This study aimed to investigate the effect of the intervention of positive mental imagery on anhedonia and the underlying re- ward mechanism in depression, and to explore the sustainability of the impact of the intervention following stress induction. Participants reporting anhedonic depressive symptoms (N= 54) were randomly assigned to either a positive mental imagery condition or a verbalization condition, the former utilizing positive imagery stimuli only, and the latter utilizing language- based on meaning. Participants in both the conditions completed a computerized picture-word task for imagery generation and mental arithmetic stress task for stress induction. The results showed that both intervention conditions significantly re- duced anhedonia and negative affect and that the mental imagery intervention was not superior to verbalization intervention. After stress induction, there was no significant difference between the two conditions in terms of the sustainability of the im- pact of the intervention on mood, reward subcomponents, and anhedonia. These findings provide preliminary evidence of the effectiveness of positive mental imagery in improving anhedonia. Furthermore, this study emphasizes the importance of repetitive imagery intervention due to the unsustainable impact of brief interventions after stress induction.
We derived five heterogeneous subtypes for 473 Korean depressive disorder patients through a latent profile analysis using the specific problems scale of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF), which we used in a previous study (Choi, 2019). In this study, we attempted to confirm the clinical usefulness of specific problem scales by comparing the drug prescription patterns of the five derived subtypes: mild, helpless, somatic, avoidant with anxiety, and irritable with anxiety. Through retrospective medical records of 473 patients with depressive disorder, we investigated their demographic variables, hospitalizations, and prescriptions during the initial, third, and sixth months of treatment. There was a significant difference among the groups in the number of antidepressants prescribed initially and in the third months of treatment. Additionally, we noted differences in antipsychotics prescription in months three and six and sedative/hypnotics prescription in month six. The study results confirmed that the subtypes of depressive disorder based on specific problem scales of the MMPI-2-RF were associated with prescription patterns and clinical course. This finding suggests that subtyping based on multidimensional symptoms, not just the main symptoms of depression, may be useful in establishing a focused treatment plan tailored to the individual characteristics of patients in the initial phase of treatment.
Many people seek professional help because of self-harm, signaling a crisis in domestic mental health issues. Neuroticism sig- nificantly predicts self-harm through experiential avoidance as a coping strategy in response to negative stimuli. However, despite neurotic tendencies, a person with a high level of psychological flexibility may have the capacity to respond construc- tively to unpleasant situations or emotions. The current study measured neuroticism (K-IPIP-NEO-120), self-harm (K-SHI), and psychological flexibility (K-AAQ-II) in 551 South Korean adults (M= 271, F= 280, age range: 20–59 years). Results showed that psychological flexibility moderated the relationship between neuroticism and self-harm. Neuroticism significantly pre- dicted self-harming behaviors when psychological flexibility was low or moderate, whereas high psychological flexibility pre- vented the risk of a connection between neuroticism and self-harm. Psychological flexibility may need to be addressed in clinical interventions and in self-harm prevention.
Adulthood Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) debilitates high-level executive functioning, attention and im- pulse control. There is a lack of consensus regarding the specific cognitive markers for ADHD compared with other psychiat- ric disorders that show attention-related problems as secondary symptoms. This study aimed to aid clinicians in utilizing ex- isting tools for intelligence and cognitive function by investigating the key variables that differentiate ADHD from other men- tal disorders. As preliminary research, the study compared the performances of 35 patients with ADHD and 26 patients diag- nosed with other neurotic disorders on the Korean Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV (K-WAIS-IV), Conners Continuous Perceptual Test 3rd Edition (CPT 3) and Conners Continuous Auditory Test of Attention (CATA). The ADHD group per- formed significantly lower on the Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI) and Working Memory Index (WMI) of K-WAIS-IV; the difference was significant in Similarity, Vocabulary and Arithmetic subtests. Perceptual Reasoning Index (PRI) and VCI differed significantly in the ADHD group unlike their neurotic counterpart. Of the variables in CPT 3, only detection differ- entiated ADHD from other neurotic disorders. Our results implicate there are novel standards and key variables that should be considered when differentiating ADHD from other psychiatric disorders.