The present study was a 3 months follow-up study to examine two hypotheses concerning persistence of depressive symptoms. The two hypotheses were based on Beck's Cognitive Theory of Depression, Ingram's Theory of Self-Focused Attention and Depression and Nolen-Hoeksema's Response Style Theory of Depression. The first hypothesis was that dysfunctional belief activated by depressive mood and automatic thought would influence persistence of depressive symptoms. The second hypothesis was that self-focused attention activated by depressive mood and ruminative response would influence persistence of depressive symptoms. 907 college students were given Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS), Automatic Thought Questionnaire (ATQ), Self-Consciousness Scale (SCS), Response Style Questionnaire (RSQ). Of the 907 students, 171 with BDI score above 16 were interviewed individually in order to rule out those subjects for whom depression did not seem to be the primary symptom. The final group of 124 students were found to meet the criteria and the same battery of measures were mailed out to them 3 months after the initial assessment. 95 subjects returned the completed questionnaires and the following analyses were based on their data. The results were as follows : Dysfunctional attitude activated by depressive mood and automatic thought jointly predicted the level of depression 3 months later and after controlling for the initial level of depression, the effects of the two cognitive variables were not significant. Self-focused attention and ruminative response style jointly predicted the level of depression 3 months later. But self-focused attention by itself did not affect depressive symptoms concurrently or 3 months later. Ruminative response style at the initial assessment and its interaction with initial depression predicted depression at 3 months' follow-up. The results suggested that ruminative response style has priority to cognitive factors such as dysfunctional attitude and automatic thought in predicting persistence of depression. The results of the present study suggested the importance of behavioral and phenomenological factors such as ruminative response style as well as cognitive factors emphasized in the traditional cognitive approaches to depression. Implications of the resent findings for programs to prevent persistence or relapse of depression were discussed.
The present study attempted to investigate automatic processing deficits in schizophrenic patients. Three experiments were conducted to examine the development of automatic processes in schizophrenic patients and the normal on a modification of a multiple-frame search task developed by Schneider and Shiffrin(1977). On this task the category differences between the target letters or digits and distractors were varied. The findings of this study questioned prevalent assumptions that schizophrenic deficits of information processing were evident in tasks that performed with controlled processes and absent in tasks involving automatic processes. However, the results suggested that schizophrenic patients are not capable of developing automatic processes. Schizophrenics performed between-category tasks with controlled processes, whereas normal subjects did with automatic processes. This suggests that their controlled processing deficits showed in other cognitive tasks might be due to the automatic processing deficits. It is suggested that inefficient perceptual organization might be the cause of impaired automatic processing abilities.
The present study was to clarify a relationship of personality, the cardiovascular reactivity to white noise and Type A Behavior Pattern. Personality factors studied were neuroticism(N), extraversion(E), psychoticism(P) and impulsivity(Imp.), while Type A Behavior Pattern(TABP) was regard as a behavior(response) style not as a personality factor in this study. Subjects were 311 male and female undergraduates. Eysenck Personality Questionaire, Barrette Impulsivity Scale and Framingham Type A Behavior Scale were administered to all subjects. Measures of the cardiovascular responses (diastolic pressure, systolic pressure and heart rate) of all subjects under the physical stress of 100db white noise were compared to resting condition(baseline) in connection to their personality factors and behavioral styles. Data were analysed by means of the statistical methods such as t-test, multiple regression and covariance structure analysis. The results were as follow: a) Significantly higher N and HR were observed in females as compard with males. Males revealed higher SBP and TABP than females. b) Personality factors associating with both the measures of the cardiovascular reactivity and TABP were N, nonplanning Imp, and cognitive Imp. All the measures of DBP, SBP, and HR, however, were unrelated to TABP. c) The result of covariance structure analysis suggested that the structures of personality including factors such as N, nonplanning Imp, and cognitive Imp, the cardiovascular reactivity including the variabality on DBP, SBP, HR measures, and TABP were interrelated. In conclusion, the results suggest that a model integrating the three structures will enable to explain a bio-psychological process of individual behavior.
This study investigated the new MMPI test-retest reliability and the stability of new MMPI high-point code, low-point code, two-point code, and three-point code types. Subjects were 96 psychiatric patients and 87 undergraduate students who took psychology introduction course from June to August in 1992. In the case of test-retest reliability, the student group was ranged from .56 to .88 and the psychiatric patient group was distributed from .38 to .81. It was statistically significant that every scales of both groups were in 1% level except Mf(F) scale(.38) of psychiatric patient group. This research results showed a high correlation comparing with the previous researches. In the case of the stability of new MMPI high-point code, low-point code, two-point code, and three-point code types, undergraduate student group was 30.9%, 66.0%, 40.1%, and 6.9% agreement rate, and the agreement rate of psychiatric patient group was 50.4%, 40.8%, 37.6%, and 7.3% respectively. This research results showed a high agreement rate comparing with the previous researches. Therefore, these research results suggested that new MMPI be more reliable than old MMPI. The implication of the study was discussed.
