A view is presented regarding what functionings should be emphasized in the education of clinical psychology in Korea. Emphasis should be placed on not only care for individual mental health but also activities related to public health care with an eye to (1) life style noxious for health, (2) stress, and (3) medical compliance. Particularly, autonomy and independence must be secured for the activities of clinical psychologists. Independent psychology clinic is proposed as necessary and desirable, which cad be used as a place for psychological services to the general public as well as clinical training of psychology students on the graduate level.
The purpose of this study was to compare and analyze the Korean Wechsler Intelligence Scale responses of schizophrenic and diffusely brain-damaged patients. The schizophrenic group was composed of 50 males and the brain-damaged-group 42 males. The schizophrenic group had a mean age of 26.1 years(SD=6.7) and a mean of 12.9 Years of education(SD=2.3) and the brain-damaged group had a mean age of 27.4 years(SD=7.5) and a mean of 12.4 years of education(SD=1.9). The data were analyzed by means of obtaining mean, standard deviation, and analysis of variance. The followings were the main findings: 1) The schizophrenics were measured with the Full Scale IQ, 110.9, Verbal IQ, 116.9, and Performance IQ, 105.5, and the brain-damaged patients the Full Scale IQ, 101.7, Verbal IQ, 108.2, and Performance IQ, 92.2. Schizophrenics were more better than brain-damaged patients. The results showed statistically significant differences between the groups: Full Scale IQ;F(1,90)=6.96, p<.01, Verbal IQ;F(1,90)=10.39, p<.01 and Performance IQ;F(1,90)=22.33, p<.01. 2) In Verbal Scale, 3 subtests of the two groups showed statistically significant differences: Information subtest; F(1,90)=24.27, p.<.01, Vocabulary subtest; F(1,90)=11.33, p<.01, and Comprehension subtest; F(1,90)=6.13, p<.05. The other subtests of the schizophrenics were more better than the brain-damaged, but they showed statistically non-significant. 3) In Performance Scale, all 5 subtests of the two groups showed very different results and statistically significant differences: Digit symbol subtest; F(1,90)=25.13, p<.01, Block design subtest; F(1,90)=19.45, p<.01, Object assembly subtest; F(1,90)=17.27, p<.01, Picture completion subtest; F(1,90)=7.14, p<.01, and Picture arrangement subtest; F(1,90)=6.88, p<.05. 4) The results of KWIS responses were highly successful in discriminating the two groups. Recommendations for future research include; a) the use of more valid criteria for schizophrenia (i.e., DSM-III) and brain damage (i.e., CT Scan) in classifying subjects; b) evaluating all subjects using both neurological and psychopathological criteria; and c) increased comparisons among schizophrenic and brain-damaged subclassifications.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of assertive training on the reduction of aggression and anxiety in juvenile delinquents. Subjects were 45 male juvenile delinquents, with an age range from 16 to 19 years. They were randomly assigned to the experimental(n=15), discussion(n=15), and control(n=15) groups, and assessed before and after treatment on self reported aggression and anxiety scales. The Spielberger' (1970) State-Trait Anxiety Inventory was used to measure anxiety, and the Buss-Durkee' (1957) Aggression and Hostility Inventory was used to measure aggression of the subjects. The experimental group was given an assertive training program which consisted of instruction, role playing or behavior rehearsal, feedback, modeling, and homework assignments. The group was trained by two leaders for 6 weeks. The discussion group had spent 6 weeks dealing with 6 different topics led by the leaders. The control group had no treatment during the period. The three groups were compared using the pretest scores as the covariate. The results of analyses of covariance for different scores and t tests for adjusted means indicated that experimental group was more effective on the reduction of aggression and hostility than the discussion and control groups. The discussion group seemed, although statistically nonsignificant, to have somewhat significant effect on the reduction of state anxiety and trait anxiety, but no significant effect on the reduction of aggression and hostility. It was found in the further analysis that assault, indirect aggression among the subscales of aggression and suspicion among the subscales of hostility were reduced significantly, but negativism, irritability, verbal aggression and resentment were not reduced significantly. In discussion it was indicated that behavioral measure is needed, in addition to those used in the present study, and a study on the relative effectiveness of program components is recommended in future researches.
