The present study examined the outcome of cognitive-behavioral group treatment(CBGT) for social phobia which included cognitive restructuring for dysfunctional beliefs. Treatment consisted of ten weekly 2-hr sessions. Among 42 social phobic subjects, 25 subjects completed posttreatment assessment and 21 subjects completed the 1 mash follow-up assessment. These data were compared to waiting list control group(n=13). The results were suns follows: CBGT was demonstrated as effective in the treatment of social phobia significantly. At 1 month follow-up, this effectiveness still lasted. The fast half of the program which stressed cognitive restructuring stowed more improvement than the latter half of the program which stressed exposure. The implication of the results and the limitations of this study were discussed.
The purpose of study investigated the interaction phenomenon of the client resistance and counselor attitude. To achieve this purpose, the cross correlation analysis (time series analysis) of resistance and counselor attitude variables was performed on success and fail cases. The result indicated that (a) in the success case, there was a lead-lag relationship in which client resistance wild lead the increase of counselor's positive attitude. Also there was a lead-lag relationship in which counselor's positive attitude would lead the decrease of client resistance. (b) in fail case, client resistance would lead the decrease of counselor's positive attitude. But counselor's positive attitude would not lead the decrease of client resistance. It means that the interaction pattern of client resistance and counselor's attitude may influence on resistance reduction and outcome.
The primary purpose of the present study was to investigate how schizophrenic patients conceptualize emotion terms and judge facial expressions in order to understand the nature of their affective disturbance. In Study 1, 19 schizophrenic patients between the ages of 19 and 46 were given 105 pairs of emotion terms and asked to rate their similarity using a 7 point scale. Multidimensional Scaling Analysis of the similarity data revealed a one-dimensional model with the pleasant-unpleasant dimension for the schizophrenic group, while a two-dimensional model(pleasant-unpleasant and arousal) has been consistently reported for normal adults and children. In Study 2, 31 schizophrenic patients and 30 college students were presented with 28 photographed faces with various emotional expressions and asked to rate each of them on the arousal and pleasant-unpleasant dimension. The results indicated that schizophrenic patients tend to underevaluate the level of arousal and unpleasantness of the emotions expressed in the faces, particularly when the emotions expressed are negative and of high arousal. The low sensitivity of schizophrenic patients to the arousal dimension is consistent with Mednick`s hypothesis which suggests that schizophrenic patients tend to avoid high arousal stimulus for fear that it might further stimulate their already highly aroused autonomic nervous system.
Two aspects of social support(structural and functional) were examined in associations between physical health and depressed affect among community residing older adults(n=230). Structural support was operationalized as participation in social(organizational) activities; functional support was operationalized as satisfaction with social contacts. Deterioration of physical health predicted lower levels of social participation, but less social participation did not directly predict more depressed affect. Rather, social participation had an indirect effect on depressed affect through its impact on satisfaction with social contacts such that less participation predicted less satisfaction, which in turn, predicted more symptoms of depression. Moreover, functional disability(ADL needs) interacted with social participation in predicting satisfaction with social contacts. That is, less social participation was related to less satisfaction with social contacts when functional disability was relatively low; but when functional disability was high, the level of participation made little difference in satisfaction with social contacts. Thus, higher ADL needs seem to buffer the effects of decreased social participation on satisfaction with social contacts and, in turn, on depressed affect, suggesting that the effects of structural and functional aspects of social support vary according to the level of functional impairment.
The purpose of this study was to investigate characteristics of young adolescents who are addicted to Internet gaming. Participants were 836 high school students and they were administered the modified Young's Internet addiction inventory and other questionnaires assessing their Internet usage. We selected two groups of students -an addicted (n=100) and a non-addicted (n=89) group and compared their characteristics using the Eysenck impulsivity scale, social problem solving inventory (SPSI), social problem solving ability inventory, and the communication scale based on Satir theory. Results indicated that internet-addicted adolescents were more impulsive and showed low problem-solving abilities. In case of communication, they also showed poor abilities in seeing different points of view and understanding other's feelings. To determine the relative contributions of these variables to explaining the Internet game addiction, stepwise multiple regression was conducted. It was demonstrated that impulsivity, cognitive attitudes of problem solving, and interpersonal negotiation strategy explained 24.7% of variance of Internet game addiction. In conclusion, these results suggest that the excessive Internet-gaming is associated with poor social skills in adolescents.
