Clinical neuropsychology is a relatively new and increasingly significant field of study. In 1979 the American Psychological Association created a special division for members interested in clinical neuropsychology, signaling the growing interest in the applied study of brain-behavior relationships. Clinical neuropsychology had its beginnings in many different disciplines, including experimental psychology, cognitive psychology, clinical psychology, neurology and neurophysiology. Thus it is truely an interdisciplinary science, diverse in methodology and theoretical models. In order to present important issues in neuropsycho logical research, researchers have identified three basic dimensions. The three dimensions include: 1) subject variables (normal subject groups: age, education, occupation, intelligence, socioeconomic siatus, handedness, sex, psychological factors, medical controIs, developmental disabilities; psychiatric patients; malingerers; brain-damaged patients), 2) measurement issues (psychometrics, behavioral assessment, physiological measures), and 3) time parameters. The interaction of these design problems-subject variables, measurement, and time parameters-complicates any experimental or quasi-experimental study of brain-behavior relationships in clinical neuropsychology. Unlike a pure experimental model, in the typical neuropsychological investigation, many independent variables are uncontrollable, such as type, magnitude and site of lesion, behavioral effects, and patient characteristics, thereby increasing error variance. Recognition of methodological issues can certainly lead to more careful planning of one's research, including collection of comprehensive subject data, multidimensional measurement, follow-up testing, and consideration of statistical problems.
This study is aimed to examine the diagnostic function of the validity scales and the items of validity scales in the MMPI. Material of this study was MMPI answer sheets, which were administered in the psychiatric hospital the purpose of psychiatric diagnosis. The diagnostic groups were consisted of normal, anxiety neurosis, depressive neurosis, paranoid schizophrenia, non paranoid schizophrenia, chronic schizophrenia, and personality disorder. According to the diagnosis, responses of validity scale items and validity scale values were analyzed. The results were as follow: 1) Among the items of F and K scale, some items were showed to be highly discriminative power between normal and psychiatric diagnostic groups. However, these items were low in the differential diagnostic power between psychiatric groups. 2) In the normal group, the pattern of validity scales appears to be V shape. The scale value of F cale was T score 39. Land K scale values were T score about 58. 3) In the paranoid and non paranoid schizophrenia, F scale was the highest as a T score 67. And the shape of the validity scales was the reversed pattern of the normal group such as pyramidal shape. 4) Levels and shapes of validity scales in the anxiety neurosis and depressive neurossis were very similar to those in the chronic schizophrenia. Levels and patterns of validity scales seem to be important diagnostic cues, particularly indicative in the paranoid and non paranoid schizophrenia. But it is also suggested that sufficient understanding of the response process such as test-taking attitude is needed to interprete soundly of higher F scale value.
The purpose of this study was to clarify the manifestation and control of the primary process thinking on the Rorschach responses with relation to the ego strength and field dependence-independence. Barron's Ego Strength Scale & HFT were used for assessing ego strength & field dependence-independence. Holt's scoring system was applied to assess primary process thinking. Included as the hypotheses in this study were: 1. Strong ego strength group will manifestate less the- primary process thinking contents on the Rorschach responses than weak ego strength group. 2. In field independent groups, strong ego strength group will defend more effectively to the primary process thinking manifested on Rorschach responses than weak ego strength group, whereas in field dependent groups, there will be a decrease in the efficiency of defense compared to field independent groups. In order to test these hypotheses, a total of 48 male freshmen in SNU which had been in the range of upper 25% and lower 25% on the HFT (Hidden Figure Test) and Ego Strength Scale scores among 316 male and female college students, were selected. As three subjects were dropped out, for 45 subjects Rorschach was administered and assessed by Holt's scoring system. Due to subjects' attrition, unequal unweighted mean analysis of variance was applied for this study. The results were as following; In strong ego strength group, the primary process thinking contents were manifestated less than those of weak ego strength group (p<.01) and no significant difference was found in the primary process thinking contents between field dependent group and field independent group. The effective defense to the primary process thinking contents was found to be significantly correlated with field independence as well as strong ego strength (p<.01). This results were viewed as suggesting that the effective defenses to the stimulus causing anxiety require strong ego strength and field independent cognitive style. With above mentioned findings, the followings were discussed. These results suggest that the Holt's scoring system of the primary process thinking at least have the construct validity in the light of Barron's Ego Strength Scale, and support Freud's standing of the primary process thinking. Finally., the necessity that except ego strength, field dependence-independence is to be considered to understand the psychopathology, and the limitations in this study were discussed.
