Despite the increasing need to investigate the efficacy of attentional bias modification for pain (ABM-P) in pain-related situa- tions and organize the accumulating research, only a few systematic reviews or meta-analyses have been conducted so far. This study aimed to confirm the clinical efficacy of ABM-P and to integrate the existing literature. This study followed the PRISMA guidelines. We searched the literature through PubMed, ScienceDirect, the Cochrane library, Springer, and Pro- Quest and also conducted a manual search. A total of 549 works were identified. Eleven articles (12 studies) were included in the systematic review, and meta-analysis was conducted with six articles (seven studies). These results demonstrate that ABM-P is effective in alleviating pain intensity. The effect of the ABM-P was inconsistent regarding emotion and attentional bias. This inconsistent finding implies that ABM-P has a partial effect on emotion and attentional bias.
This study aimed to investigate the effect of compartmentalizing self-concept on depression. For this purpose, a three-way in- teraction of compartmentalization, differential importance_revised (DI_R), and proportion of negative attributes_revised (Neg_R) was examined. Depression (CES-D) and self-concept structure (S-SAT) were measured in 292 college students. Analyses of the data showed that compartmentalization and DI_R had a main effect when Neg_R was low. The more com- partmentalized, the more depressed and the more important the negative aspect, the more depressed. However, when Neg_R was high, there was an interaction effect between compartmentalization and DI_R. Depression levels were higher in the posi- tive compartmentalization group than in the positive integrated group. However, there was no significant difference between the negative compartmentalization and integration groups. These results suggest that positive compartmentalization may be associated with vulnerability to depression, and that integration may not always be associated with depression reduction. Fi- nally, the clinical implications and limitations of the study are discussed.