In the present study, effect of individual counseling by volunteer counselors was evaluated by comparing the recidivism rate during the 2-year probation period of 171 juvenile delinquents on probation who were provided with monthly individual counseling by volunteers (Counseling Group) to the recidivism rate of another group of 256 juvenile delinquents monitored through routine monthly meetings with probation officer(Non-counseling Group). The results showed that the overall rate of recidivism did not differ for the Counseling(31%) and Non-counseling Group(39%). Stepwise discriminant function analyses with regard to recidivism during the 2-year probation period revealed that age and prior record of delinquency (Counseling Group), and history of running away from home prior to age 15 and mother's education level(Non-counseling Group) were highly correlated with the discriminant function in the respective groups.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the social-cognition enhancing rehabilitation program developed by Kwon(2000). The main components of the program were helping schizophrenic patients perceive social situations accurately, understand the interpersonal implications of given social situations, and express nonverbal and verbal behaviors which are socially appropriate. Four clinical trials were performed to evaluate the impact of social-cognition enhancing rehabilitation program on schizophrenic patients' social perception and social skills. For the first, second, third and fourth administration, participants were five, eight, six, and six chronic schizophrenic patients, respectively, who were attending community-based rehabilitation center. They attended ten weekly 60-min-sessions of social-cognition enhancing rehabilitation program. Control group of 20 patients who were institutionalized chronic schizophrenia was compared to the third and fourth treatment group. Both group were administered and rated on the picture arragemenet subtest of KEDI-WISC, Social skills inventory, Interpersonal functioning Inventory, and Social perception test before and after the program. Results of covariance analysis indicated that the social-cognition enhancing rehabilitation program was effective in increasing social skills, but not in enhancing social cognition. The implications of the results were discussed.
The manner that parents relate to their children has a substantial and long term influence on children's cognitive, language and socio-emotional development. The purpose of this study is to develop a parenting intervention program to be incorporated easily into routine interactions between parent-children and to evaluate the effects of the program, using a control group with pre-post test design. The subjects of this study were 18 mothers of children with developmental disorders(ages 3~8 years). Among them, 10 mothers were assigned to the intervention group and 8 mothers to the control group, at random. The results of this study imply that「Promoting Program for Parent-child Responsive Interaction」is the effective intervention program to enhance the parenting style for the promoting developmental well-being of disabled children and reduce the parenting stress reciprocally. Additionally, it is implied that this study is significant in terms of using the parenting intervention program based on family-focused approach.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between verbal and physical violence and identify gender differences in severity and associated variables of marital violence. Subjects consisted of 211 couples(husbands: 211, wives: 211) who were recruited in the community. The results were as followings: significant positive correlation was demonstrated between verbal and physical violence. There was no significant difference between husbands and wives in the rate of verbal and physical violence against spouse. To determine the relative contributions of variables to explaining verbal and physical violence, stepwise multiple regression was conducted. In verbal violent group, it was demonstraed that demanding communcaion behaviors explained 16.2% of variance of husband's violent behaviors(under 40). Wife's demanding communication behaviors, wife's withdrawing communication behaviors, and mutual constructive communication behaviors explained 27.5% of variance of husband's violent behaviors(above 40). Demanding communcaion behaviors and impulsivity explained 14.7% of variance of wife's violent behaviors(under 40). Demanding communication behaviors explained 17.8% of variance of wife's violent behaviors(above 40). In physical violent group, verbal violence, aggressive interpersonal problems, demanding communcaion behaviors, and wife's demanding communication behaviors explained 67.3% of variance of husband's violent behaviors(above 40). Verbal violence, exploitive interpersonal problems, demanding communcaion behaviors explained 50.6% of variance of wife's violent behaviors(under 40). Verbal violence explained 21.9% of variance of wife's violent behaviors(above 40).