Several recent studies have examined the manner in which social information is processed in an attempt to better understand the interpersonal functioning and social deficits of schizophrenic patients. In this study, the manner in which schizophrenic subjects represent social information processing are examined. Specifically 40 patients with schizophrenia and 40 normal controls were compared on the measures of social schema processing, information processing and symptomatology. Results showed that schizophrenic patients earned significantly lower schema processing scores than the normal comparison group. The deficits of schema processing in the schizophrenic patients were significantly associated with vigilance, short-term verbal memory, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test hit rate and Perseverative error. These findings suggest that the deficits in the representation of social information provide a unique perspective for understanding the interpersonal dysfunction of schizophrenia. The results were discussed in terms of social schema and research implications also include a need for future attention to the social cognitive rehabilitation especially for the remediation of social schema deficits in schizophrenic patients.
This study investigated the effect of probability and cost judgemental biases for negative social event and self efficacy in social situation on social anxiety. Subjective Probability Questionnaire(SPQ), Subjective Cost Questionnaire(SCQ), Social Self Efficacy Scale(SSES), Social Anxiety and Distress Scale(SADS) were administered to 253 female college students. The results showed that probability judgemental biases for negative social events predicted social anxiety, and showed that self efficacy in social situation play the role of moderating probability judgemental biases for negative social events-cost judgemental biases for negative social events-social anxiety mediating path. But, this moderated mediation model for negative nonsocial events was not supported.
This study examined the individual difference of adult attachment style and the psychological characteristics according to adult attachment style in a survey study involving 356 undergraduate students. The results showed that there were significant individual differences in attachment quality and in cognitive characteristics according to each attachment style. Secure attachment style associated with greater relationship interdependability and intimacy than did the anxious-ambivalent or avoidant attachment style. Avoidant attachment style associated less with relationship interdependability than did the secure attachment style. Anxious-ambivalent attachment style associated with greater relationship anxiety than did the other attachment styles. Attachment dimensions were found to be related to relationship beliefs on intimacy and individuality, self-esteem, and locus of control. Compared with secure, avoidant styles, the anxious-ambivalent style didn't attribute positive events to more stable causes and tended to attribute negative events to more stable causes;they also attributed negative events to more global causes. Suggestions and limitations of this study, and the directions for future study were discussed.
The purpose of these studies were to investigate the mediating effect of inter-parental conflict and family functioning on the relations of father's problem drinking to child adjustment. Study 1 was to assess the relations among father's problem drinking, inter-parental conflict, family functioning, and child adjustment. Participants were 143 students of a middle school. Results suggested a possibility that inter-parental conflict and family functioning might mediate the relation of father's problem drinking to child adjustment. Study 2 was to determine whether inter-parental conflict and family functioning mediated the relation of father's problem drinking to child adjustment. Participants were 140 middle school students. Structural analysis was used to specify the relation among father's problem drinking, inter-parental conflict, family functioning, and child adjustment. Inter-parental conflict and family functioning appeared to mediate the relations of father's problem drinking to child adjustment. Results of these studies suggested positive inter-parental relation may enhance family functioning, which in turn may enhance child adjustment attenuating the negative effect of father's problem drinking. Limitation of these studies and further study directions were also discussed.
The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2) was administered to 122 female kindergarten teacher applicants, once with standard instructions, again with scripted experimental instructions (honest or underreporting). Underreporting instructions produced higher scores on L, K, S, and L+K, and lower scores on F and F-K than standard and honest instructions. Some clinical scale scores produced under underreporting conditions were significantly different from those produced under standard and honest conditions. Consistent with the previous report, L and L+K were effective in identifying underreporting profiles. The new S scale, although developed using samples of men, faired quite well. Overall, cutting scores suggested by Baer et al. (1993) showed fairly positive results. Although S failed to outperform L and L+K in discriminating between the underreporting and standard profiles, further research is needed to explore the discriminative power of the S scale.
Kim(1999) has proposed a method of eating premorbid intelligence, which is based on age-and-education specific IQ means of K-WAIS standardization sample. The purpose of the present study was to examine the validity of the method. A sample of 167 normal subjects were administered K-WAIS and their observed IQs and predicted IQs were compared. The error size in estimating FIQ was less than 6 points in 37% of subjects, less than 11 points in 64%, and less than 16 points in 82%. These estimation efficiencies are comparable to these reported for regression-based methods in prior studies, which took into account more number of demographic variables than Kim's method. Kim's method is only 10~20% more efficient than the simple-minded method of predicting all subjects' IQs as 100. These results indicate that Kim's and other demographic methods do not provide a sufficiently satisfactory means of predicting premorbid intelligence. However, the demographic method represents the most sophisticated and objective means of estimating premorbid intelligence among presently available methods. Thus, their cautious use is still recommended.
