The present study examined the role of homework compliance in the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral group treatment(CBGT) for social phobia. Treatment consisted of ten weekly 2-hr sessions. Among 42 social phobic subjects, 25 subjects completed posttreatment assessment and 21 subjects completed the 1 month follow-up assessment. Treatment included two major components: cognitive restructuring(sessions 1-5), and exposure(sessions 6-10). Homework compliance was assessed by various measures which included the amount and quality of the homework clients actually completed and clients' self-rating of his or her homework. The results were summarized as follows: First, the homework compliance was found to be an important outcome predictor. Especially, compliance with homework assignments in general and compliance with exposure tasks were revealed to be important. Second, the homework compliance was important to therapeutic effectiveness, but in the first half period of CBGT which stressed cognitive restructuring, recording Thought Record Form was the most important factor whereas in the latter half period of CBGT which combined with exposure, the amount of exposure in vivo was the most important factor in the outcome of treatment. Overall, the results of this study suggested that the homework compliance was a noticeable factor in the outcome of CBGT for social phobia. The results are discussed and directions for future research are suggested.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a behavior modification program on the weight loss of obese children. Forty children were randomly assigned either to a behavior modification(BM) group(n=21) or to a play therapy(PT) group(n=19) based on age, sex and grade. Nutritional and physical education were included in both groups. Questionnaires were administerd to assess weight, obesity stress, self-body image, self-esteem and diet behavior habits. The BM program consisted of self-monitoring, goal-setting, habit-checking, learning of alternative diet behaviors and assertive responses. The PT program consisted of expression and control of children's negative emotions through puppet playing, mud modelling and drawing. As a result, children in the BM group showed significant reduction in their level of body mass index and the amount of stresses when compared to children in the PT group. They also showed more improvement in diet behaviors than children in the PT group.
This study investigated the generation process with 250 married adult children's families across three generations. Bowen(1978) emphasized the importance of healthy generation process through researches on pathologically intergenerational transmission of the multiple generations families. In contrast, the present study focused both healthy and pathological aspects of intergenerational transmission with a consideration on relationship between positive emotions (e.g., happiness) and negative emotions (e.g., anxiety) that result from which the level of family differentiation is transmitted from one generation co the next. It was found that the level of family differentiation was transmitted from one generation co the next and that both anxiety and happiness was significantly mediated in the intergenerational transmission process of family differentiation levels. At the level of family differentiation in parental subsystem, both anxiety and happiness was influenced by the process of intergenerational transmission among G1 and G2, G2 and G3. However, at each level of family differentiation in father/adult children subsystem and mother/adult children subsystem, either anxiety or happiness wasn't mediated by the process of intergenerational transmission among G1 and G2, while at the level of family differentiation in father/adult children subsystem, both anxiety and happiness was influenced directly and in mother/adult children subsystem was mediated indirectly by the process of intergenerational transmission among G2 and G3.
The purpose of this study was to test differentiation of memory deficit in Alzheimer's disease group and depressive disorder group. Subjects were 24 mild Alzheimer-type dementia patiens(AD), 27 major depressive disorder patients(DEP), and 40 normal control group(NC). Finally 62 subject's output was analyzed. The memory test(K-MAS) was administered to 3 groups, all matched for sex, age, and educational level. AD group performed significantly worse than DEP, NC in most subtests of K-MAS. AD group showed (1) low total recall/recognition, (2) rapid rate of forgetting, (3) large numbers of intrusion, (4) recency part of serial position in free recall, (5) absence of practice effects. Discrimination analysis demonstrated 87.5% of diagnosis precision rate. Also, it was confirmed that Verbal Span test, Visual Span test, Delayed List Recall test, and Visual recognition have high discriminating power.
