This study aimed to examine not only the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral group therapy for speech anxiety but also the question of whether the Speech Anxiety Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire (SAATQ) would be sensitive to cognitive change with treatment. Speech anxious undergraduates who completed a cognitive-behavioral group therapy (=CBGT group) and those who reported both their speech anxiety and negative automatic thoughts twice before and after 8 weeks (=no-treatment control group) were compared. Clients in the CBGT group improved significantly on the SAS, whereas Ss in the no-treatment control group did not. This differential pattern between groups was also apparent in the frequency of negative automatic thoughts measured by the SAATQ. Moreover, the SAATQ showed greater cognitive change in the CBGT group compared with the no-treatment control group. These findings suggest that the CBGT is very effective in the treatment of clients with speech anxiety and that the SAATQ is sensitive to treatment effects.
This study is a 4-fold interdisciplinary work on bullying in school (so called 'wangta' in Korean) the recent social problem. First, The sociological survey on elementary, junior, and senior high school students showed that the ratio of the victims of group bullying in classroom was 9.7 %, the ratio of the bullies 13.7%. The educational survey about the second junior high school students showed that the ratio of the victims of more mild group bullying experience(i.e., humiliation & insult) was relatively high(13.6%), while the ratio for more severe bullying experience(i.e., violence & assault) much lower(3.4%). The bullies were found to be significantly lower than the controls in the level of ego-identity, social support, and general school adaptation. Among the bullies and victims, the higher in the level of ego-identity and social support, the better in the level of general school adaptation. Thirdly, the study focusing on the psychological viriablee classified the victim, the bully, and the control group on the results of bully-victim experience scales and compared on the scores of several psychological scales. The bully was found to be more extroverted than the victim Both the bully and the victim were described to be high on the level of anger, more negative on the perception of the self, lower than the controls in self-control. These results suggest their immaturity. Finally, the psychiatric case study investigated the first admission documents of 67 child adolescent patients. The ratio classified as the bullied victim was 42 %. The victims were 10.45 years old on the mean, showed the trend of IQ being low, although statistically insignificant.
This study investigated the relationships of paranoia and depression to the state-trait anger, the mode of anger expression, and the attributional and reasoning style. The Paranoia Scale, the Zung Depression Inventory, the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory, the Attributional and Reasoning Style Questionnaire were administered to 247 college students. The results showed that the state and trait anger, anger-in, and anger-out were significantly correlated to the ratings on hostility and frequency of the negative social events. The anger-control was negatively correlated. The paranoid tendency was significantly correlated to state-trait anger, anger-in, anger-out, and defensive and hostile attributions. The depression score was significantly correlated to state anger, low anger-control, and self-accusing attribution. The paranoid group showed more state-trait anger, anger-in, anger-out, and rated positive events as more hostile, and rated negative social events as occurring more frequently in comparison to control group. The suggestions and the limitations of this study, and the directions of future study were discussed.
The purpose of this study is to clarify whether the schizophrenic patients are deficient in automatic processing or controlled processing. In experiment 1, the patients were put to the test by the picture-word Stroop task used to determine if the automatic processing was impaired. The subjects were two group: 15 schizophrenic patients and 15 normal persons. The result of this experiment revealed that both groups showed Stroop effect. Between these two groups, however, there were some differences in reaction patterns. In experiment 2, controlled processing in schizophrenic patients was examined by the decision task to determine whether two stimuli given at once were consistent or not depending on the different level of processing. The subjects were 15 schizophrenic patients and 15 normal persons. The result of experiment 2 also showed some differences in four reaction patterns between these groups although the controlled processing in schizophrenic patients still remained the same as the one in normal group.
A series of study were carried out to identify cognitive bias and Catastrophizing tendency of worriers in threatening situations. Studies 1 and 2 attempted to explore cognitive bias of worriers to their own worrying themes or various threatening situations presented by experimenters in seven cognitive dimensions about threat(i.e., possibility of threat, negativity of threat, coping ability to threat, duty of threat control, effort to control threat, perceived controllability to threat, belief about utility of worrying). Results show that worriers overestimate the possibility of threat, negativity of threat, duty of threat control, effort to control threat, and belief about utility of worrying, whereas they underestimate their coping ability to threat and perceived controllability to threat. In Study 3 which tested their catastrophizing tendency, worriers rated superficial and catastrophic worries more accessible, probable and threatening than did nonwortiers. Worriers also showed lower ability to produce alternative thoughts to worries than did nonwortiers. These findings were discussed in terms of theoretical and psychotherapeutic implications.
This study intended to classify the obese children according to the causes of parental obesity, food intake, physical activity, family relationship, and depression. 554 primacy school children of fifth to sixth grades were made to complete The Questionnaire for Food Intake, The Questionnaire for Physical Activity, Family Environment Scale, Children's Depression Inventory. They reported their parents' height and weight, and their height and weight were also measured. Among 554 children, 60 were proved to be obese, and 59 obese children were classified into 3 clusters: the cluster 1, which was named 'borderline group', had no differences on the causes of obesity from normal-weight children. The cluster 2, 'innately obese group', was determined by parental obesity more than the other two clusters. The cluster 3, 'highly-intake and poorly-active group' took more food and showed less activity than the Other two clusters. Also the cluster 3 was proved to be least supported from its family and to be most depressive.
