The purpose of the present study was to examine the reliability and validity of the Korean Version of the Childhood Autism Rating Scale(K-CARS), and to determine it's cut-off scores in diagnosing autism. Subjects consisted of the following four clinical groups: 10 autistic children, 32 PDD NOS children, 31 communication disordered children, and 24 MR children within the age range of 24 to 80 months. K-CARS and SMS were administered to mothers of all clinical groups by clinical psychologists. Analysis of data revealed that K-CARS has inter-rater reliability of .94, internal consistency of .87, and test-retest reliability of .91, indicating that K-CARS is a highly reliable test. K-CARS total scores correlated negatively with SQ of the Social Maturity Scale and DQ of the EWHA-PEP. Three factors were revealed through factor analysis of K- CARS, which were labelled "socialization-communication", "repetitive-stereotyped behavior", and "unusual sensational response" factors. There were significant differences between the autistic group(autistic disorder and PDD NOS) and the non-autistic group(communication disorder and MR) on K-CARS total scores. These results strongly support the construct and discriminant validity of K-CARS. For further evaluation of the discriminant validity of K-CARS, the discriminant power of each item was calculated, and 11 of the 15 items discriminated significantly the autistic from the non-autistic group. The cut-off score for diagnosing autism was found to be twenty-eight, which classified 73.8% of the autistic group and 85.5% of the non-autistic group correctly. The limitations of the present study and further issues for the future study were discussed.
Self psychology and Gestalt therapy are similar in that both theories stem from the common roots of psychoanalysis and have also a phenomenological background. A group of gestalt therapists have pleaded for the necessity of a dialogue with self psychology hoping to compensate the developmental theory of which the gestal therapy still much lack. This article surveyed the major issues of self psychology and intersubjective theory, which is a new stream of self psychology, and introduced such concepts as selfobject, selfobject need, selfobject transference and invariant organizing principles. After this the author discussed the necessity of a dialogue among these three theories together with the problems that arise in the reception of these theories into Gestalt therapy. Finally the differences between Gestalt therapy and the other two theories were pointed out and the uniqueness and identity of Gestalt therapy were described.
The main purpose of this study is to investigate the psychotherapeutic relationship as it is experienced by psychotherapists in Korea, using a comprehensive questionnaire designed for a major cross-national survey of mental health professionals and translated into Korean by the author. The study focuses on those sections of the questionnaire concerned with the therapeutic relationship because that aspect of therapy is common to various treatments and has been shown by much previous research to be linked to therapeutic outcome. The researcher used data collected in Korea and other countries to examine the question: To what extent are psychotherapists in Korea different from therapists in other countries in the way they experience their professional relationships with patients? Comparative analyses will focus both on the definition of relationship dimensions and on levels of emphasis within specific dimensions. Five common scales were constructed using descriptors derived from the factor analyses: "Supportive", "Care-Taking", "Autocratic" (Confronting, Directive, Superior), "Formal", and "Invested". Using hierarchical multiple regression analyses to assess differences between Korean and Western therapists quantitatively on the five common relationship dimension suggest that Korean and Western therapists differed most in how personally "Invested" they felt, and in how "Formal" and "Care-Taking" they saw themselves. The Korean therapists in this sample rated themselves as significantly less "Invested", and as significantly more "Formal" , yet also significantly more "Care-Taking" than their Western counterparts. There was no significant difference between Korean and Western therapists in how "Supportive" they perceived themselves to be, and just a marginally significant difference in how "Autocratic" they perceived themselves to be.
This study attempted to test the effects of consensus perception and objective consensus information of negative life events on depression in the context of attributional theory. And this study attempted to test whether depressives have realistic consensus perception. The results of cross-sectional data from 214 college students showed that objective consensus information of negative life events tended to predict depression but consensus perception did not. The mediation effect of event-attribution between objective consensus information and depression was significant. Nondepressives showed more accurate consensus perception than depressives. These findings were discussed in terms of the attributional theory and the cognitive distortion theory of depression. The limitations and the suggestions for future researches were also discussed.
This study was intended to test self-discrepancy theory assumed that self-discrepancy between actual self and ideal self is related to depression(Higgins, 1987). Further, this study investigated the influence of actual self and ideal self which are components to measure self-discrepancy on depression. Three hundred and thirteen undergraduate students participated in this study. We measured the self-discrepancy, the level of actual self, the level of ideal self by the Higgins' selves questionnaire and Hoge & McCarthy's scale. And depression was measured with Beck Depression Inventory, Depression Adjectives Check List, Hopelessness Depression Scale. The results are as follows. First, the depressed group showed higher level of self-discrepancy than the nondepressed group. Second, the depressed group showed lower level of actual self than the nondepressed group, but there was no group differences on the level of ideal self. Finally, as the result of regression analysis entering hierarchically the actual self, self-discrepancy, ideal self, the actual self was most accountable for depression. And the results of exploratory analysis showed that self discrepancy was mostly related to the level of actual self. In addition, the results were discussed in terms of self-discrepancy theory, cognitive theory and the view of perfectionism. And the limitations of this study and the suggestions for future researches were discussed.
