This study examined the effects of recalling positive autobiographical memories on repairing sad mood in depressed individ uals. Sixty-nine female undergraduates were selected into either a depressed group (n= 35) or a non-depressed group (n= 34). Sad mood was induced by a film clip while activity in the autonomic nervous system was recorded using finger pulse ampli tude (FPA). Following mood induction, each participant was randomly assigned to one of two recall conditions: (1) sponta neous recall in which participants were instructed to freely recall three autobiographical memories and (2) cue-directed recall in which participants were instructed to recall three memories cued by positive words such as “happy,” “thankful,” and “proud.” Results are as follows. First, FPA decreased during the film viewing as compared to the baseline, regardless of group or condi tion, which indicates that sad mood was equally induced across all participants. Second, both groups reported more positive mood in cue-directed recall than they did in spontaneous recall. Third, the non-depressed group showed greater mood im provement than the depressed group did in cue-directed recall. These results suggest that directly recalling positive autobio graphical memories had an effect on repairing sad mood; however, it was more effective for non-depressed individuals.
The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of a cognitive defusion intervention for undergraduates with de pressive symptoms. Forty-two undergraduates who showed mild or more severe depression were randomly allocated to one of three conditions: cognitive defusion (n= 15), distraction (n= 15), or a non-treatment control (n= 12). The two active inter ventions (cognitive defusion and distraction interventions) consisted of three weekly 60- or 90-minute-long sessions. The cognitive defusion intervention group showed significantly greater reductions in the believability of negative automatic thoughts than did the distraction intervention and control groups. Also, the cognitive defusion intervention group showed greater reductions in psychological inflexibility and rumination and greater increases in decentering than the control group. These improvements were maintained at a 2-week follow-up. Effect size analyses indicated that the cognitive defusion inter vention group showed larger effect sizes for depressive symptoms and frequency of negative automatic thoughts than the dis traction or control groups. In conclusion, these results suggest that cognitive defusion intervention is an effective treatment for undergraduates with depressive symptoms. Lastly, the implications and limitations of this study are discussed.
Suicidal ideation has been identified as one of the major predictors of suicidal behavior. The Korean version of the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (K-BSS) was developed to screen and evaluate the severity of suicidal ideation. The present study was conducted to examine the psychometric properties of the BSS in a sample of 539 community-dwelling general adults (71.4% female) from 16 regions across South Korea. We examined the internal consistency and concurrent validity of the K-BSS, and conducted a series of analyses to evaluate its structural validity. In order to identify the number of factors to retain, Kaiser’s criterion, Cattell’s scree test, and parallel analysis based on Minimum Rank Factor Analysis (PA-MRFA) were applied. Ex ploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) was also conducted to determine the internal structure of the K-BSS for Ko rean adults. The K-BSS appeared to have strong internal consistency. The concurrent validity based on the correlations with other indicators of suicidal potential–BDI-II, BAI, and BHS– revealed substantial relationships. ESEM analysis of the one and two-factor solutions demonstrated that the two-factor structure might be the best-fit model for our sample. Based on the loaded items of each factors, the two factors indicate (1) motivation and (2) preparation, respectively. These findings suggest that the K-BSS might be a reliable instrument for assessing and understanding suicidal ideation in the Korean general population. Future studies in a clinical population and adolescents are necessary to generalize these findings.
This study examined the effects of cognitive load on attentional bias toward food cues in external eaters (EEs) through an eye-movement analysis. As EEs are easily driven to eat upon exposure to food cues, the present study examined the effects of cognitive load on the response toward food cues in EEs based on the elaborated intrusion theory. A total of 65 undergradu ates who have high (n= 33) or low (n= 32) levels of external eating were assigned to either high or low cognitive load condi tions and performed a cognitive load task. While they performed the load task, their implicit craving was measured with an eye-tracking device to examine the levels of attentional bias toward food cues during the task. After the task was completed, explicit craving was investigated through a questionnaire. The results showed that high EEs under a high cognitive load con dition showed lower implicit craving than under a low load condition while their explicit craving did not differ. This study suggests that cognitive load that induces cognitive distraction may lower implicit craving in high EEs.