This study examined the effectiveness of the MMPI-2 substance abuse scales, MAC-R, APS, and AAS, in differentiating between substance abusers and non-substance-abusing psychiatric patients. Results support the use of all three scales at assessing substance abuse problems. The incremental validity of APS and AAS in comparison to MAC-R was examined using a series of hierarchical regression analyses. Results indicate that AAS added substantially to MAC-R and APS in predicting substance abuse and that APS added only moderately to MAC-R and AAS. Although AAS demonstrated the superiority over APS in detecting substance abuse problems, the addition of AAS did not provide discriminative information beyond that provided by MAC-R alone. Optimal cutoff scores and classification accuracy were also evaluated. Suggestions were offered for furcher research to establish the clinical utility of the new scales in various settings.
The purpose of this study was to examine the efficiency of the Cock Drawing Test(CDT) as a screening test for detecting dementia. The CDT, the Short form of the Korean Boston Naming Test and the Korean Mini-Mental Status Examination were administered to 25 patients with clinically diagnosed dementia and 25 normal controls. The cut-off scores, efficiencies, sensitivities, specificities, positive predictive powers and negative predictive powers of each test were calculated. Also, four separate scoring system were used to calculate cut-off scores, efficiencies, sensitivities, specificities, positive predictive powers and negative predictive powers of each clock drawing, and then the analysis of error type was conducted. All the three tests significantly discriminated dementia patients from normal controls. Four scoring system were also efficient for differentiating dementia and normal control groups. In the error type analysis of clock drawing, 'difficulties in graphic' and · 'perseveration' were more frequent in patients with dementia than in normal controls. Finally, the suggestions, limitations and further issues for future study were discussed.
The purpose of this study was to develop the instrument to identify the withdrawn adolescents without peets(Oiettolie) and examine its reliability and validity. In Study 1, based on the literature, clinical observations, and the related inventories, a pool of preliminary items were sampled and 34 items were initially selected through the examination of content validity. Then Oiettolie Inventory(OI) with 16 items was constructed using a series of factor analyses. Factor analyses revealed that it had three factors: 'Isolation from peers and loneliness', 'Social competence', 'Absence of interactions with peers'. Study 2 examine the reliability and validity of OI. The OI was reliable in terms of item-total correlations and internal consistency. The OI was significantly correlated with the 6 elemencs of friendship and social skills. Adolescents were classified into sociometric status groups(Oiettolie group; popular group; average group) on the basis of nomination scores, and the OI scores of Oiettolie group were significantly higher than the OI scores of popular and average group. In conclusion, the OI appears to be a highly reliable and valid measure to identify the withdrawn adolescents without peers(Oiettolie). Finally, the implications and limitations of this study were discussed.
The purpose of present study was to evaluate stability in coping behaviors in individuals across time. Especially, the present study examined personality charateristics which could predict coping styles in the future. In study, the participants were 317college students. The scale used in this study were multidimensional scales of stress and coping. The present study revealed the following results: (1) Coping styles yielded high stability coefficients across time. (2) Item selection was made from 64 items into 54 items for 12 coping styles( active coping, emotional expression, active forgetting, positive interpretation, positive comparison, self-criticism, perseverance, accomodation, fatalism, social support seeking, religious seeking). (3) Personality factors were important in predictings coping response in the future. Also, the data suggested that the personality qualities that are widely regarded as beneficial were predicted coping strategies postulated to be functional. Finally, Limitations of the present study were discussed, and implications for study were suggested.
The purpose of present study is to identify the difference of personality traits among three groups(Ego Resilients, Ego Undercontrollers, Ego Overcontrollers) classified by Ego Resilience and Ego Control. Participants were Classified by CCQ Ego Resilience Scale(CCQ-ERS) and CCQ Ego Control Scale(CCQ-ECS), and measured for personality traits by the NEO-PI-R Three groups were classified by Ego Resilience and Ego Control variables. The first group of children may be labeled Ego Resilients, characterized by high level of Ego Resilience and intermediate level of Ego Control. Their personality traits were extraverted, agreeable, conscientious, emotionally stable and open to experience. The second group of children may be described as Ego Undercontrollers, characterized by low level of Ego Resilience reflecting brittle in the situational stress and a strong tendency toward undercontrol. They were extraverted and open to experience, but emotionally unstable and low level of conscientiousness. Children of the third and final group may be named Ego Overcontrollers, characterized by low in Ego Resilience and tendency toward ovetcontrol. Ego Overcontrollers were highly introverted, emotionally unstable and also low level of conscientiousness and openness to experience. Implications and limitations of these findings were discussed.
This study explored the factor structure of the Personality Assessment Inventory(PAI). For this purpose, normal adult group were divided into two groups and the factor structure of both group were compared, with identifying the cross-validation indices. Furthermore, we compared this results with the factor structure of clinical group's. In normal adult group, four factors related to general psychological distress, interpersonal problems, acting-our tendency, and substance-use problems were obtained. An analysis of clinical group yield three factors, which, acting-out tendency and substance-use problems factors were included in one factor. The results from comparing several fitness indexes of the factor model seemed to support four factors model and three factors model in each normal adult and clinical group.