The present study was conducted to explore the reliability and the validity of the Raven Progressive Matrices Test as an intelligence test in Koreans. The booklet form of the Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM) was administered to 405 college students (202 males, 203 females). Among them, 100 volunteers were also tested with the KWIS. The mean of the SPM scores was 52.5(s.d.=4.0). The sex difference was not found. The estimate of the test-retest reliability was .62 and the internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) .73. The construct validity of the SPM was investigated by factor-analyzing the 5 set scores. A single factor that explained 39.2% of the variance was extracted from the 5 sets, indicating the high internal consistency of the SPM. The fact that there were significant correlations between the SPM and KWIS's Full, Verbal, and Performance Scale IQs indicates that the SPM is a valid measure of intelligence. That the Vocabulary subtest having the highest correlation with Verbal Scale IQ was barely correlated with the SPM, however, suggests that both the SPM and the vocabulary scale should be considered together for assessing general intelligence(g). According to the item analysis based on the item response theory, it was found that the SPM consists of too many easy items and the average "guessing" was in the slightly high range, while the average "item discrimination" was in the moderate to high range. In surn, the present results indicate that the SPM is a reliable and valid measure of intelligence, although these results should be validated by the future studies that will be conducted to other aged normal and patient groups.
The present study explored the reliability and the validity of our newly constructed verbal memory test, the Korean version of the California Verbal Learning Test (K-CVLT). As a cognitive process approach to memory assessment, the CVLT differs from previous memory tests in that it measures various processes and paramemters of verbal memory in a single test. Despite its short history, the CVLTs validity has been confirmed in many studies involving various subject populations, and has been widely used in the U.S. and Europe. While following the basic principles of the CVLT, we constructed the K-CVLT considering the cultural and language differences between Korean and American people. We gave the K-CVLT to 150 college students in Seoul, Cheongju, and Pohang, and developed the college-student norms including the Verbal Memory Score(VMS) and the standard scores for various memory indices measured by K-CVLT. The estimate of split-half reliability using the Spearman-Brown formula was .92. The validity of the K-CVLT was investigated by factor-analyzing the 19 K-CVLT indices, yielding 6 factors of general verbal learning ability, response discriminability, retroactive interference effect, proactive interference effect, learning strategy, and learning rate. The present results indicate that the K-CVLT is a useful tool for qualitatively assessing various verbal memory processes, strategies, and errors. We believe that the K-CVLT will be of considerable value to many fields such as clinical neuropsychology, experimental cognitive psychology, and neuroscience, when the present study is followed by additional normative and validity studies involving various age- and clinical-subject groups.
The present study was conducted to find an appropriate classification system of handedness in Koreans. The 10-item Edinburgh Inventory was administered to 858 Korean college students and 502 American college students. According to three criteria(writing hand, self-classification, hand preference score), there were significantly lower percentages of left-handers among Koreans than Americans. Especially, the virtual absence of left-hand writers in the Korean sample suggests that, in Korea even more than in other conservative cultures, writing hand would be a poor indicator of overall handedness. Cluster analyses revealed three distinct subgroups of handedness for each sample: Right-handers, inconsistent left-handers, consistent left-handers. For Americans, the dissociation between writing hand and throwing hand was found in the inconsistent left-hander group as Peters & Servos(1989) found in their ILH group. The same dissociation, however, was not found in the Korean sample. For Koreans, the inconsistent left-handers used their right-hand for writing and eating, and left-hand for throwing and other skilled behaviors, while the consistent left- handers consistently used their left-hand not only for throwing and other skilled behaviors but also for eating and writing. The difference between the inconsistent and the consistent left-handers found in the Korean sample reflects the dextral pressure on handedness in Korea. If we call this inconsistent left-handers "compliant" left-handers whose preferred hand was partly modified by dextral pressure, we can call the consistent left-handers "stubborn" left-handers who did not or could not change, regardless of the strong social pressure. Discriminant analysis also showed that, for Koreans, "knife", "throw", and "scissors" were the best items for distinguishing the left-handers from the right-handers, whereas "write" , "draw" , and "spoon" were the best items for the Americans. This results provide another substantial evidence that the expression of handedness can be modified by social-cultural influences.
The present study was designed to develop a multidimensional coping scales, encompassing personal, social, and religious coping. For this purpose, there independent studies were conducted. The initial item pool was generated from both theoretical and empirical approach: a control theoretical model on coping, a variety of domestic and foreign coping scales, and an open questionnaire on stress and coping. In Study 1, participants were 230 adult population, and the item selection was made from 122 initial item pool into 36 items covering 9 coping styles. The examination of reliability and validity of a scale was utilized by factor analysis and Cronbach alpha's. In study 2, the participants were 345 college students. Item selection was made from 90 items into 39 items for 10 coping styles. In study 3, employing another 811 college students as participants, the initial pool of 105 items were narrowed down into 15 coping styles consisting of 64 items. Eventually, the final version of a multidimensional coping scale is composed of personal, social, and religious coping resources: (Personal Coping Resources), active coping, passive withdrawal, emotional expression, active forgetting, perseverance, positive interpretation, positive comparision, accommodation, fatalism, self-criticism, emotional pacification; (Social Coping Resources), problem-solving social support seeking, emotional social support seeking; (Religious Coping Resources), religious seeking. Finally, the present findings were discussed within the context of stress and coping, and implications for future studies were suggested.
