ISSN : 2733-4538
The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in executive function deficits, psychopathology and interpersonal problems between four groups (persistence, decline, late-onset, & normal group) by changes in childhood ADHD symptoms and adult ADHD symptoms in college students. For this purpose, 1,082 college students (445 males, 637 females) completed self-report measures of the Childhood ADHD Symptom Scale, Current ADHD Symptom Scale (K-AADHDS), K-BDEFS, SCL-90-R, and KIIP-SC. The prevalence of childhood ADHD in the college students was found to be 7.3% and that of ADHD in adulthood was 6.2%, according to the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria. Verification of the differences between groups indicated that the persistence group of childhood ADHD showed the highest score of the executive function deficits that the score of the late-onset adulthood ADHD group were significantly higher than those of the decline and normal groups. Also, the interpersonal problem and psychopathology scores of the persistence and late-onset groups were significantly higher than those of the decline and normal groups.
Agnew-Blais, J. C., Polanczyk, G. V., Danese, A., Wertz, J., Moffitt, T. E., & Arseneault, L. (2016). Evaluation of the persistence, remission, and emergence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in young adulthood. JAMA Psychiatry, 73, 713-720.
Alden, L. E., Wiggins, J. S., & Pincus, A. L. (1990). Construction of circumplex scales for the inventory of interpersonal problems. Journal of Personality Assessment, 55, 521-536.
American Psychiatric Association. (1987). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 3rd edition revised (DSM-III-R). Washington, DC: Author.
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Arnold, L. E. (1996). Sex difference in ADHD: Conference summary. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 24, 555-569.
Badre, D. (2008). Cognitive control, hierarchy, and the rostro-caudal organization of the frontal lobes. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 12, 193-200.
Barkley, R. A. (1997a). Behavioral inhibition, sustained attention, and executive functions: Constructing a unifying theory of ADHD. Psychological Bulletin, 121, 65-94.
Barkley, R. A. (1997b). ADHD and the nature of self-control. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Barkley, R. A. (2006). Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: A handbook for diagnosis and treatment (3rd ed.). New York, NY:Guilford Press.
Barkley, R. A. (2011a). Executive function deficits in students with ADHD. Paper presented at the annual Disability Symposium, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.
Barkley, R. A. (2011b). Barkley Deficits in Executive Functioning Scale (BDEFS). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Barkley, R. A. (2012). Executive functions: What they are, how they work, and why they evolved. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Barkley, R. A., & Fischer, M. (2011). Predicting impairment in major life activities and occupational functioning in hyperactive children as adults: Self-reported executive function (EF) deficits versus EF tests. Developmental Neuropsychology, 36, 137-161.
Barkley, R. A., Fischer, M., Smallish, L., & Fletcher, K. (2002). The persistence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder into young adulthood as a function of reporting source and definition of disorder. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 111, 279-289.
Barkley, R. A., & Murphy, K. R. (1998). Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: A clinical workbook (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Barkley, R. A., & Murphy, K. R. (2009). Evaluating executive function (EF) deficits in daily life activities with the deficits in executive functioning scale: Scale development and relationships with EF tests and severity of ADHD. Paper submitted for publication, Charleston, Medical University of South Carolina.
Barkley, R. A., & Murphy, K. R. (2010). Impairment in occupational functioning and adult ADHD: The predictive utility of executive function (EF) ratings versus EF tests. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 25, 157-173.
Biederman, J. (2004). Impact of comorbidity in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 65, 3-7.
Biederman, J., Faraone, S. V., Spencer, T., Wilens, T., Norman, D., Lapey, K. A., . . . Alysa, D. (1993). Patterns of psychiatric comorbidity, cognition, and psychosocial functioning in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 1792-1798.
Biederman, J., Newcorn, J., & Sprich, S. (1991). Comorbidity of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder with conduct, depressive, anxiety, and other disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 148, 564-577.
Booksh, R. L., Pella, R. D., Singh, A. N., & Gouvier, W. D. (2010). Ability of college students to simulate ADHD on objective measures of attention. Journal of Attention Disorder, 13, 325-338.
