This article examines interpretations of the free democratic basic order (FDBO) in South Korea regarding the task of unification. The interpretation of the FDBO is a central issue in discussions around unification, because actors are bound by it in a fundamental sense, and also because conceptually it has the potential for bringing together the two Koreas in a peaceful and democratic way. The article first investigates the historical context in which the specific introduction and change of the FDBO in the constitution and other closely related legal norms occurred. Secondly, the article examines the diverging definitions of the contents and application of the FDBO with respect to unification by reviewing related Constitutional Court decisions as well as authoritative legal scholarship that comments on the matter.
The 1920s was a period when Korean writers entered the literary scene in collective form. Conventional literary history has examined social and literary groups from a perspective of dongin, a small number of “like-minded” writers in artistic orientations who ran a journal for their exclusive publication venue. Close reading, traditionally employed to highlight the historical importance of dongin’s collective aspect, however, cannot fully demonstrate how such dongin began to rise and the role they played in establishing the literary sphere during the early stage of modern literature. Therefore, instead of accessing dongin through close reading, this study considers it as a form of social network, which had open links to different periodicals, and thus was always changing according to the writers’ publication activities. Based on the record of fiction submissions to newspapers and magazines from 1917 to 1927, this study aims to create a writer-periodical network. By diachronically tracing the three major groups of writers —Changjo, Pyeheo, and Baekjo—in the making, I reveal the position of women writers as a prehistory to the formation of male-centered dongin, in contrast to the existing account wherein women writers are treated as an accessory for their male counterparts. The almost simultaneous appearance of both male and female writers in the late 1910, I argue, should receive due attention as a question in literary sociology and that reveals the hidden foundations of the literary reproduction system during the formative years of modern Korean literature.
The proliferation of preferential trade agreements (PTAs) is one notable phenomenon in recent international trade. Korea is actively participating in this trend by concluding a series of free trade agreements (FTAs) with its trading partners. Although PTAs promote internal trade liberalization, trade remedies including safeguard measures may act as a trade barrier because they hinder free flow of products from their countries of origin into importing countries. This article briefly reviews some points of PTAs. Then, it presents proposals to safeguard measures for Korea’s future PTAs. The proposals are made for bilateral and global safeguards, considering the fact that all existing PTAs of Korea have both types of safeguards. However, the proposals include stricter requirements than those of the GATT and the Agreement on Safeguards. Some proposals may be applicable to both bilateral and global safeguards. Some proposals for bilateral safeguards are different from those for global safeguards applied to the other PTA parties, due to the difference in nature between them. Proposals to prevent a simultaneous or a continuous application of a safeguard measure against a product, which has been subject to another safeguard measure, are also presented. The proposals presented in this article will be helpful in negotiations for safeguard measures of Korea’s future PTAs since they are viable ones based on comparing the relevant provisions of existing PTAs.
The Korean sociologist Chang Kyung-Sup coined the terms “compressed modernity” and “individualization without individualism” to describe the special path to modernisation in South Korea. The word “compressed” here denotes and emphasizes the contradictory coexistence of a collectivistic culture of familism and family formations that are simultaneously individualizing and varying. Because South Korean women have initiated the individualization of family forms, Chang and Song characterize them as “stranded individualizers under compressed modernity,” by which they mean that Korean women are culturally still collectivistic but at the same time appear individualistic in their (non-)marriage behaviour. This study argues against the theory of “compressed modernity” in Korea, according to which the individualization of families is nothing but a risk-averse variant of familism. Instead, this study argues that the real dynamic of individualization in Korea is found in the emergence of individualism and its vulnerability to institutions of familism. This study labels such a dynamic “compressed individualization.”
In 2012, a hoard of materials was discovered inside the statues of the Four Heavenly Kings at Jikjisa temple. These included inscriptions informing us when and by whom the statues were made. This study analyzes these written documents and their significance in the broader context of Korean Buddhist art. A handwritten offering record deposited in one of the statues in particular states that they were made in 1665 by a group of monk-sculptors led by a certain Daneung, who was born, ordained, and initiated into his sculptural career in Jeolla-do province, but was reputedly more active in Gyeongsang-do province during the second half of the seventeenth century. With the identity of the sculptor and date of production confirmed, Jikjisa temple sculptures prove to be a rare example among the sets of Four Heavenly Kings statues made during the Joseon period, and indeed the only one known thus far with clear indicators of which of the four cardinal directions each Heavenly King was positioned under
A number of countries have attempted to promote their national image to increase global competitiveness. As one way of promoting the national image, we have focused on the museum venue, which significantly facilitates the experience of new cultures. This study explores the challenges and strategies in promoting Korean culture through museum exhibitions in the United States. By examining the presentation of Korean culture through museum exhibitions in the United States, this research will benefit other countries striving to promote their national images by maximizing available cultural resources. To achieve its research purposes, this study conducted two phases: (1) we counted, categorized, and analyzed Korean cultural objects exhibited by representative museums online to understand how Korean culture has been presented; and (2) interviews were conducted of curators currently involved with Korean art to explore challenges they have experienced in promoting Korean cultural objects via museum exhibitions. Based on the collected data, we were able to identify several themes regarding the challenges and promotional strategies of museums exhibiting Korean cultural objects. The findings of this study will provide curators and museums with practical insights into promoting Korean culture through museum exhibitions.