The purpose of this study was to determine the discriminant function analysis of the Korean Wechsler Intelligence Scale responses of normal and abnormal groups. Of special interest was to verify the clinical discriminant power of two subtests of the KWIS (Vacabulary and Digit Symbols) and Taylor's Manifest Anxiety Scale. The normal, group was composed of 150 college students and the abnormal group 150 schizophrenic patients. The normal group had a mean age of 22.1 years(SD=4.5) and a mean of 13.9 years of education(SD=2.8) and the abnormal group had a mean age of 29.6 years(SD=8. 4) and a mean of 10.4 years of education (SD=4.6). The major statistical method employed was Stepwise Discriminant .Function Analysis, Four major hypotheses were postulated., The normal group would show higher than the abnormal group; mean scores on both Vocabulary and Digit Symbol, The mean difference in Digit Symbol between the two groups would be greater than that in the Vacabulary. There would he no significant relationships among Digit Symbol, Vacabulary, and Anxiety. The most powerful Discriminant power is expected from subtest of Digit Symbol. The results of analysis confirmed all of the four hypotheses. It was further revealed that the discriminating power of Anxiety Scale did not reach significance level. Discriminant analysis showed that group centroids for normal group fell on negative direction and that for the abnormal group on positive direction, From the findings it was concluded that both Digit Symbol and Vocabulary scales had strong diagnostic value but the former was more powerful than the latter. However, the Anxiety scales had less diagnostic value.
The purpose of the present study is to research the effect of counselor's high or low intimacy self-disclosing response on client's self-disclosure under client's high or low need for approval. Counselor's self-disclosure has been demonstrated to elecit client's self-disclosure. And it is reported that counselor's high intimacy self-disclosing response is more effective than low intimacy self-disclosing response on client's perception of counselor and client's self-relevant statements. But there are many exceptions to this findings. One of some possible explanations for the contradictory result is that S variables that might be important in understanding reactions to the counselor's disclosure have received little attendlng. S variable that seems important to investigate is need for approval. The social desirability approval motives should be related to self-disclosure because it is hypothesized that Ss with high social desirability tend to protect their vulnerable self-esteem by being conforming, conventional, and generally self'protective. Of additional interest is the finding that Ss with high need for approval have been noted to be more persuable in verbal conditioning studies. Based on the previous studies, research predicions in the study are formulated as follows: 1. When listened to the record of counselor's high or low-intimacy self-disclosing response, high need for approval Ss would increase the level of self-disclosure more than low need for approval Ss. 2. High need 'for approval Ss listening to the record of counselor's high intimacy would increase self-disclosing response more than those being listening the record of counselor's low intimacy self-disclosing response. Subjects for the study were 56 female college students enrolled in physical education classes at SNU. 56 Ss identified as high or low in need for approval wrote the free essay for 5 min. about their own view of ethies. After 1 week they listened to taped-recorded interview between a high intimacy self-disclosing counselor or low intimacy self-disclosing counselor and a female client. Ss then wrote the free essay for 5 min, about campus life and interpersonal relationship which they were willing to disclose to the counselor in tape. Each of the essays was rated for disclosing level of Ss by two raters who are counselors of SNU Student Guidence Center. Disclosure ratings were made in terms of Bugental's 5-points self-disclosure scale. The result of the present study showed that the research predictions were all not accepted at statistically significant level. However, it was found that the high need for approval Ss would increase the level of self-disclosure more than low need for approval Ss being listened record. The explanations of the result are that client's need for approval is a important factor of the clients's self-disclosure, and the effect of counselor's high or low intimacy self-disclosing response should be reexamined. Interpretation of the result, limitation of the present study, and the implication for the inventory measuring the social approval were discussed.
Recenty there Is an increase of attempts to judge quantitatively and qualitatively the complex interaction between. counselor and client by analyzing the actual counseling process through case study. This article is to review the literatures on the analysis of the counseling process and attempts to prepare a standard for the counseling process research, To begin with five process variables (verbal response modes, overt behaviors, covert behaviors, content and extraJinguistic; physiological behaviors) are considered, and verbal response modes are explained in detail because of attracting more concern. That is, its definition and the reason to attract more interest are touched, and verbal response systems -Porter System, Snyder System, Collier's Scale, Murray's Therapist Verbal Response Mode, Strupp's Multidimensional System, Stile's Verbal Response Mode, and Hill's Counselor (Client) Verbal Response Category System- are reviewed. Finally, methodological problems and research design problems related with studying of the counseling process are explained. That is, the difference between actual counseling conditions and analogue counseling cotnditions, session and segment selection problems, analysis. units, use of transcript, audiotape, videotape, rater selection and training, the level of interrater agreement, and time-limited counseling etc. are reviewed.