This study investigated the differential roles of dysfunctional attitudes, automatic thoughts, life events experience, and self-concepts in depression and paranoia. The Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale, the Automatic Thoughts Qestionnaire, the Life Events Experience Questionnaire, the Paranoia Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Self-concept Scale were administered to 331 college students. The results showed that the automatic thoughts and the self-concepts were directly related to depression and paranoia. But, automatic thoghts more highly related with depression than paranoia. The life events experiences were exclusively related to depression. The dysfunctional attitudes were more highly related to paranoia than depression. The moderating hypothesis of dysfunctional attitudes was weakly confirmed in both paranoia and depression. And, the mediating hypothesis of automatic thoughts was exclusively confirmed in depression. The suggestions and the limitations of this study, and the directions of future study were discussed.
This study tested the hypothesis that the paranoid tendency and persecutory delusions are related to negative self-concepts, negative other concepts, and defensive attributional styles. And the results were compared with depressed subjects. The hypothesis of this study about the relationship of depression and paranoia was that this two symptoms have common factors of negative self-concepts, but paranoid groups have more negative other-concepts and more defensive attributional styles. In Study 1, the Self-concept Scale, the Other-concept Scale, the Paranoia Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, the Hostility Scale, the Self-Discrepancy Scale, the Attributional Style Questionnaire were administered to 175 college students. The results showed that the paranoid tendency was related to negative self-concepts, negative other-concepts, slightly defensive attributional styles. Depression was related to negative self-concepts and self-accusing attributional styles. In Study 2, persecutory deluded patients, depressed patients, and normal control groups were compared. The results showed that the persecutory deluded patients reported more posive self-concepts than depressed patients, but reported more negative self-concepts than normal control groups. And they showed most negative other-concepts and extreme self-serving biases. The suggestions and the limitations of this study, and the directions of future study were discussed.
The aim of this study was to investigate relations between the paranoid tendency to the self perception. 219 undergraduates were asked to complete the Paranoid Scale and the Self-Rating Depression Scale. Among them, 43 subjects were selected according to the paranoia level. And then the Q-Sort task was used for measuring the self-concepts and self-discrepancies. The results of ANCOVA using the levels of depression as a covariate indicated that the paranoid group showed more negative believed perceptions of others about the self and greater discrepancies between perceptions of the actual self and the believed perceptions of others about the self than nonparanoid group. These results were discussed in terms of the clinical implications, limitations and suggestions for future study.
The cognitive-interpersonal perspective of depression focuses on the interpersonal dysfunction of the depressed and their underlying cognition. The present study investigated the relation between adult attachment security and symptoms of depression and tested whether this relation was mediated by dysfunctional attitude and negative interperonal schema. The 221 undergraduate students were surveyed. The results showed that the more anxious and the less dependable on attachment relationship, the more depressed, and the dysfunctional attitude mediated the association between adult attachment and depressive symptoms. In addition, the preoccupied group among 4 styles on attachment showed the highest level of depressive symptoms. The results suggested that adult attachment and related maladaptive cognition should be involved in the studies of interpersonal relationship on depression. Implications for the development of interpersonal theory on depression were discussed.