Botvinick, M. M. (2008). Hierarchical models of behavior and prefrontal function. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 12, 201-208.
Bramham, J., Murphy, D. G. M., Xenitidis, K., Asherson, P., Hopkin, G., & Young, S. (2012). Adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: An investigation of age-related differences in behavioral symptoms, neuropsychological function and comorbidity. Psychological Medicine, 42, 2225-2234.
Castellanos, X., Sonuga-Barke, E., Milham, M., & Tannock, R. (2006). Characterizing cognition in ADHD: Beyond executive dysfunction. Trends in Cognitive Science, 10, 117-123.
Caye, A., Rocha, T. B. M., Anselmi, L., Murray, J., Menezes, A. M., Barros, F. C., . . .Rohde, L. A. (2016). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder trajectories from childhood to young adulthood:Evidence from a birth cohort supporting a late-onset syndrome. JAMA Psychiatry, 73, 705-712.
Caye, A., Sibley, M. H., Swanson, J. M., & Rohde, L. A. (2017). Lateonset ADHD: Understanding the evidence and building theoretical frameworks. Current Psychiatry Reports, 19, 1-17. DOI:10.1007/s11920-017-0858-7.
Chang, M. S., & Kwak, H. W. (2007), Exploration of sub-clusters in adults with ADHD tendency: Depression, self-esteem and interpersonal problems. Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 26, 827-843.
Coffman, T. P. (2014). The Psychometric Properties of the Barkley Deficits in Executive Functioning Scale (BDEFS) in a College Student Population. (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from Florida State University.
Denckla, M. B. (1996). A theory and model of executive function:A neuropsychological perspective. In G. Lyon & N. Krasnegor (Eds.), Attention, memory and executive function (pp. 263-278). Maryland: Paul Brooks.
Derogatis, L. R., & Cleary, P. A. (1977). Confirmation of the dimensional structure of the SCL‐90: A study in construct validation. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 33, 981-989.
DuPaul, G. J., Weyandt, L. L., O’Dell, S. M., & Varejao, M. (2009). College students with ADHD: Current status and future directions. Journal of Attention Disorder, 13, 234-250.
Dvorsky, M. R., & Langberg, J. M. (2019). Predicting impairment in college students with ADHD: The role of executive functions. Journal of Attention Disorders, 23, 1624-1636.
Faraone, S. V., & Biederman, J. (2016). Can attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder onset occur in adulthood? JAMA Psychiatry, 73, 655-656.
Feldman, G., Knouse, L. E., & Robinson, A. (2013). Executive functioning difficulties and depression symptoms: Multidimensional assessment, incremental validity, and prospective associations. Journal of Cognitive and Behavioral Psychotherapies, 13, 259-274.
Fleming, A. P., & McMahon, R. J. (2012). Developmental context and treatment principles for ADHD among college students. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 15, 303-329.
Fredriksen, M., Dahl, A. A., Martinsen, E. W., Klungsoyr, O., Faraone, S. V., & Peleikis, D. E. (2014). Childhood and persistent ADHD symptoms associated with educational failure and long-term occupational disability in adult ADHD. ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders, 6, 87-99.
Goldstein, S., Naglieri, J. A., Princiotta, D., & Otero, T. M. (2014). Introduction: A history of executive functioning as a theoretical and clinical construct. In S. Goldstein & J. A. Naglieri (Eds.), Handbook of executive functioning (pp. 3-12). New York, NY:Springer.
Gaub, M., & Carlson, C. L. (1997). Gender differences in ADHD:A meta-analysis and critical review. Journal of the American Academy Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 1036-1045.
Groenewald, C., Emond, A., & Sayal, K. (2009). Recognition and referral of girls with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Case vignette study. Child: Care, Health and Development, 35, 767-772.
Halperin, J. M., Trampush, J. W., Miller, C. J., Marks, D. J., & Newcorn, J. H. (2008). Neuropsychological outcome in adolescents/young adults with childhood ADHD: Profiles of persisters, remitters, and controls. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 49, 958-966.