Stimulus and response imagery scripts of 16 scenes for public speaking anxiety were made by Anderson's content analysis system. Two groups of 8 subjects were instructed, following training and relaxation. For one group the instructions structured of stimulus propositions were given, for the other instructions of response propositions. Heart rate was recorded throughout and self-report measure of fear and imaginal quality were obtained. For heart rate, group differences were apparent, but for perceptual anxiety and vividness of image were not. Results were discussed in terms of recent theory of desynchrony and self-report as a assessment method.
The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of empathy, interpretation, advice-giving and probing by examining student reactions of two anxiety levels who viewed videotaped, roleplayed counseling situations. After measuring 3 trait-state anxiety of 300 undergraduates, 18 subjects with high trait-state and 18 subjects with low trait-state anxiety were selected for this experiment. Through the use of videotapes, each subject was asked to evaluate the degree of the approach, attachment and withdrawl reactions on the 11-point rating scale. The result was that anxious subject showed approach reaction to empathy and advice-giving more than interpretation and probing. In the case of approach reaction to interpretation, the anxious subjects did not show higher approach reaction than non-anxious subjects. But the anxious subjects shoved more attack, withdrawl reactions than non-anxious subjects. And the anxious subjects showed lower approach reaction than non-anxious subjects to probing, but the anxious subjects showed higher attack, withdrawl reactions than non-anxious subjects. The non-anxious subjects showed more approach reaction to interpretation and probing than attack and withdrawl, reactions, but the anxious subjects showed no difference in the approach, attack, and withdrawl reactions.
The purpose of this study is to investigate individual difference of configuration effects on perceived pointing of ambiguous triangles, and relation between individual difference of configuration effects and cognitive style. Subjects far the study were 40 female undergraduates who were selected from a group of 121 who had received the Group Embedded Figure Test and the Hidden Figure Test. Subjects were divided into two 20 subjects groups as field dependent and field independent groups. Palmer's paradigm was used to identify the configuration effects on perception of local element. The GEFT and HFT were used to identify the field dependent-independent cognitive style. Based on the previous studies, research hypothesis in the study is formulated as follows: The field dependent subjects will demonstrate a greater configuration effects in perceived pointing of triangle than the field independent subjects. Statistical methods applied for the present study were a 3-way analysis of variance. The results of the present study showed that the research hypothesis is generally accepted at statistically significant level. As predicted, there is a individual difference of configuration effects by the cognitive style. Implications of this result suggested that individual difference of configuration effects on ambiguous visual stimuli may be applied to Rorschach test.
The purpose of present study is to investigate relation between college student's identity statuses and parent's child behavior control patterns perceived by students. Baumrinds' studies on parents' child behavior control and Marcia's investigations on identity statuses have been theoretical foundations for the study. In this study, Marcias categories of the identity statuses is reclassified; identity achievement, moratorium, foreclosure, diffusion and indifference. Parents' patterns of child behavior control suggested by Baumrind are control, maturity demand, communication and nurturance. The results of the present study showed that the research hypothesis is generally accepted at statisitially significant level. Based on the results and previous studies, it would be concluded that parents' control patterns of child behavior are closely associated with the college student's identity statuses. There were slight differences of the identity statuses and the behavior control patterns between college male students and female students.
The present study was designed to examine an attention redeployment exercise in alleviating the delilitating effects of noncontingency experiences of the type typically employed in learned helplessness studies. It was assumed that cognitive interference associated with anxiety is the source of the performance deficits observed in learned helplessness studies. For susceptible subjects, uncontrollability experiences elicit a task-irrelevant, negative focus on self. Subjects were assigned randomly to one of four conditions, and the experiment was conduced individually. Subjects received contingent or noncontingent reinforcements in the discrimination task; and practiced attentional redeployment in the form of imagination exercise or delayed shortly. After treatment phase, subjects performed the block-counting task. Additionally, subjects were asked to rate their mood on the MAACL before and after treatment phase. As predicted, the attentional redeployment alleviated the impairment of performance that typically follows a helplessness induction. And it was also found that the imagination exercise alleviated the anxious affect that follows uncontrollability experiences. The results are discussed in terms of a cognitive-attentional interpretation of learned helplessness studies. In addition, some limitations of the present study and suggestions for future research were discussed.
