Suicidal imagery refers to an image or mental representation related to suicidal behavior. This study aims to develop a self-report measure of suicidal imagery, named the Suicidal Imagery Questionnaire (SIQ). In study 1, 21 items were developed based on previous research to measure three sub-components of suicidal imagery: spontaneous suicidal imagery, intrusive suicidal imagery, and vividness or preoccupation with suicidal imagery. Factor analysis supported a two-factor structure that included spontaneous suicidal imagery and intrusive suicidal imagery. The vividness or preoccupation factor was excluded. In study 2, the two-factor structure of suicidal imagery was confirmed in a separate sample of community adults and 10 items were included in the instrument. The 10-item self-report questionnaire of suicidal imagery had good internal consistency and test-retest reliability (after a two-weeks interval). The questionnaire had also good convergent and discriminant validity, as well as criterion-related validity. Overall, the SIQ is a reliable and valid assessment tool for suicidal imagery.
This study aims to assess the relationship between college adaptation and depression in early adult college female students and examine the moderating effects of social networks within this process. Specifically, this study evaluated the “Intimacy Network” and “Discussion Network” indicators, which represent the qualitative aspects of social networks. A total of 145 college students completed a survey comprising the following instruments: Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire (SACQ), the Korean version of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and a general social survey name generator. Results regarding adaptation to college life showed a negative relationship with depression. Although the moderating effect of network size was not significant, the moderating effect of intimacy networks and discussion networks was significant. This study emphasizes the role of human resources in mediating the level of depression among college students by highlighting the importance of intimacy and the ability to have in-depth discussions with other people. By examining the changes in psychological views and implementing a new estimation method that complements the existing network indicators, this study shows the practical value of analyzing the social relationships of college students. Finally, the limitations and clinical implications of this study are also discussed.
This study aimed to understand the psychological process of perfectionistic self-presentation that affects social anxiety and verify if self-organization and self-concept clarity have different moderating effects in this process. A survey was conducted on 392 college students which included perfectionistic self-presentation, self-organization style, self-concept clarity, stress, and social anxiety. Results showed that the three-way interaction of perfectionistic self-presentation, stress, and self-organization had a significant effect on social anxiety. Individuals with integrative self-structures scored lower on social anxiety even when they represent ‘nondisplay of imperfection’ during interpersonal stress situations. Self-concept clarity showed no significant moderating effect on perfectionistic self-presentation, stress, and social anxiety. Finally, the clinical implications of the results and limitations of this study are discussed.
Socially anxious individuals tend to disqualify positive social outcomes by attributing such outcomes to others rather than themselves. Previous research suggests that this tendency is a potentially important target of intervention. Thus, the present study aimed to examine the efficacy of cognitive bias modification (CBM) on attribution bias related to positive social outcomes among socially anxious individuals. A total of 159 undergraduate students were randomly assigned to the CBM or placebo group. Based on their level of social anxiety, participants were subsequently classified into either the high (n= 75) or low social anxiety groups (n= 18). Results showed that CBM was effective in reducing attribution bias related to positive social outcomes in socially anxious individuals. Social anxiety symptoms also diminished after the intervention. The findings of this study provide preliminary evidence regarding the efficacy of CBM for reducing attribution bias related to positive social outcomes and social anxiety
This study aimed to explore approach bias among individuals with the tendency of having a smartphone addiction. There were 183 male and female students who completed surveys that measured their level of addiction. The smartphone addiction and non-adddiction groups each comprised 27 participants. The approach-avoidance task (AAT) was administered to measure the avoidance and approach reaction time. The smartphone addiction group showed a higher tendency of having an approach bias towards smartphone-related stimulus than the non-addiction group, while no difference was found in the group of neutral stimulus. In addiction, the level of smartphone cravings and addiction predicted the level of approach bias towards smartphone-relevant stimulus. This study suggests the prevalence of approach bias in the smartphone addiction group through the AAT. Clinical implications, limitations of the study, and suggestions for future research are discussed.
Individuals with sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) experience difficulties in achieving goal-directed behaviors. As time perspective (TP) helps elaborate problems in goal pursuit, this study aimed to identify the TP of individuals with SCT and compare it to individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The screening was performed using the Barkley Adult ADHD Rating Scale-IV, and participants were divided into the following groups: SCT & ADHD (n= 20), SCT only (n= 46), ADHD only (n= 22), and healthy controls (n= 28). To assess TP, participants also completed the Swedish Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory. After controlling for depression and anxiety, the SCT only group showed higher present-fatalistic and future-negative TP compared to healthy controls. The ADHD only group showed higher present-hedonistic and futurenegative TP when compared to healthy controls. These results indicate that individuals with SCT have a generally fatalistic attitude and an aversive view of the future, possibly associated with low engagement in social and academic activities. On the other hand, individuals with ADHD have a present-oriented view and an aversive view of the future, possibly related to impulsivity.
The Mental Health Act was first enacted in December 1995 and then revised to the Mental Health Welfare Act in 2016, as a newly established mandatory provision for continuing education. The Mental Health Welfare Act is an essential educational initiative for mental health specialists who are directly providing mental health care management services. It was initiated to enhance the quality of mental health services provided to patients and clients even after qualifications have been acquired. However, despite its importance, there are no studies and research papers on needs assessments of clinical psychologists regarding quality management and effective operations of the educational system compared to other professions. Therefore, in this study, we surveyed the needs of five mental health clinical psychologists and conducted focus group interviews to find out how to operate a continuing education program and effectively promote educational participation. Results showed that the overall educational operations, particularly course contents that were considered not helpful or practical, were identified as the most urgent improvements. To promote participation and efficient operation of the educational process, several recommendations were expressed, such as activating online education programs and administrative sanctions for those who have not completed their education. Finally, improvements to education are suggested based on the results of this study.
This study aimed to examine the clinical utility of the Korean version of the Older Adult Behavior Checklist (OABCL) focusing on depression, anxiety, and dementia, which are the most common mental health problems among elderly people. In total, 92 patients older than 60 years were included in the study. The neuropsychological evaluation included the following instruments: The Mini Mental Status Examination-Korean version (MMSE-K), the Korean-Beck Anxiety Inventory (K-BAI), and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). One-way ANOVAs compared the depression (DP, n= 56), anxiety (AN, n= 18), and dementia (DM, n= 18) groups regarding all OABCL subscales. Diagnostic groups differed significantly on several subscales, and post-hoc tests revealed that the AN group showed significantly lower scores than the DP and DM groups on Functional impairment, Memory/cognition, and DSM–dementia problems. Furthermore, the AN group presented a significantly lower score on DSM-depressive problems than the DP group. Discriminant analysis revealed that the discriminant function classified 82.4% of DP and AN, and also 91.7% of AN and DM correctly. Implications for clinical utility and suggestions for further research are also discussed.