Han, G. H., & Yi, I. H. (2016). The Relationship between empathic ability and interpersonal problems among university students:The moderation effects of smartphone addiction. Korean Journal of Health Psychology, 21, 683-697.
Hechtman, L., & Rohde, L. A. (2016). Predictors of adult outcome in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Symposia 41.0. Journal of The American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 55, 323.
Hechtman, L., & Roy, A. (2016). Adult functional outcomes and their predictors in individuals with childhoods attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Results from the long-term follow-up of the multimodal treatment study of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder(MTA). Symposia 41.1. Journal of The American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 55, 323.
Heiligenstein, E., Guenther, G., Levy, A., Savino, F., & Fulwiler, J. (1999). Psychological and academic functioning in college students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of American College Health, 47, 181-185.
Hong, S. H., Park, E. Y., Kim, Y. H., Kwon, J. H., Cho, Y. R., & Jin, Y. K. (2002). Short form of the Korean inventory of interpersonal problems circumplex scales (KIIP-SC). Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 21, 923-940.
Horowitz, L. M., Rosenberg, S. E., Baer, B. A., Ureῇo, G., & Villaseῇor, V. S. (1988). Inventory of interpersonal problems: Psychometric properties and clinical applications. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 56, 885-892.
Janusis, G. M., & Weyandt, L. L. (2010). An exploratory study of substance use and misuse among college students with and without ADHD and other disabilities. Journal of Attention Disorders, 14, 205-215.
Jeong, H. W., Chang, M. S., & Kwak, H. W. (2011). Relationships among self-esteem, depression, and interpersonal problems in adult ADHD sub-clusters: Path analysis and structural equation modeling. Korean Journal of Cognitive and Biological Psychology, 23, 153-169.
Kamradt, J. M., Ullsperger, J. M., & Nikolas, M. A. (2014). Executive function assessment and adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Tasks versus ratings on the Barkley deficits in executive functioning scale. Psychological Assessment, 26, 1095-1105.
Kessler, R. C., Adler, L., Barkley, R., Biederman, J., Conners, C. K., Demler, O., . . . Zaslavsky, A. M. (2006). The prevalence and correlates of adult ADHD in the United States: Results from the national comorbidity survey replication. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 716-723.
Kessler, R. C., Heeringa, S., Lakoma, M. D., Petukhova, M., Rupp, A., Schoenbaum, M., . . . Zaslavsky, A. M. (2010). Individual and societal effects of mental disorders on earnings in the United States: Results from the national comorbidity survey replication. American Journal of Psychiatry, 165, 703-711.
Kim, E. J. (2003). The validation of Korean adult ADHD scale (KAADHDS). Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 22, 897-911.
Kim, K. I., Kim, J. H., & Won, H. T. (1984). Korean Manual of Symptom Checklist-90-Revision. Seoul, korea.
Knouse, L. E., Barkley, R. A., & Murphy, K. R. (2013). Does executive functioning (EF) predict depression in clinic-referred adults?:EF tests vs. rating scales. Journal of Affective Disorders, 145, 270-275.
Lara, C., Fayyad, J., Graaf, R. D., Kessler, R. C., Aguilar-Gaxiola, S., Angermeyer, M., . . . Sampson, N. (2009). Childhood predictors of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Results from the World Health Organization World Mental Health Survey Initiative. Biological Psychiatry, 65, 46-54.
Lee, H. B., Yang, M. J., Lee, E. H., Joung, Y. S., Hwang, S. T., Hong, S. H., & Kim, J. H. (2016). Reliability and validity of the Korean version of Barkley deficits in executive functioning scale (KBDEFS). Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 35, 519-539.
Lopez, R., Micoulaud-Franchi, J. A., Galera, C., & Dauvilliers, Y. (2017). Is adult-onset attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder frequent in clinical practice? Psychiatry Research, 257, 238-241.
Mancini, C., Ameringen, M. V., Oakman, J. M., & Figueiredo, D. (1999). Childhood attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder in adults with anxiety disorders. Psychological Medicine, 29, 515-525.
