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  • P-ISSN 2233-4203
  • E-ISSN 2093-8950

A Comprehensive Review of Recent Advances in the Enrichment and Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Glycoproteins and Glycopeptides in Complex Biological Matrices

Mass Spectrometry Letters / Mass Spectrometry Letters, (P)2233-4203; (E)2093-8950
2024, v.15 no.1, pp.1-25
Gab-Allah Mohamed A. (Chungnam National University)
Kim Jeongkwon (Chungnam National University)
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Protein glycosylation, a highly significant and ubiquitous post-translational modification (PTM) in eukaryotic cells, has attracted considerable research interest due to its pivotal role in a wide array of essential biological processes. Conducting a comprehensive analysis of glycoproteins is imperative for understanding glycoprotein bio-functions and identifying glyco-sylated biomarkers. However, the complexity and heterogeneity of glycan structures, coupled with the low abundance and poor ionization efficiencies of glycopeptides have all contributed to making the analysis and subsequent identification of glycans and glycopeptides much more challenging than any other biopolymers. Nevertheless, the significant advancements in enrichment techniques, chromatographic separation, and mass spectrometric methodologies represent promising avenues for mitigating these challenges. Numerous substrates and multifunctional materials are being designed for glycopeptide enrichment, proving valuable in glycomics and glycoproteomics. Mass spectrometry (MS) is pivotal for probing protein glycosylation, offering sensi-tivity and structural insight into glycopeptides and glycans. Additionally, enhanced MS-based glycopeptide characterization employs various separation techniques like liquid chromatography, capillary electrophoresis, and ion mobility. In this review, we highlight recent advances in enrichment methods and MS-based separation techniques for analyzing different types of protein glycosylation. This review also discusses various approaches employed for glycan release that facilitate the investigation of the glycosylation sites of the identified glycoproteins. Furthermore, numerous bioinformatics tools aiding in accurately characteriz-ing glycan and glycopeptides are covered.

glycomics, glycoproteomics, enrichment strategies, nanomaterials, separation, mass spectrometry, bioinformatics, biological matrices

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Mass Spectrometry Letters