Kim(1999) has proposed a method of estimating premorbid intelligence that is based on the K-WAIS norm data. The purpose of the present study was to modify Kim's method of estimating premorbid intelligence. Kim's method uses subjects' age and years of education as predictors of premorbid intelligence. The present method uses subjects' year of birth and years of education as predictors of premorbid intelligence. Ten years have passed since the standardization of K-WAIS and the scale uses 10-year interval in age-grouping. Thus, 2001 is the critical year in which use of subjects' year of birth rather than their age as a predictor of premorbid intelligence makes a real difference. The K-WAIS norm data show that of subjects with the same level of education, the mean IQ of older subjects is higher than the mean IQ of younger subjects. This difference between older and younger subjects is not related to chronological ages but to cohort differences in education opportunity. Thus, it is more valid to use subjects' year of birth rather than their age as a predictor of premorbid intelligence.
This study described the cutoff scores, identification rates of PAI validity scales, and presented the profiles of random response and impression management groups. To examine the effective cutoff scores, the distribution of normal adults, clinical patients, and computer simulation were compared and suggested the cutoff scores and identification rates. University students were instructed to respond randomly, which was used to test the utility of cutoff scores. To detect the impression management, university students were assigned to positive and negative impression instruction condition and the distributions of these groups were compared with normal adults and clinical patients. Also, we presented the profiles of random response and impression management group and discussed other implications.
This paper is to remind cases in which analysis of variance is misused in psychological literature and explain why such misuses of ANOVA should be avoided The most common misuse of ANOVA is that authors report only F-values without any other results from the ANOVA. The secondly common misuse is that some authors perform unplanned comparisons of cell means to interpret significant interaction effects. The thirdly common misuse is that some authors perform nonparametric tests instead of standard parametric ANOVA for the reason of small sample sizes.
The concept of Anxiety Sensitivity(AS) can be interpreted as the degree with which one reacts sensitively to signs or symptoms of anxiety. According to Reins who developed the concept, AS is defined as fear of anxiety symptoms based upon the belief that these are followed by harmful consequences. AS is one of fundamental fears which usually amplify the common fears in everyday life. Consistent with this theoretical formulation, the core concept of AS is that it acts as an inner amplifier of anxiety signals. According to factor analytic study, AS has a hierarchical structure, consisting of at least three factors, loading on a single higher order factor. The content of the lower-order factors suggests that the mechanisms of fear amplification may be classified to the source of anxiety signals such as somatic, cognitive, social domains. On the other hand, the arguments that AS is not different from trait anxiety have challenged the construct validity of AS. Therefore it is the task of current AS researches to rule out the influence of trait anxiety as an alternative explanation. In spite of the challenge, AS as an amplifier of anxiety signals has proven its conceptual utility in explaining the etiology and maintenance of the panic disorders. Various researches on the nonclinical or clinical panic attack phenomenon consistently have reported that AS is a stable variable that covaries with the panic. Through the longitudinal designs, it has been proven that AS is a critical premorbid risk facts for panic disorders, suggesting the causal role of AS. From these reviews on AS, future research directions can be deduced. The most urgent task is to replicate in Korea the basic finding that AS is heightened only in panic disorder, not in other anxiety disorders. Based upon this finding, subsequent issues and interests as followings can be answered through relevant researches; 1) the interaction of AS with pure anxiety symptoms, 2) the relationship between subfactors of AS and panic disorders, 3) extension of AS index and its validation against external criterion.
This study examined the psychosocial and demographic characteristics related to the alternative medicine usage in chronic gastrointestinal disorder patients. One hundred and forty-seven chronic gastrointestinal disorder patients' data were gathered and analyzed. Seventy-six percent of the patients have had iced alternative medicine at least once in their lifetime, and 15.6% of the patients were using alternative medicine therapy for their current gastrointestinal problems. The patients who were utilizing both orthodox medicine and alternative medicine for their current problems were more familiar to alternative medicine, had more previous experience in alternative medicine therapies, and were more satisfied in them. These patients were more likely to combine the two treatment methods should their symptoms relapse in the future. In this study, psychological variables such as neuroticism or depressive symptoms were not significantly related to the alternative medicine usage. However, patients who use, and will use only orthodox medicine showed a tendency of "powerful other" health locus of control.
The present study investigated mental health status and some related factors of HIV-infected Korean males. 71 HIV-infected males were administered with the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised and a questionnaire including several factors related to their mental health. As the result, high rate of HIV-infected persons showed poor mental health status, particularly, high anxiety, psychoticism, and depression. HIV-infected persons with poor mental health tend to have short HIV-infection period, be unstable in financial status for a living, be reluctant to disclose the fact of their infection to other people, and have few persons who may consult with their psychological problems. These findings are discussed in terms of their implication and limitation.