Mannuzza, S., & Klein, R. G. (2000). Long-term prognosis in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 9, 711-726.
McEvoy, P. M., Burgess, M. M., & Nathan, P. (2013). The relationship between interpersonal problems, negative cognitions, and outcomes from cognitive behavioral group therapy for depression. Journal of Affective Disorders, 150, 266-275.
Mertler, C. A., & Vannata, R. A. (2010). Advanced and multivariate statistical analysis. Glendale, CA: Pryczak.
Miller, M., Ho, J., & Hinshaw, S. P. (2012). Executive functions in girls with ADHD followed prospectively into young adulthood. Neuropsychology, 26, 278-287.
Miller, M., Loya, F., & Hinshaw, S. P. (2013). Executive functions in girls with and without childhood ADHD: Developmental trajectories and associations with symptom change. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 54, 1005-1015.
Miyake, A., & Friedman, N. P. (2012). The nature and organization of individual differences in executive functions: Four general conclusions. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 21, 8-14.
Murphy, K. R., & Barkley, R. A. (1995). Preliminary normative data on DSM-IV criteria for adults. ADHD Report, 3, 6-7.
Murphy, K. R., & Barkley, R. A. (1996). Prevalence of DSM-IV symptoms of ADHD in adult licensed drivers: Implications for clinical diagnosis. Journal of Attention Disorders, 1, 147-161.
Moffitt, T. E., Houts, R., Asherson, P., Belsky, D. W., Corcoran, D. L., Hammerle, M., . . . Poulton, R. (2015). Is adult ADHD a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder? Evidence from a four-decade longitudinal cohort study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 172, 967-977.
Obonsawin, M. C., Crawford, J. R., Page, J., Chalmers, P., Cochrane, R., & Lowb, G. (2002). Performance on tests of frontal lobe function reflect general intellectual ability. Neuropsychologia, 40, 970-977.
Ramtekkar, U. P., Reiersen, A. M., Todorov, A. A., & Todd, R. D. (2010). Sex and age differences in attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder symptoms and diagnoses: Implications for DSM-V and ICD-11. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 49, 217-228.
Rucklidge, J. J. (2010). Gender differences in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Psychiatric Clinics, 33, 357-373.
Sibley, M. H., Rohde, L. A., Swanson, J. M., Hechtman, L. T., Molina, B. S., Mitchell, J. T., . . . Stehli, A. (2018). Late-onset ADHD reconsidered with comprehensive repeated assessments between ages 10 and 25. American Journal of Psychiatry, 175, 140-149.
Spencer, T., Biederman, J., & Wilens, T. E. (1999). Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and comorbidity. Pediatric Clinics of North America, 46, 915-927.
Spencer, T., Biederman, J., Wilens, T. E., & Faraone, S. V. (1998). Adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A controversial diagnosis. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 59, 59-68.
Thomas, E. B. (2006). Executive functions and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Implications of two conflicting views. International Journal of Disability, Development and Education, 53, 35-46.
Vriezen, E. R., & Pigott, S. E. (2002). The relationship between parental report on the BRIEF and performance-based measures of executive function in children with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury. Child Neuropsychology, 8, 296-303.
Weyandt, L. L., & DuPaul, G. J. (2008). ADHD in college students:Developmental findings. Developmental Disabilities Research, 14, 311-319.
Weyandt, L. L., & DuPaul, G. J. (2013). College students with ADHD:Current issues and future directions. New York, NY: Springer.
Wilens, T. E., Biederman, J., & Spencer, T. J. (2002). Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder across the lifespan. Annual Review of Medicine, 53, 113-131.
Wolf, L. E., Simkowitz, P., & Carlson, H. (2009) College students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Current Psychiatry Reports, 11, 415-421.
Won, H. T., Kim, J. H., Oh, K. J., Kim, C. T., Kim, Y. A., & Kim, M. Y. (2015). Korean manual of symptom checklist-90-revision. Seoul:Huno.
Wood, R. L. I., & Liossi, C. (2006). The ecological validity of executive function tests in a severely brain injured sample. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 21, 429-437.