The purpose of the study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Revised Children’s Manifest Anxiety Scale, Second Edition (RCMAS-2) in a community sample of Korean elementary students. The Revised Children’s Manifest Anxiety Scale (RCMAS) has been widely used to measure manifest anxiety levels among children and adolescents. Its reliability and validity have been extensively investigated across cultures. Recently, the RCMAS-2 was developed to improve the psychometric characteristics by removing old items and changing the ambiguous sentences. A total of 940 Korean elementary students participated in to examine the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the Revised Children’s Manifest Anxiety Scale, Second Edition (K-RCMAS-2). To determine the structural validity, the four-factor model was found to be the best model in terms of model complexity and parsimony. Internal consistency of each scale was acceptable within the range of .65–.88. The test-retest reliability of each scale was good in the range of .80–.88. Concurrent and convergent validity was good, as shown by the correspondence of the Children’s Depression Inventory 2 and Spielberger Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children. The impact of gender and grade on anxiety level were found to be minimal, indicating the importance of emphasizing individuals’ manifest anxiety. The implications of the study findings and suggestions for future studies are discussed.
The core feature of Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD) is based on a desire for mental and interpersonal control, which leads to rigidity, stubbornness, and difficulties in maintaining an intimate relationship (APA, 2013). This study aimed to investigate prototypical interpersonal problems and behavioral and perceptual intraindividual variability in OCPD, based on the Interpersonal Circumplex (IPC; Leary, 1957). Participants (N= 226) responded to PDQ-4+, KIIP-SC, behavioral response options, and an interpersonal grid with interpersonal scenarios. As OCPDs relate to others based on status and power, this study measured behavioral and perceptual intraindividual variability in relationships with friends and authority figures, respectively. In addition, the Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) scores were controlled for, as previous studies have suggested that OCPD individuals reported similar interpersonal problems on the IPC with NPD individuals. The results showed that behavioral range and agency variability in individuals with OCPD tendencies decreased in relationships with authority figures compared to those with friends. Furthermore, their behavioral variability in agency decreased more when NPD scores were controlled for in relationships with authority figures, which suggests that OCPD is characterized by a rigid behavioral pattern when it comes to agency.
Social anxiety is an emotion characterized by the fear of other people’s negative evaluation and a fear of being observed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the cognitive bias of gaze perception in social anxiety and facial cluster stimulation. For 100 university students, the degrees of social anxiety and depression were measured using self-report questionnaires followed by conducting computer-based task through which participants repeated a series of trials to determine if eight people's eyes, presented over 500ms, were generally looking straight at them. The respective facial stimulations showed joy, anger, and a neutral emotion, and the front and side were presented in seven ratios (1:7, 2:6, 3:5, 4:4, 5:3, 6:2, 7:1). The responses were used to calculate a point of subjective equality (PSE) at which participants generally considered themselves to be looked at by others by a curve fitting a cumulative normal distribution function. A correlation analysis conducted to identify the relationship between the level of social anxiety and subjective equivalence showed a significant negative correlation between the two. This trend was maintained even when depression was statistically controlled. In particular, the correlation coefficient was greater for anger and neutral expressions, suggesting that the higher the level of social anxiety, the greater the tendency to judge others as looking at oneself, and that this tendency is more pronounced when the stimulus is neutral or angry.
This study examined Attention Bias Modification (ABM) training for college students’ with social anxiety tendencies and compared the degree of improvement of social anxiety symptoms and attention bias scores depending on the level of working memory capacity. Social avoidance and distress scale (SADS) was used to measure social anxiety symptoms, and scores above 64 in were considered as having social anxiety tendencies. Participants were divided into high, intermediate, and low working memory groups, depending on their working memory capacity. A total of 99 data points were used for analysis. The effects of ABM training were identified as changes in the attention bias scores (ABS) and the social anxiety symptom scales (SADS, SIAS, SPS, B-FNE). The ABM training was conducted in a single session, and the ABS and social anxiety symptoms were measured before and after the training. The results showed that ABS, SADS, SIAS, SPS, and B-FNE significantly decreased after training. This means that ABM training was effective in reducing social anxiety symptoms. In addition, after training, the higher the working memory capacity, the greater the decrease in SADS, SIAS, SPS, and B-FNE. This suggests that the effects of ABM training may vary depending on working memory capacity. Finally, the therapeutic implications and limitations of this study are discussed.