The present study investigated the interpersonal vulnerability and the depressive personality subtype of the depressed. The stresses experienced, attachment security, dysfunctional attitudes and depressive symptoms were assessed and 70 undergraduated students who had higher than BDI 16 or met Major Depressive Disorder criteria(DSM-IV) were interviewed individually by the researcher. They were divided into sociotropy group and autonomy group respectively based on interview. The sociotropy group was higher on DAS and had more problem in close relationship than the autonomy group. But, the interaction between stresses and personality subtype was not significant in this study. The results suggested that the interpersonal vulnerability of the depressed could be studied through the depressive personality subtype(autonomy/sociotropy) and should be considered on the prevention of chronicity of depressive symptoms.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the relation between personality factors and coping styles administrating 16 Personality Factors Questionnaire and Multidimensional Coping Scale. 70 undergraduate students and 70 PTSD patients who have experienced a trauma, that is a traffic accident, were chosen to participate in this study. Looking into Personality Traits and Personal Coping Resources relation, PTSD patients who have experienced a traumatic event, what is called a traffic accident, showed active coping, self-control and positive interpretation in A<sup>+</sup>(Warmth), Q<sub>2</sub><sup>+</sup>(Self-Sufficiency), positive comparision in B<sup>+</sup>(High Intelligence), active coping, self-control, positive interpretation and positive comparision in C<sup>+</sup>(High Ego Strength), H<sup>+</sup>(Boldness), active coping, self-control, positive interpretation, positive comparision and emotional pacification in E<sup>+</sup>(Dominance), F<sup>+</sup>(Surgency), active coping, positive interpretation, positive comparision and emotional pacification in G<sup>+</sup>(High Superego), active coping and emotional pacification in L<sup>-</sup>(Trustfulness), active coping, self-control, positive interpretation, positive comparision, accommodation and emotional pacification in N<sup>+</sup>(Shrewdness), Q<sub>3</sub><sup>+</sup>(Self-Control), passive withdrawal, emotional expression and self^-criticism in O<sup>+</sup>(Guilt-proneness), positive interpretation and positive comparision in Q<sub>1</sub><sup>+</sup>(Liberalism), self-criticism in Q<sub>4</sub><sup>+</sup>(Anxiety), passive withdrawal in A<sup>-</sup>(Coolness), H<sup>-</sup>(Shyness), passive withdrawal and emotional expression in C<sup>-</sup>(Unstableness), fatalism in L<sup>+</sup>(Suspiciousness), M<sup>-</sup>(Naivete), active coping, self-control and positive interpretation in Q<sub>4</sub><sup>-</sup>(Relaxation): and problem-solving social support seeking and emotional social support seeking of Social Coping Resouces in E<sup>+</sup>(Dominance), I<sup>+</sup>(Tender-mindedness) and M<sup>+</sup>(Autia); and especially, problem-solving social support seeking in F<sup>+</sup>(Surgency), L<sup>+</sup>(Suspiciousness), Q<sub>2</sub><sup>-</sup>(Group-dependence); and emotional social support seeking in O<sup>+</sup>(Guilt Proneness). Finally, religious seeking of Religious Coping Resources in M<sup>+</sup>(Autia), Q<sub>1</sub><sup>-</sup>(Conservation) and Q<sub>2</sub><sup>-</sup>(Group-dependence).
The K-LDES scores of RD(n=11), ADHD(n=30), and RD with ADHD(n=15) were compared. Average scores deviated from norm by 2.7 standard deviation(RD group), 2 SD(comorbid group), and 1.5 SD(ADHD group). The ANCOVAs, with full scale IQ and verbal IQ as covariates, show that RD group have more difficulties than ADHD in speaking, reading, writing, and spelling. Comorbid group have more difficulties than ADHD in spelling and mathmatics. There was no difference between RD and comorbid group. 35 items of total 88 items of K-LEDS discriminated validly between RD and ADHD. Discriminant analysis was conductied to specify which factors contribute to differences between the two. Spelling classified the two groups with 75.5% accuracy, and explained 35.8% of variance. These results suggest that K-LEDS can discriminate between RD and ADHD as well as normal children. And it was discussed that spelling performances would be important in differential diagnosis of RD from ADHD.
It has been widely demonstrated that patients with schizophrenia show a broad range of deficits in interpersonal skills. Recently, considerable attention has been focused on the ability of these patients to decode affective cues. The present study examined the question of an facial-emotion perception in a sample of 25 positive schizophrenics, 25 negative schizophrenics and 25 normals, using facial-emotion perception test that have been standardized stimulus films. Results suggested that all schizophrenics were significantly impaired in facial-emotion perception than normals. And negative schizophrenics were significantly impaired in facial-emotion perception than positive schizophrenics. As more is learned about the relationship among the diverse behavioral dysfunctions that characterize schizophrenics, more comprehensive psychosocial-rehabilitation programs can be developed.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of perfectionism and self-efficacy on the depression levels and task performance levels. Total 359 undergraduate students were participated in the study l; 232 males and 126 females. 91 male students and 57 female students were participated in the experiment(study 2). The result of data analysis on the study 1 showed that there were significant positive correlation personal standards, concern over mistakes and parental criticism factor with depression. However, there was no significant correlation between depression and organization and parental expectation factor. In the study 2(experiment), subjects were divided in four groups by concern over mistaskes(high-low) and self-efficacy level(high- low). 2-way ANOVA was used for the data analysis. As the result, in high-perfectionism, and high self-efficacy group, task error rate was low but high-perfectionism and low self-efficacy group showed highest error rate. The result of analysis of covariance on the post-task depression showed a significant interaction effect between the two independent variables. That is, in the high self-efficacy group, even perfectionism is high, depression was not increased. On the contrary, in the low self-efficacy group, the group of high perfectionism experienced depression remarkably. This findings suggest that self-efficacy can intermediate when perfectionism is affecting on depression and task performance.