The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in executive function deficits, psychopathology and interpersonal problems between four groups (persistence, decline, late-onset, & normal group) by changes in childhood ADHD symptoms and adult ADHD symptoms in college students. For this purpose, 1,082 college students (445 males, 637 females) completed self-report measures of the Childhood ADHD Symptom Scale, Current ADHD Symptom Scale (K-AADHDS), K-BDEFS, SCL-90-R, and KIIP-SC. The prevalence of childhood ADHD in the college students was found to be 7.3% and that of ADHD in adulthood was 6.2%, according to the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria. Verification of the differences between groups indicated that the persistence group of childhood ADHD showed the highest score of the executive function deficits that the score of the late-onset adulthood ADHD group were significantly higher than those of the decline and normal groups. Also, the interpersonal problem and psychopathology scores of the persistence and late-onset groups were significantly higher than those of the decline and normal groups.
The purpose of this study was to explore the subgroups of K-WAIS-IV profiles among psychiatric patients with and without psychotic symptoms using a data-driven approach and to identify their clinical characteristics. Latent profile analyses were conducted using K-WAIS-IV performance data from 218 patients with psychotic disorders and 232 patients with non-psy chotic affective disorders. Subgroups were then compared on their MMPI-2-RF scores, diagnosis, and demographic vari ables. A three-cluster solution including a “cognitively normal,” a “selectively impaired,” and a “globally impaired” group was selected for both psychotic and non-psychotic patients. However, the profiles of the selectively impaired group differed be tween the psychotic and non-psychotic patients. In psychotic patients, the selectively impaired group showed lowered perfor mance on general intelligence and all other index scores except for VCI, while the non-psychotic patients showed average performance on WMI as well as VCI. Regarding the MMPI-2-RF results, in general, patients with more pervasive cognitive impairment and those with psychotic disorders rather than non-psychotic disorders tended to report significantly higher scores across various scales. However, on some scales, the profiles of subgroups were found to differ between psychotic and non-psychotic patients. Based on these results, the implications and limitations of the study are discussed.
This study meta-analyzed interventions for symptom constructs of complex posttraumatic stress disorder related to complex trauma, such as child abuse, multiple interpersonal trauma, and organized violence. From 42 randomized controlled studies, 164 effect sizes were calculated comprising various treatment comparisons and outcomes. Cognitive processing therapy/cog nitive therapy (CPT/CT), narrative exposure therapy (NET), phase-based trauma-focused cognitive behavior therapy (phased TF-CBT), single-phased TF-CBT (single TF-CBT), prolonged exposure (PE), eye movement desensitization and re processing (EMDR), and present-centered therapy (PCT) each showed moderate to large effect sizes on PTSD. For depres sion, CPT/CT, phased TF-CBT, single TF-CBT, NET, and PE showed moderate to large effect sizes. Meta regression revealed that efficacy on PTSD and depression was greater with trauma-focused than with present-centered interventions. Limited evidence made it impossible to compare phased treatments and single-phase treatments. Outcomes of disturbance in self or ganization (DSO) were relatively scarce; however, among those, CPT/CT, PE, and PCT showed large to moderate effect sizes on negative self-concept. For emotion regulation and interpersonal problems, phased TF-CBT seemed to be promising. Treatment completion rates were similar between trauma-focused and present-centered. Population and study characteristics did not affect efficacy; however, we discussed related clinical issues.
Illegal drug addiction is more pervasive than has been recognized in Korea, and the efficacy of psychological treatments needs to be examined. The aim of this study was to review evidence-based treatments of drug addiction in the United States and Korea. Meta-analyses conducted in the United States and individual studies conducted in Korea (where a meta-analysis has not been conducted) were reviewed. The results of meta-analyses showed that cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), motiva tional interviewing (MI), community reinforcement approach (CRA), and contingency management (CM) were effective in treating drug addiction. The efficacy differed depending on the respective substances: CBT and MI were effective for canna bis use disorder, while CBT, CRA, and CM were effective for stimulant use disorder. In Korean studies, culture-bound and diverse programs, including meditation, self-transcendence, and therapeutic community programs, have been conducted. The limitations of the current studies and recommendations for future studies are discussed.