Understanding the chemical composition of the brain helps researchers comprehend various neurological processes effectively. Understanding of the fundamental pathological processes that underpin many neurodegenerative disorders has recently advanced thanks to the advent of innovative bioanalytical techniques that allow high sensitivity and specificity with chemical imaging at high resolution in tissues and cells. Mass spectrometry imaging [MSI] has become more common in bio- medical research to map the spatial distribution of biomolecules in situ. The technique enables complete and untargeted delinea- tion of the in-situ distribution characteristics of proteins, metabolites, lipids, and peptides. MSI's superior molecular specificity gives it a significant edge over traditional histochemical methods. Recent years have seen a significant increase in MSI, which is capable of simultaneously mapping the distribution of thousands of biomolecules in the tissue specimen at a high resolution and is otherwise beyond the scope of other molecular imaging techniques. This review aims to acquaint the reader with the MSI experimental workflow, significant recent advancements, and implementations of MSI techniques in visualizing the anatomical distribution of neurochemicals in the human brain in relation to various neurogenerative diseases.