among subclinical undergraduate students with anxiety or depression. Lastly, the theoretical and practical implications of these findings, as well as their limitations, are discussed.
The purpose of the study was to examine the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory–IV (MCMI-IV). Data were collected from 990 community and clinical samples. The Korean version of the MCMI-IV exhibited adequate internal consistency and test-retest reliability. An exploratory factor analysis showed that the Korean version of the MCMI-IV has three factors: General maladjustment, emotional instability, and antisocial behavior/impulsivity. We conducted correlation analyses between the Korean version of the MCMI-IV and other conceptually related measures. Additionally, theoretically corresponding scales showed significant positive correlations and the opposite scales had negative associations. These results indicate that the Korean version of the MCMI-IV is a reliable and valid scale to evaluate the personality and clinical syndrome. This inventory may be useful to be used in various clinical settings.
Imagery is the experience of sensory information without external stimulation. It is known to play a significant role in the development and maintenance of mental disorders. It also induces greater emotional change compared to verbal interventions in the treatment of disorders. Although recent studies have investigated the effectiveness of imagery intervention, viewing the major symptoms of depression as a lack of positive imagery abilities, there is no official tool yet in Korea to measure positive and negative imagery abilities. Thus, this study adapted and analyzed the Prospective Imagery Task (PIT) to measure these abilities and constructed a Korean version (K-PIT). This version is composed of 20 questions and has a better goodness-of-fit than the PIT. Similar to the PIT, however, the K-PIT contains two independent factors (i.e., positive and negative imagery abilities). A confirmatory factor analysis was conducted with 347 university students. The results showed an adequate level of internal confidence and good discriminant validity. Moreover, the relationship between positive and negative imagery abilities and depression was identified. The results depicted depression as being negatively and positively correlated with positive and negative imagery abilities, respectively. The K-PIT validated in this study can be used in future studies to measure the effectiveness of mechanisms related to imagery for various psychopathologies, including depression and imagery intervention. Finally, the implications and limitations of this study and suggestions for further studies are discussed.