The purpose of this study was to examine whether any differences of dysfunctional impulsivity could be found between juveniles and juvenile delinquents, and whether self-instruction training has a positive effect in reducing dysfunctional impulsivity and in improving the responses in continuous performance test. One hundred fifty high school students and 159 juvenile delinquents in J area were tested on Dickman's impulsivity test. Based on the score of that test, 28, juvenile delinquents with high dysfunctional impulsivity were selected and randomly divided into two groups, i.e., self-instruction training group and control group. The two groups went through the continuous performance test(CPT). After the self-instruction training, Dickman's impulsivity test and CPT were re-administered. The results of the study were as follows: First, dysfunctional impulsivity of juvenile delinquents was higher than that of normal juveniles. Second, after self-instruction training, dysfunctional impulsivity of juvenile delinquents was decreased. Third, after self-instruction training, the responses of CPT(Hits, Omissions, Risk Taking) were improved. Finally, implications and limitations of this study were discussed.
The goal of the present study was to explore psychological characteristics of stable victims at the school bullying contexts. To pursue this goal, we surveyed twice 1,230 identical students of the 4-7th grade, with four months apart. Results indicated that the status of victims was more stable over two different time points than that of bullies. The degree of victimization at the second wave was predicted best by its degree at the first wave. Moreover, it was also predicted substantially by the aggregate of self-esteem, somatic symptom, and depression/anxiety symptom. We also explored changes in status of school bullying at Time 2 for those who were neither victims nor bullies at Time 1. It was found that victims at Time 2 was vulnerable to problems with psychosocial development and behavioral adjustment. These findings were discussed in terms of development of programs for prevention of school bullying.
This study was performed to compare among three adolescent groups(i.e., delinquent group, risk group and normal group) in their attachment type and perceived parenting behaviors. The delinquent group consisted of fifty incarcerated juvenile delinquents, and the risk group consisted of fifty students selected from high school students who belong to the upper fifteen percent of externalizing problem subscale in K-YSR, and the normal group consisted of fifty students who were also randomly selected from high school students without problematic behaviors. The age in all three groups ranged from 15 to 19 years. The questionnaire was composed of Demographic questions, Korean-Youth Self Report-CBCL, Self-Report Attachment Style and Parenting behavior Inventory, and they were administrated in groups at juvenile reformatory and high schools. In attachment types of each group, while the types in the delinquent group were distributed preoccupied type, dismissing type, secure type and fearful type in order, the types in the normal and risk group were distributed secure type, preoccupied type, dismissing type and fearful type in order. The comparison of perceived parenting behaviors showed that both of the delinquent and risk group recognized parents' affection and reasoning less than the normal group. This study explored adolescent attachment type and perceived parenting behaviors which have much relation with juvenile delinquency, and in particular it suggested that preventive intervention in individual and familial dimension was necessary for risk group to prevent from being delinquent group.
The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of perceived responsibility and neuroticism upon distress and obsessive-compulsive behaviors during the capsule classification task. The dependent variables were Distress and Obsessive-compulsive Behaviors. Distress was measured by conviction, doubt, preoccupation with errors, urge to check, discomfort experienced during the task and subjective number of errors made during the classification. Obsessive-compulsive behaviors was measured by hesitation, checking, modifications, number of errors made and time to complete the cask. Subjects were 60 undergraduate students(31 subjects were scored high on neuroticism and 29 subjects were scored low on neuroticism). All subjects were assigned randomly to either the high perceived responsibility condition or the low perceived responsibility condition. The results were as follows: 1. Other than hesitation, all other measures of obsessive-compulsive behaviors showed non-signification differences between high and low levels of perceived responsibility. 2. There were non significant interaction effects of perceived responsibility and neuroticism on all measures of distress except doubt. Therefore, for the high perceived responsibility condition, high level of doubt was seen for subjects with high neuroticism, versus those with low neuroticism. Consequently, the results of this study suggest that increase in neuroticism and perceived responsibility could lead to partially increased subjective distress and obsessive-compulsive behaviors. Further, treatment for OCD may be effective if perceived responsibility and neuroticism were decreased.
The present study investigated whether conducting the modified Rorschach test is useful to young children who often experience difficulties in responding to the standardized Rorschach test. A comparison was conducted between using these two Rorschach test methods on children at the age between 6 and 7. A total of 52 children participated in the study. The participating examiners received five times of supervision with the written test instruction by the author; in order to make the administration consistent across all examiners. The Comprehensive System (Exner, 1993) was used for scoring each test to ensure the consistency in scoring across all raters. Also, the reliability of scoring was checked through comparing interscorer agreement. Among the structural summary variables of Rorschach test, the difference between the two test methods appeared on the only five variables : Dd, SumShd, Fd, DV1, and Sum6, SpSc. The response time to each card was not significantly different depending on the test methods. The results suggested that conducting the modified Rorschach test might not allow children to build enough rapport with an examiner relative to the standardized test or may also cause children to control themselves more on expressing their fundamental desire or negative emotions. As a consequence, It seems that the modified method will be useful to children in case of having difficulties to apply standardized method if examiner make a good rapport.
This study investigated relationships between Anger Trait and a mode of Anger Expression, and Clinical responsive characteristics of MMPI in a mode of Anger Expression. MMPI and State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory was administered to 59 adolescent patients including 43 males and 13 females. The results showed that clinical scales(Pd, Pa, Pt, Sc, Ma) of MMPI were significantly different among Anger-in, Anger-out, and Anger control. In addition, High trait anger was significantly higher than those of low angry on the level of Anger-out, Anger-control. Suggestions and limitations of this study and directions for the future study were discussed.
