The primary purpose of the present study was to develop and evaluate the effects of cognitive behavioral treatment program for noncompliant and aggressive behavior in children. Thirty four children between the 2nd and 4th grade in the elementary school with K-CBCL Aggressive Scale T score above 62 and IQ above 90 formed, 7 treatment groups with 4-5 children each and participated in the cognitive behavioral treatment(CBT)program. Of the 34 children, 29 completed the 15 session program consisting primarily of problem solving skills training. The children who participated in the CBT showed a significant increase in the number of problem solving responses to hypothetical conflict situations at the post-test and in problem solving behaviors within treatment sessions with the progress of treatment. The CBT children also showed a significant decrease in the K-CBCL externalizing behavior problem score. However, there was no significant change in the teacher-rated social skills. The results were discussed in terms of a need to explore ways to strengthen treatment intensity so as to ensure generalization and long term maintenance of treatment effects.
The purpose of this study is to identify the relationship between depressive symptoms and marital communication behaviors, and to examine the independent effect of depression on communication behaviors in controlling the effects of marital satisfaction and self-esteem. Subjects were a community sample of sixty-three couples married for seven years or less. 11 depressive group and control group were determined by self-report questionnaire(CES-D) and structurized clinical interview(SADS). After filling out the questionnaire, each couple discussed about their own problems for about 30∼45 minutes. Their discussions were tape-recorded and used as observational data. Results show gender differences in the relationship between depressive symptom and marital communication behavior. In cases of husbands, depressive symptom has a significant negative relationship with marital satisfaction and self-esteem. And self-esteem is related to the positive communication behavior. In cases of wives, depressive symptom has a significant negative relationship with marital satisfaction and positive relationship with the negative communication behavior. Also, results show differences between depressive group and normal group. Depressive husbands express positive communication behavior less than normal husbands, and depressive symptomatology has an independent effect even when the effects of marital satisfaction and self-esteem were controlled as covariates. Meanwhile, depressive wives express negative communication behavior more than normal wives. In wives, depressive symptomatology doesn't have an independent effect in controlling the effects of marital satisfaction and self-esteem as covariates. Only marital satisfaction itself has a significant effect on negative communication behaviors.
This study investigated the reliabilty and validity of the Korean versions of Somatosensory Amplification Scale and Symptom Interpretation Questionnaire. These scales were administerd to 222 college students, 50 psychiatric patients, and 55 normal adults. Alpha-coefficient, split-half coefficient, test-retest reliability, and item-total correlation were calculated. The results showed that internal consistencies of somatic and emotional attribution scale of Symptom Interpretation Questionnaire were good, but that of neutral attribution scale was somewhat insufficient, particularly in normal adults. And internal consistency of Somatosensory Amplification Scale was low in psychiatric patients. The concurrent validities of two scales were good. Some items were somewhat unreliable, but overall reliabilties and validities of the two scales were good.
The purpose of these studies was to investigate the cognitive characteristics of bodily sensations or symptoms in somatization patients. In Study 1-1, the results showed that somatization patients attributed common bodily symptoms to bodily abnormality and emotional causes rather than situational causes. The results of Study 1-2 showed that somatic attribution, emotional attribution, and somatosensory amplification were positively correlated with somatization score. And somatic attribution and emotional attribution were found to be good predictors of somatization in somatization patients. Study 2 confirmed the hypothesis that somatization patients are better at remembering experiences related somatic symptoms. The memory bias in the somatization patients suggested that the cognitive schema related to body-related experiences was well-structured. The results of these studies demonstrated that various cognitive characteristics should be considered in order to understand the process of somatization. It is, therefore, necessary not only to understand the psychological mechanisms of somatization but also of cognitive therapy. Finally, limitations of these studies and suggestions for future studies were discussed.
The present study attempted to investigate self-relevant information processing characteristics of socially anxious individuals in no stress condition(experiment 1) and social-evaluative stress condition(experiment 2). A modified self-referent depth-of-processing paradigm was employed. Stimulus adjectives were classified into social threat words and non-threat words. In experiment 1, socially anxious students showed greater recall of words in private self-referent condition than any other conditions. In experiment 2, socially anxious students showed greater recall of words in public self-referent condition than any other conditions. Inconsistently with the prediction in experiment 3, socially anxious students did not show greater recall of social threat words in public self-referent condition than any other conditions. Additionally, some implications of present results and methodological issues were discussed.