This study was designed to investigate implicit memory which depends on automatic processing in positive and negative schizophrenic patients. In experiment, the retention of unattended words by selective attention procedure was examined. Gradual perceptual identification test as implicit memory task and recognition test as explicit memory task were administered with attended words and unattended words in test phase. The results were that evidence for retention of unattended words was found in normal subjects but was not found in schizophrenic patients. There was not significant difference between positive and negative schizophrenic patients. These results suggest that schizophrenic patients are impaired on explicit memory which require conscious recollection. But Implicit memory on attended tasks was relatively preserved to explicit memory.
This study tested whether childhood exposure to parental partner abuse were associated with early adult psychological adaptation and date violence. Participants were 342 college students. Childhood exposure to parental partner abuse was related to depression, negative somatic symptoms, impulsivity. Among men, childhood exposure was associated negative somatic symptoms and impulsivity. and Among women, childhood exposure was associated negative somatic symptoms and depression. and Childhood exposure to partner abuse was related to date violence. But its effect is dependent on participant`s sex. Men who have exposed to parental partner abuse had experienced more date violence. But this is not true for women. The variables which discriminated significantly between who have experienced date violence and who have not were negative somatic symptoms and impulsivity were identified through stepwise discriminant analysis. The discussion addressed implications of the findings for future research and for clinical practice.
In this study to investigate the effect of the occupational stress, self-esteem, and socially-prescribed perfectionism and their interaction on anxiety and somatization symptom from the viewpoint of the stress-diathesis theory, the effect of the six occupational stresses, self-esteem and socially-prescribed perfectionism were analysed. To assess anxiety and somatization symptom, as dependent measure, STAI-s and SCL-90-R were administered and to assess occupational stress, self esteem and socially prescribed perfectionism, Korean version of Occupational Stress Inventory, Rosenberg's self esteem scale and Hewitt's Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale were administerd to 384 workers in the community, respectively. Including the demographic variables as covariables which has proved significant in the preliminary study, ANCOVA was done to the data. On the one hand, as far as anxiety symptoms concerned, the result has it that the effects of physical environment stress, low self esteem, socially prescribed perfectionism and the interaction effect of responsibility stress and socially prescribed perfectionism were significant. On the other hand as far as somatization symptoms concerned, physical environment stress and the interaction effect of role ambiguity stress and self esteem and that of physical environment stress and self-esteem was significant.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the PAI profiles of substance abuse groups and to test the efficiency of diagnostic function of alcohol problems(ALC) and drug problems(DRG) scales. Mean profiles of normal adult, alcohol dependence patient, and drug offender groups were compared and typical profiles of these substance abuse groups were derived through cluster analysis. Discriminant function analysis was performed to examine the differential diagnostic function of ALC and DRG scales. In the mean profile of alcohol dependence and drug offender groups, ALC and DRG scales showed extreme elevation, respectively. Seven profile types were extracted from alcohol dependence and drug offender groups among which 4 and 3 cluster profiles seemed to represent each group. The hit rate of ALC and DRG classifying correctly for the normal adult, alcohol dependence, and drug offender group were 84.4%, 81.4%, 64.9%, respectively, and the overall classification rate was 77.5%.
Authors critically noted that in spite of the numerous empirical findings of independent relation between psychiatric symptom and functioning, were overly symptom-based both the current psychiatric disability-identifying system and its functional measure, GAF. Accordingly, it was proposed to construct a standardized, self-report functional assessment scale which is not symptom-based but functioning-focused. In study I, 169 items were generated from the literature review and three separate focus group interviews with the psychiatrically ill, their families, and professionals. Then, 133 items were selected from the initial pool, on the basis of item appropriateness and degree of independent performance on each item, respectively rated by the professionals and psychiatrically ill. In study II, a 133-item scale was administered to 369 persons with psychiatric illness. Factor analysis on the resultant data derived a 95-item scale of 8 subscales.. In study III, the cross-validation on an independent sample demonstrated the scales` stability. Confirmatory factor analytic results showed good fit between the specified factor structure and the actual data. The final scale succeeded in separating the discharged from the hospitalized, and the combined patient group from the non-patient group. More importantly, two groups of patients and non-patients showed the differences in functional patterns as well as functional levels. The scale was only weakly related to GAF. It also failed to classify the psychiatric disability-registered patients into their respective groups according to three disability levels. However, these results are more likely to indicate problems inherent in the GAF and current psychiatric disability-identifying system, rather than low validity of this scale. To test this possibility, further study is needed to examine multi-relationships among symptom measure, GAF, disability levels, and this scale. Implications and limitations of this study were discussed.
