Empirical interest in narcissism in the fields of psychology and social sciences has been growing in recent years, with scholars increasingly acknowledging that grandiose narcissism is best understood as a two-dimensional construct: rivalry (self-protec tion) and admiration (assertive self-enhancement). Despite the increase of utilizing the Narcissistic Admiration and Rivalry Questionnaires (NARQ), validating the NARQ across countries and language has not been extensively utilized. In the present study (n= 600), we sought to validate the Korean version of NARQ by investigating its theoretically derived relationship with the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI), Big Five personality traits, self-esteem and envy (benign and malicious). The re sults supported the findings that the Korean version of NARQ is a reliable and valid measure of the two-dimensional struc ture of grandiose narcissism. Interestingly, we observed that the two-dimensional latent factors did not correlate with each other, indicating that admiration and rivalry can be distinct among Koreans. The findings broaden our understanding of the dynamics of narcissism by providing validated evidence of the NARQ in South Korea.
According to the cognitive model of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), negative appraisals and negative emotions are key factors in PTSD symptoms. Moreover, emotion regulation strategies (ERS) may affect the severity of PTSD symptom differ ently. This study investigated the reported types and frequency of intimate partner violence (IPV) survivors, and the effects of counterfactual thinking (CFT) and ERS on trauma-related emotions in daily life via ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Data from 59 women who experienced IPV within the past year were analyzed. The results demonstrated that cognitive re appraisal may modulate the relationship between upward CFT and trauma-related emotions (B= -0.012, p= .005), but the ef fect of emotion suppression was not statistically significant (B= -0.006, p= .365). Especially, upward CFT may demonstrate a greater impact on trauma-related emotions in individuals who use a lower degree of cognitive reappraisal in daily life than in participants employing a higher degree. Conversely, although downward CFT also increased trauma-related emotions, nei ther type of ERS moderated this relationship (cognitive reappraisal: B= -0.069, p= .129; emotion suppression: B= -0.004, p= .947). These findings extend prior research on the effectiveness of cognitive reappraisal by reinforcing its ecological valid ity and emphasize the need for further investigations.
This study investigated whether women with high levels of body dissatisfaction (BD) have a self-deprecating bias towards bodies when evaluating bodies presented with their own or another woman’s faces. Overall, 382 undergraduate students completed the Eating Disorder Inventory-2. According to the upper and lower 15th percentile, the participants were catego rized into high BD (n=26) and low BD (n=27) groups. The participants were shown pictures demonstrating the characteris tics of their own, thin, average, fat, and muscular bodies with their own faces and the face of another woman. Gaze duration was measured using an eye-tracking system. In addition, all the participants were asked to rate their body attractiveness, emotional arousal, valence, body fat, and muscle mass using PsychoPy. The results showed that both groups gazed at their own and thin bodies longer than the low BD group when their own face was presented rather than with another woman’s face. Particularly, the high BD group rated their own bodies as less attractive, while rating thin bodes as more attractive than to the low BD group. This suggests that individuals with high BD have a self-deprecating bias toward their own bodies be cause of the double standards applied to themselves and others in the process of evaluation.
This study aimed to examine the difference between communal narcissism and altruism using close-other reports, especially in collectivistic cultures (e.g., Korea). There may be differences between individualistic and collectivistic cultures in the evalu ation of communality. However, research on acquaintance evaluations of the difference between communal narcissism and altruism has never been conducted in a collectivistic culture. Accordingly, 179 Korean college students (115 females) com pleted self-report questionnaires to assess communal narcissism and altruism, selecting three close others who rated the psy chological adjustment of the participants in terms of communality, altruism, and well-being. We found that self-reported communal narcissism was positively correlated with self-reported altruism but not significantly correlated with close-other reported altruism. Additionally, the effect of self-reported communal narcissism on psychological adjustment as evaluated by close others was not significant after controlling for the effect of self-reported altruism. However, after controlling for the ef fect of self-reported communal narcissism, the effect of self-reported altruism on psychological adjustment as evaluated by close others was significant. Although communal narcissism and altruism are closely related in self-reports, findings based on reports of close others provide empirical evidence that they are distinguishable personality traits.