The present study explored the multidimensional relations between stress and coping. Especially, the present study examined the mediational effect of the multidimensional coping styles against the negative effects of various life stress on anxiety or headaches. The participants were 1024 college students (male, 53%; female, 47%) located in five areas in Korea. The scales used in this study were multidimensional scales of stress and coping. More specifically, life stress scale was (lover, friend, family, faculty), and task-related life stress (future, value, economy, grade). Coping scale consisted of three dimensions of personal, social, and religious coping resources covering 15 subscales. Criterion measures were anxiety for psychopathology, and headaches for physical pathology. The present study revealed the following results among others: (1) friend-related life stress and value-related life stress were the best predictors on anxiety and headaches. (2) In regard to the effect of friend-related life stress and value-related life stress on anxiety, passive withdrawal, active forgetting, fatalism, self-criticism were found to be significant mediators. Especially, positive interpretation appeared to be a very effective coping style. In addition, a significant mediating effect of social support seeking was only found for friend-related stress which is a kind of relationship-related life stress. (3) Within the context of the relation between friend-related stress and anxiety, passive withdrawal, acceptance, self-criticism, and emotional support seeking were found to significant mediators for both male and female participants. For females, however, problem-solving support seeking and active forgetting were also found to be significant mediators. (4) With respect to the role of religion in the relation between value-related stress and anxiety, passive withdrawal, active forgetting, and religious seeking were found to he significant mediators for Christians, In a similar manner, passive withdrawal and self-criticism were significant mediators for Catholics, while positive interpretation was a significant mediator for Buddhists. Finally, limitations of the present study were discussed, and implications for future study were suggested.
The purpose of this study was to examine panic patients' personality chracteristics which could predict cognitive-behavioral treatment effects. For this purpose, panic patients who participated in 10-session cognitive-behavioral group treatment were divided into two groups -- a high Tx response group and a low Tx response group, and pre-treatment MMPI variables were compared between the two groups. Results showed that there were significant differences between the high and the low Tx response group in Si scale, TRT content scale, but there were no significant differences in personality disorder scales. There was also a trend for a difference in CYN content scale, but the difference did not reach a significant level of confidence. These results indicated that patients who had less social discomfort, interpersonal mistrust and negative attitude toward treatment tended to show better responses to cognitive-behavioral group treatment. Implications of the results were discussed in relation to cognitive-behavioral group treatment.
Family can play an important role in the course of treating schizophrenia. Family education programs have been developed, with which family could cope more effectively with their relative's symptomatic behaviors. The author has developed a family education program in Korea. This article consists of two parts. In the first part, the author reviewed the development of the American family education program, emphasizing the necessity of family education, and described the outcome of family intervention. The second part introduced the process and the content of the Korean family education program for person with schizophrenia. In addition, the evaluation of the program and suggestions for the future were proposed.
The purpose of this research was to examine how much Psychological Tests(the MMPI, KWIS, and RORSOHACH) discriminate and predict about success/failure group to Job Rehabilitation Program in chronic schizophrenics. Subjects were 64 chronic schizophrenics(male 37, female 27) who were participating Job Rehabilitation Program of Y-mental hospital in Kyeng-gi Do. The 'success-group' was successively carried-out and the 'failure-group' was not excute or thrown-up inpatient during Job Rehabilitation Program. Results followed. Discriminant analysis using Psychological Tests(the MMPS, KWIS, & RORSCHACH) classified 95.2% success-group, 4.8% failure-group, and 97.2% of total group correctly.
The present study investigated about the influence of intensive training and contingent reinforcement on WCST performance of the patient with schizophrenia. Subjects were 36 persons, schizophrenia diagnosed by psychiatrists based on criteria by DSM-IV and the normal control subjects were 12 persons. Intensive training reduced perseverative errors, number of trials to complete the first category and increased correct responses and completed category, percent conceptual level responses score, but these subject's training effect was not maintained after a week. The results indicate that deficits in performance on the WCST are improvable by intensive training.
Few researchers have developed parent training program specially for the parents of ADHD children in Korea. In the present study parent training program designed to treat non-compliant behavior of ADHD children was developed and its effectiveness was assessed. Mothers of 15 ADHD children ages 5 to 14 were diveded into three groups and attended group therapy once a week for 6 weeks to be trained to apply behavior modification techniques to problem behaviors in their children. A booster session was conducted 1 month after the 6th session to review mother's performance during the program. The children whose mothers participated in the program were assessed before and after the parent training program using the following measures:CPT, ACRS, CBCL, HSQ. Results showed that the degree of inattention, hyperactivity, and non-compliance in home were significantly redeced following the parent training program. 90% of the mothers reported on Parent's Consumer Satisfaction Scale that behavior problems in their children were improved. However the gains made during the program were considerably reduced at the follw-up, suggesting the need for a more extended program. Results of the study provide a strong case for effectiveness of parent training program as treatment for inattention and hyperactivity in childhood.