This study investigated the psychological characteristics in patients with temporomandibular joint disorders(TMD). On MMPI's diagnostic impressions, somatization and depression were about 60%, anxiety were about 11%, normal profile were about 14%, psychotic impression and personality disorders were about 2-3%. Comparing the TMD group with exception of the normal profile and psychiatric patients who had the same diagnostic impression, we gave the result that two groups exhibited the elevation in 1, 2, 3, 7 scales in MMPI at the level of 60-65T range. On the contrary, the TMD group exhibited the marked elevation of the 4(Pd) scale in statistically significant level, but psychiatric group exhibited the tendency of the decrease in K scale. The result indicated that the TMD and psychiatric(especially the neurotic group) group had the similarity in depressive mood, pessimistic thought, high anxiety and apprehension level, somatic complaint etc., but exhibited the difference in tension level and/or aggression and ego-strength. The clinical implication, additional analyses including significant sex difference, and prospect of the further study were discussed.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the cognitive characteristics of somatization. In particular, the hypothesis that the inference of illness from common bodily symptoms can be related to somatization was examined. A word judgment task was administered to somatization patients and college students. The results showed that somatization patients inferred illness better than non-somatization group, when presented with the body-related stimulus. That is, the meaning related to body was activated easily and such information processing was not suppressed consciously in somatization patients. But the college students with somatization tendency did not show automatic inference bias about the bodily symptoms. Finally, the limitations of this study and suggestions for cognitive therapy and future study were discussed.
The validity and reliability of the Korean-Dementia Rating Scale (K-DRS) have been examined. 143 normal elderlies and 20 patients diagnosed with the dementia of the Alzheimer's type(DAT) participated in the study. Three approaches were pursued to examine the different aspects of validity. First approach focused on the content validity of the K-DRS. Efforts were made to ensure that the translated tasks would be tapping the same cognitive processes that were purported to be examined in the original Dementia Rating Scale (Mattis, 1988). Secondly, we employed an empirical approach to establish the construct and criterion validity of the test. Correlation between the total scores of the K-DRS and the MMSEK(Kwon & Park, 1989) was sought for the construct validity, which yielded a correlation coefficient of .82. Criterion validity with diagnostic states as the criterion was examined. The correlation between the diagnoses and the K-DRS total scores was .66 when all participants were included in the group. The correlations increased when the normative group was divided by age and years of education, except for one subgroup. The third approach involved examining how well each subtest discriminated the DAT, which showed that Memory and Initiation contributed significantly. It was concluded that K-DRS is a valid dementia assessment tool in terms of its content, construct and criterion validities. Test-retest reliability of two weeks was examined by testing 20 normal elderly adults and 11 DAT patients, yielding .96. Inter-rater reliability involving three raters was .99.
The reliability and validity of Morey's(1991) Borderline Personality Disorder(BPD) Scale in Korean University students were examined. To test the practical validation, distinguished three groups based on the extent of the Borderline Personality characteristics and compared three domains that are frequently observed in BPD clinical samples. Morey's(1991) BPD Scale, MMPI-BPD, and NEO-PI-R Neuroticism and Agreeableness scale were carried out to 244 university students. Based on the results of Morey's(1991) Borderline Personality Disorder Scale carried out to 1,106 university students in Taegu, made a norm and distinguished the subjects to three groups. Results showed that the reliability and validity of the BPD scale were well and as the subject's Borderline Personality features increased they manifested more depression, negative personality and general psychopathology.
The present study investigated MMPI responses who have conduct disorder and conduct disorder combined with depression. subjects of this research were psychiatric patients visited Keyo hospital because of conduct behavior from March, 1995 to February, 1997. The result showed that there was not significant difference between two groups in demographic variables such as age, education and IQ. With the result that analyze of MMPI profiles, F, Ma, Si and Hy scales were significant difference between two groups. As the result of discriminant analysis, It was Ma, Si and Hy that well discriminated these two groups. Discriminant analysis indicated that overall percentage of correct classification was 82.6%. By cluster analysis 4 subgroups were extracted, and specific MMPI profiles were revealed. These results suggested that even though have the same conduct problem, the characteristics of the inside were to be unlike.