In this experiment, the relationship between defense mode manifested in R-S scale and the effect of emotionality of stimulus to perception was explored by the prime-probe method of the theory of information processing. Subjects were to make lexical decision to word or nonword probe, which followed the related or the nonrelated picture prime. SOA of prime-probe was 300 msec and picture prime was delayed in range of 60~70% identification (Blum, 1979). It is resumed by 2 hypotheses. I) To anxious stimulus, repressors will show associative delay effect and sensitizers will show associative facilitation effect. II) To neutral stimulus, repressors and sensitizers will show associative facilitation effect. Hypothesis I was accepted. Therefore, it can be said that the defense mode of repression and sensitization operate selectively to anxious stimulus in range of 60~70% identification. Selective attention and selective inattention was proposed as describing these phenomena. But hypothesis II was rejected. The implication of this result need more investigation.
This study is primarily concerned with analyzing the most commonly used measures and its empirical findings of cognitive complexity. The first of these measures was used by Bieri(1955), in which he called "cognitive complexity." Bieri`s measure was obtained from responses to the Role Construct Repertory Test (RCRT) or Rep Grid devised by G. A. Kelley(1955). Unfortunately, due to both methodological limitations and the current lack of an underlying theoretical framework in which to place the data, research in this field is filled with contradictions. With respect to my own research (Son, 1977, 1982), I felt that the method was not tapping completely to understand the meaning of conceptual organization, It is necessary to measure both cognitive differentiation and cognitive integration. By considering the Personal Construct Theory of G.A. Kelley(1955), the most commonly used measures and the empirical findings of cognitive complexity was analyzed. A dual use of measures of both Differentiation and Integration is required.
A study was made to find out most frequent MMPI code types and behavioral correlates for each of them utilizing Gilberstadt and Duker's check-list form. Subjects were 106 psychiatric inpatients(40 males and 66 females) hospitalized in psychiatric units of two general hospitals attached to medical school and one private psychiatric clinic in Seoul area from June of 1977 to August of 1983. Chi-square was used to confirm statistical significance of checked items in the check-list compared with the base rate of the total patients. 1. The most frequent MMPI code types were found to be 1-3(3-1), 1-8(8-1), 6-8(8-6), 6-9(9-6), 7-8(8-7) and 9 types. 2. 1-3(3-1) type: Diagnosis: Hysterical neurosis; depression Clinical features: headache, neckpain & throat complaints, dizziness, epigastric complants, numbness, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, back pain, dyspnea, respiratory complaints; mother physically ill. ; religious, with religious conflict. 3. 1-8(8-1) type: Diagnosis: Not definite Clinical features; suicidal preoccupation, suicidal attempt; immature. 4. 6-8(8-6) type: Diagnosis: Schizophrenia Clinical features: paranoid trend, suspicious, speech difficulty; disturbed by relatives. 5. 6-9(9-6) type: Diagnosis: Schizophrenia Clinical features: elated mood, talkative, assaultive, grandiose delusion, hypertension; father religious, mother strict. 6. 7-8(8-7) type: Diagnosis: Personality disorder; schizophrenia Clinical features: unworthiness feeling; conflict with parent 7. 9 type: Diagnosis: Personality disorder; schizophrenia Clinical features: hostile, emotional instability, evasive, defensive, hyperactive, heavy drinking, poor work adjustment, visual hallucination; father deserted. 8. Since there are many points that do not agree with the results from other authors in terms of clinical features and diagnosis, further replication studies is highly needed.