This study investigated the interaction effects between individual and perceived contextual factors to promote defending behaviors in school bullying. The mediating effect of cognitive reappraisal on the relation between personal belief in a just world and defending behaviors was studied. Also, this study examined whether the mediating model would be moderated by collective efficacy. A total of 1,611 students from seven middle schools in Seoul, responded self-report questionnaire. Multi-group SEM was applied to data analysis. The results indicated that direct paths in structural modeling were significant regardless of the level of collective efficacy. The mediating effect of cognitive reappraisal is also significant for both groups of collective efficacy. However, the paths from personal belief in a just world to cognitive reappraisal and from cognitive reappraisal to defending behaviors were stronger when students perceived high level of collective efficacy. Furthermore, the mediating effect was also stronger among students who reported high level of collective efficacy. By identifying specific personal mechanisms and effect of contextual factors for defending behaviors, this study shed light on new perspectives on defending behaviors. Based on these findings, implications and limitations of the present study were discussed.
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