In this study the indices that identify random response and impression management were developed and tested. Applying stepwise discriminant analysis to university student's data, discriminant function was derived and classification rate was calculated. Each index of random, negative impression, and positive impression response set was composed with 4 scales (ICN, INF, ALC, DRG), 5 scales (ICN, NIM, ARD, PAR, WRM), and 7 scales (INF, PIM, ANX, NON, RXR, DOM, WRM), respectively. Overall rates of the classification for these three discriminant functions were 95.5%, 93.7%, 94.7%. These results suggest the following: To identify certain response set correctly, it is appropriate co consider individual validity scale and several scale scores which elevated significantly in each response set.
An estimation of premorbid MQ is necessary to interpret the results of Rey-Kim Memory Test administered to a brain-damaged patient. The present study examined the validity of estimating premorbid Rey-Kim Memory Test MQ based on the mean FIQs of the age-and-education groups of the K-WAIS standardization sample. The data obtained from 167 normal subjects indicated that for most age-and-education groups, the mean FIQ is a reasonable estimate of the mean MQ. The difference in observed versus estimated MQ was less than 6 points in 35.3% of the subjects, less than 11 points in 63.5%, and less than 16 points in 77.8%. This error size was significantly lower than the error size associated with the method of estimating all subjects' MQs as 100. These results suggest that the present method of estimating premorbid MQ is a clinically useful one. The difference between observed versus estimated MQ, named 'pre/postmorbid MQ consistency' in the present study, may be used as an index for estimating the extent of memory decline following brain damage.
The Sexuality Inventory for Adolescents was developed from interviews with adolescents, consultations with sexual counselors, and a review of measures on adolescent sexuality, which consisted of 4 scales(Sexual Attitude, Sexual Impulse, Sexual Knowledge, and Sexual Coping Behavior). It was administered to 632 middle school and high school students in Seoul. Two studies to select items through item analysis and factor analysis were conducted. Items whose item-total correlation were below .30 or factor loading were below .30 were removed from final inventory. Factor analysis on remained items yielded 5 factors(Sexual Deviation, Contraception, Premarital Sex Relationship, Homosexuality, Masturbation) in Sexual Attitude Scale for middle school students and yielded abortion factor additionally for high school students. 2 factors(Sexual Deviation Impulse, Masturbation Anxiety) were extracted in Sexual Impulse Scale for middle school students and abortion factor was extracted additionally for high school students. Factor analysis revealed that Sexual Coping Behavior Scale for middle school students had 2 factors(Sexual Desire Control, Sexual Desire Expression) and 3 factors(Sexual Desire Control, Sexual Imagination, Sexual Behavior) for high school students. Internal consistency coefficients of subscales constructed of each factor in scales showed .66 - .93 range both for middle and high school students. These results suggest that the sexuality Inventory for Adolescents can be used as a reliable and valid measure to assess comprehensive sexuality of adolescents.
This study was attempted to develop a restrained eating scale which improves the Herman and Polivy's restraint scale. A 15-item scale was developed to measure restrained eating level. The scale, consisting of cognition, affect and intention to behavior dimension, was administered to 609 female university students. Major results are as follows. The reliability(Cronbach's alpha) to cognition dimension was .78, the affect .89, intention to behavior .92, and the global scale .92. In confirmatory factor analysis, three dimension model was fitted(RMSEA=.0862. CFI=.932, GFI=.883, NNFI=.918). Futhermore, in the criterion related validation, this scale explained 46.7% of the last 1 year's restraint eating behaviors and 32.5% of the last 2 weeks' restrained eating behaviors. The limitations of this study and future directions for further study were discussed.