This study investigated the effects of affectivity and types of stress on common and specific symptoms of depression and anxiety based on the tripartite model of depression and anxiety. First, it tested the role of affectivity as a vulnerability factor. Second, it examined the effects of specific types of stress according to cognitive content-specificity hypothesis. Common and specific symptoms of depression and anxiety were measured with Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Questionnaire. Affectivity and stress were also measured with Negative Emotionality Scale and Positive Emotionality Scale and Stress Questionnaire. 360 female college students participated for the study. The results showed that negative affectivity(NA) acted as a vulnerability factor for common symptoms of depression and anxiety and low positive affectivity(PA) acted as a vulnerability factor for depression-specific symptoms. Stresses including future harm and danger increased the level of anxiety-specific symptoms in interaction with NA among individuals who have moderate level of NA. In contrast, among the groups of high and low NA, NA and stresses including future harm and danger did not interact, predicting anxiety-specific symptoms independently. There was no interaction of NA and stresses including past loss and failure on depression-specific symptoms. They predicted depression-specific symptoms independently. Stresses including past loss and failure predicted only depression-specific symptoms, thus partly supporting cognitive content-specificity hypothesis. Lack of positive events predicted depression-specific symptoms above all other symptoms. Finally, clinical implications of the study were discussed in view of cognitive and behavior therapy. Limitations of the study and suggestion for future research were also discussed.
To describe personality pathologies, lower level traits in the hierarchy of personality pathologies are needed. There have been however, few studies to examine them. The purpose of this study was to identify lower level traits necessary to describe personality pathologies. 157 items of the Personality Disorder Rating scale(Hwang,1995) were sorted in terms of "content similarity" or "content co-occurrence" by 138 layman participants. The data were transformed to co-occurrence probability matrix. 30 components were of personality pathologies identified by means of principal component analysis of the matrix, and compared with those of previous studies. The methodology, implications, and applications of the study were discussed.
The performance of 12 3rd grade children with reading-comprehension disablility(RD) and 12 normal children was examined on tasks assessing working memory, short-term memory, wordreading, syllable reading, articulation speed, and syntactic processing. Analysis of variance with age and full-scale IQ covariated showed that children with RD had smaller working memory span and short-term memory span, needed more time for familiar words and pseudo-words reading, and showed slower articulation speed than normal children. And they made more errors in syllable reading and sentence-span task. But in syntactic process task, there was no significant difference between the two groups. These results suggest that children with RD have smaller memory span and/or phonological processing deficit, and that these two factors would contribute summatively to RD.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the K-WAIS subscale scatter analysis of patients with organic mental disorder due to head trauma. Subjects were 150 organic mental disorder patients and 90 schizophrenic patients who were hospitalized in or visited as outpatients the Wonkwang University Hospital during the period from the March of 1994 to December of 1996. No significant difference was found between the two groups in sex ratio, age or educational levels. The two groups of head trauma patients and schizophrenic patients were compared on the means and standard deviation of VIQ, PIQ, FSIQ, subtests, t-test each other and the magnitude of scatter was examined through vocabulary subtest scatter analysis, full subtests mean scatter analysis, and verbal and performance test scatter analysis. The results were discussed with reguard to the cognitive characteristics of head trauma patients and schizophrenic patients.
This study was designed to identify the usefulness, validity and limitations of computerized neuropsychological test, STIM. Subjects were 30 traumatic brain-injury patients with CNS leisons in brain-imaging test findings - MRI or CT - and 32 patients without CNS leisons, and 30 normal control group. Among the subtests of STIM, finger-tapping test, visual continuous test, spatial memory test, attention switching test, categories test, and Wisconsin card-sorting test and KWIS were performed by all subjects. Total I.Q. of leisoned patients group and non-lesioned patients group were lower than normal control group. In the result of 6 subtests of STIM, fine motor coordination, psychomotor speed, continuous and selective attention, short-term memory, and high cognitive functioning of lesioned patients group and fine motor coordination, psychomotor speed, and high cognitive functioning of non-lesioned patients group were significantly lower than normal control group. In the cross validity analysis with the subtests of STIM and the subtests of KWIS, each subtest showned hign correlation with the cognitive functioning that was theoretically supposed to be assessed by the test. In correlation analysis of the extra variables, total I.Q., age, and education with the subtests of STIM, these three extra variables had significant correlations with visual continuous test, spatial memory test, categories test, and WSCT, but did not have significant correlations with finger-tapping test and attention switching test. Although there were some limitations of the problems of tools and lack of Verbal subtest for Korean version, this computerized neuropsychological test battery was proven to be very useful in assessment of the impaired cognitive funtioning domain of traumatic brain-injury patients.
The present study examined the effects of stimulus type on Wada memory results. The subjects were 43 patients with medically intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) who had a good seizure outcome following epilepsy surgery. Of these, 26 had the epileptogenic foci in the left temporal lobe and 17 in the right temporal lobe. The Wada memory stimuli were concrete figures for 23 subjects and abstract figures for the other 20 subjects.. The stimuli were presented during effects of amobarbital and follow-up memory testing was performed using a yes-no recognition method. The left TLE group demonstrated better recall following left than right hemisphere injection, whereas the right TLE group scored higher following right than left hemisphere injection. The left hemisphere was superior to the right hemisphere for recognition memory of concrete figures, whereas the right hemisphere was superior to the left hemisphere for recognition memory of abstract figures. These findings indicate that stimulus type as well as seizure lateralization is a major determinant of Wada memory asymmetries.