The present study was intended to examine the reliability and validity of the Personality Assessment Inventory(PAI) developed by Morey(1991). Internal consistency was calculated on university student, adult, and patient standardization samples. Also, various convergent and discriminant validity indexes were cross-validated on university students, adults, and clinical patients. Reliability and validity were very high and consistent with other previous studies. These results suggest that PAI will be useful in research and clinical practice.
This study investigated the cross-validation and clinical applications of Korean Inventory of Interpersonal Problems Circumplex Scale(KIIP-C) on adult and patient groups. The KIIP, MMPI, and SCL-90-R were administered to normal adult(n=495) and psychiatric patient(n=468) groups. We conducted factor analysis on the KIIP-C octant scores and calculated correlation coefficients of KIIP-C with MMPI and with SCL-90-R of patient groups. Circumplex property was found in both adult and patient groups. In patient group, correlation coefficients of KIIP-C with MMPI and with SCL-90-R were moderately high. Also, the KIIP-C octant scores of normal adults and depression patients were compared. The depression patient complained significantly more interpersonal problems than normal adult group. These results suggest that KIIP-C is useful to examine the complaints of psychiatric patients and to guide the appropriate treatment approach.
The purpose of this study is to construct Ego Resilience Scale(CCQ-ERS) and Ego Control Scale(CCQ-ECS), and to testify the validity and clinical efficacy of the scales. CCQ-ERS and CCQ-ECS were constructed by selecting CCQ items describing prototype of ego-resilient, brittled, overcontrolled, and undercontrolled child by means of expert`s rating. Middle school students(n=217) completed CCQ-ERS, CCQ-ECS, KPI-C, and MMPI Ego Control scale. There were significant correlations between CCQ-ERS and KPI-C Ego Resilience scale, and CCQ-ECS and MMPI Ego Control scale. These results testified the convergent validity of CCQ-ERS and ECS. In clinical efficacy, CCQ-ERS was negatively associated with all clinical scales of KPI-C. CCQ-ECS was positively correlated with DLQ and HPR of KPI-C, and negatively correlated with DEP of KPI-C. These results proved the clinical efficacy of CCQ Ego Resilience Scale and Ego Control Scale.
This study investigated the cognitive impairment and neurophysiological mechanism of schizophrenia by event-related potential(ERP) and neuropsychological tests. The patient group showed significantly reduced P300 amplitude and prolonged P200, N200, P300 latency than control group. In terms of neuropsychological tests, schizophrenic patients showed impaired performance on tests evaluating problem-solving, verbal learning and verbal memory. The amplitude and latency of P200 and N200 were correlated with performance of Trail-Making Test(B) and Object Alternation Test(OAT), while the late cognitive peak, P300, was correlated with performance of Verbal learning Test(LNVLT) and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test(WCST). These results indicate that the schizophrenic patient has impairment of information-processing, and this impairment begins to emerge from the early stages of information-processing such as encoding, identification and classification of stimulus. P200 and N200 seem to be affected by subject's attention or mental flexibility, while P300 is associated with higher cognitive functions such as problem-solving, verbal learning and verbal memory. These results also indicate that schizophrenia is related to the structural or functional abnormalities of various cortical areas including frontal and temporal lobe rather than a circumscribed cortical area.
Assessment of memory has been an integral part in the diagnosis and treatment of temporal lobe epilepsy(TLE). In this context our reviews are focused on the following three issues. The first issue involves the pattern of memory impairment in the TLE. Memory decline in TLE is assumed to show the 'material-specific impairment(MSI)', but studies over two decades have proven only the half of the hypothesis. Verbal memory impairments in left TLE were consistently supported, but visuospatial memory impairment in right TLE were not. According to our analysis, a possible cause of mixed results may be attributed to the characteristics of visuospatial memory tasks. Visual memory can be divided into object memory and position memory component, and most of the studies which failed to show impairment in right TLE used the task in which the former component were emphasized. In contrast, studies with the task of the latter component differentiated the right TLE successfully. Utilizing the tasks in which position memory is emphasized, future researchers may attempt to prove the remaining half of MSI hypothesis and to increase the sensitivity of lateralization through memory assessment. The second issue discusses memory change following temporal lobectomy(TL). The patterns of change are assumed to show material-specific decline, but only the half of this hypothesis was proven. Further research efforts should be focused on change of not only ipsilateral but also contralateral memory function to TL side. Finally, variables predicting the prognosis of memory were reviewed. Factors such as preoperative memory function, onset of seizure, degree of seizure relief, severity of hippocampal atrophy, gender of the patients may mediate the pattern of memory change. In the future it is necessary to investigate various prognostic factors of memory outcome in integrated framework.
This study examined the relationship between hypermasculinity, which reflects exaggerated or extreme male gender role identification, and drinking self-regulation and drinking problems in male college students. Correlation analysis indicated significant negative correlation between hypermasculinity and drinking self-regulation, positive correlation between hypermasculinity and frequency/quantity of alcohol use. And there were significant positive correlation between hypermasculinity and the degree of drinking problems. Multiple regression analyses indicated that drinking self-regulation was the most powerful predictor of alcohol use and problems, and that unique contribution of hypermasculinity was small. Finally, based on these results, the possibility that hypermasculinity influences upon drinking problems mediated by drinking self-regulation was discussed.