This study was designed to investigate the intelligence impairment in patients with schizophrenia and K-WAIS scatter analysis by subtype and prevalence period. 57 patients with schizophrenia divided into four groups(acute-paranoid(N=11), acute-nonparanoid(N=9), chronic-paranoid(N=21), chronic-nonparanoid(N=16)) by subtype and prevalence period. The results showed that estimated premorbid IQ from demographic variables were no significant differences among four groups, and all groups had average intelligence. Chronic-nonparanoid group was significantly decreased current IQ. In all groups, performance IQ lower than verbal IQ, but there was not significant difference. Chronic-nonparanoid group showed the most severe scatter and the lowest cognitive efficiency in K-WAIS scatter analysis.
Assessing Adolescent and Adult Intelligence presents comprehensive coverage of the clinical and neuropsychological assessment of intelligence, particularly as measured by the Korean-Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale(K-WAIS). This article treated the crucial topic of K-WAIS profile interpretation by integrated and explained the fluctualtions that occurred in each individual's subtest profile, and set the foundation of test interpretation by delineating the abilities and traits that each task measures and by indicating clinical, neuropsychological, and empirical aspects of each of the 11 separate subtests with regard to factor analysis, Bannatynes' categories, Horn's modified fluid-crystallized model, Osgood's psycholinguistic approach, Rapaport's clinical model, Dean's individual ability profile, and Guilford's structure-of-intellect model.
This study was to investigate the visuoperceptual and constructive ability disturbances of patients with traumatic brain injury. The subject groups consisted of following: the patients with traumatic brain injury with focal lesion in brain imaging study(N=15); the patients with traumatic brain injury without focal lesion(N=15); and the patients with neurotic disorder(N=15). The copy phase of HABGT was administered and the reproduction was scored by the psychopathology scale and the adience-abience scale. The following results could be obtained. First, there were significant differences in the psychopathology scale and the adience-abience scale between traumatic brain injury groups and neurotic group. Second, there were statistically significant differences in clousure difficulty of the psychopathology scale, and in height and width, closure difficulty and elaboration individual scales of adience-abience scale between traumatic brain injury groups and neurotic group. Third, there were significant differences in change in angulation, simplification, overlapping difficulty individual scales of psychopathology scale, and use of page, rotation, simplification individual scales of adience-abience scale between traumatic brain injury group with focal lesion and neurotic group. Fourth, there was significant difference in position, 1st drawing individual scale of the psychopathology scale between traumatic brain injury group without focal lesion and neurotic group. Finally, the clinical implication and limitation of this study were discussed.
This study was conducted to compare the ERPs elicited by oddball and single-stimulus paradigm. There were not any significant differences between two paradigms in terms of P300 amplitudes. The amplitudes of P300s in both paradigms showed similar scalp distribution, that is the P300s on Pz had the largest amplitudes and those on Fz had the smallest ones. These results indicate that the tasks of both paradigms require the similar neurocognitive mechanism. Contrary to the amplitudes, there were significant differences between two paradigms in terms of P300 latencies. The oddball paradigm elicited longer P300 latencies than single-stimulus paradigm. Since there is a strong relationship between P300 latency and task difficulty, this result suggests that oddball paradigm is more difficult for subject than single-stimulus paradigm. In addition, the oddball paradigm elicited the larger N200 amplitudes than single-stimulus paradigm. The N200 reflects such psychological process as identification, comparison and classification of incoming stimulus. Therefore the oddball paradigm, which requires the comparison and classification of two stimuli, produced the larger N200 amplitudes than single-stimulus paradigm which presented only one stimulus. Based on the findings of this study, it is concluded that single-stimulus paradigm can be used as a substitute for oddball paradigm, and the ERPs is a reliable psychophysiological technique for evaluating the cognitive functions.
There are a lot of articles written in the area of impact of sexual abuse on the mental health in western countries, whereas this is a relative new land to korean psychologist. The author surveyed and summarized in this article the researches in this area to draw attention of korean psychologists to this subject. The psychological symptoms resulting from experiences of sexual abuse can be classified into affective, cognitive peceptive, physical, interpersonal, behavioral and sexual area. In the affective area the sexually abused show frequently anxiety, obsession, helplessness, depression, anger, shame, guilty feeling and low self esteem, in the cognitive perceptive area dissociation, denial, repression, distortion, hallucination, in the physical area psychogenic pain, sleep disorder and distorted body images, in the interpersonal relationship area fear of rejection, fear of intimacy, hyper responsibility, hyper control, unclear boundary and revictimization, in the behavioral area self injury, aggressive behavior, eating disorder, alcohol and drug abuse, and in the sexual area they often show distorted sexual identity, sexual dysfunction, confuse often sex with affection, and involve sometimes in promiscuity.