The purpose of present study was to identify the influence of marital communication patterns on marital satisfaction and the influence of conflict coping strategies on functional, dysfunctional marital communication patterns. For this purpose, marital satisfaction, couple communication pattern, emotion focused coping, problem focused coping and ego defense mechanism were measured. Major findings of this study were as follows: (1) Marital satisfaction was influenced by various demographic factors such as the number of children, education, marital durations, family size(for wives), and age. (2) Marital satisfaction positively related to constructive communication pattern, whereas negatively related to avoidant and demand-withdraw pattern. (3) In husbands, marital satisfaction was not influenced by the conflict coping strategies. Whereas in wives, marital satisfaction was influenced by emotion focused coping and ego defense mechanism. (4) In wives, anger control, passive-aggressive behavior influenced to constructive communication pattern and acting out, passive-aggressive behavior, compromise influenced to avoidant communication pattern. Wife demand-husband withdraw pattern was influenced to positive interpretation. (5) Finally, limitations and implications of the present study were discussed.
This study was to investigate the intelligence and memory disturbances of patients with traumatic brain injury. The subjects consisted of three following groups by its severity: the patients with mild traumatic brain injury(n=30); the patients with moderate traumatic brain injury(n=17); the patients with severe traumatic brain injury(n=67). The K-WAIS and the Rey-Kim Memory Test was administered and scored by manual and premorbid intelligence was estimated Kim(2000)'s method. The following results could be obtained. First, measured IQ of the severe traumatic brain injury group was significantly lower than that of mild brain injury group. Second, the differences between the premorbid IQ and the measured IQ of the severe traumatic brain injury group were significantly higher than those of the mild brain injury group. Third, the MQ of the severe group was lower than the MQ of the mild traumatic brain injury group. Finally, the clinical implications and limitations of this study were discussed.
The goal of this study is to examine how a maternal attachment style influences the self-esteem, depression, psychological well-being, and behavioral problems of her children. This is a cross cultural study in which a Korean population is compared with an American population. The findings of this study can be summarized as follows. First, the distribution of maternal attachment styles between Korea and America was not statistically significant. The level of Korean mothers' self-esteem was lower than that of American mothers. In addition, the 'somatic complaints' behavioral problem was more frequent in the Korean child group. But the 'aggression' behavioral problem was more frequent in the American child group. Second, in the American group the children of mothers with an unstable attachment style showed more frequent behavioral problems than the children of mothers with a stable attachment style. It becomes clear that a maternal attachment style is a very important variable that affects the child development. Lastly, when examining the paths through which a maternal attachment style influences her child's behavior, this researcher discovered that in the American group, the maternal attachment style indirectly influenced both internalized and externalized behavioral problems of the children through the maternal depression. This suggests that the maternal depression works as an antagonizing factor along the path in which a maternal attachment style influences her child's behavior.
This study was to investigate cognitive deficits of patients with schizophrenia. Twenty schizophrenics, twenty traumatic brain injury patients, and twenty normal control were performed the K-WAIS, Rey-Kim Memory Scale, and WCST. There were significant differences between premorbid intelligence and present intelligence in groups of schizophrenic patients. Schizophrenic group were lower score than normal control in verbal IQ, performance IQ, full scale IQ, but no significant differences between schizophrenic patients and traumatic brain injury patients. There were significant differences between schizophrenic patients and controls in cognitive flexibility, verbal comprehension, spatial organization, visual motor processing and attention, auditory processing and attention, auditory memory, and visual memory, but no significant differences between schizophrenic patients and traumatic brain injury patients in all variables. These results suggest that schizophrenics showed generalized cognitive impairment relative to controls and showed more severe cognitive deficit in auditory processing and attention, auditory memory, visual motor processing and attention, and verbal comprehension than other functions.
The present study was intended to examine the reliability and validity of the Korean Inventory of Interpersonal Problems(KIIP). KIIP-Circumplex scales(KIIP-C) and KIIP-Personality disorder scales(KIIP-PD) are two independent measures that are derived from the IIP. KIIP-C is composed of eight scales which measure interpersonal problems in the circumplex space, comprehensively. KIIP-PD is included with 5 scales, three PD scales that distinguish between patients with any versus no PD and two scales that distinguish between patients with a cluster C personality disorders and the other disorders. Using the sample of university student(N=1,460) and adult(N=1,474) standardization sample, the reliability and validity of KIIP were calculated. Internal consistency of KIIP-C and KIIP-PD were .69～.93, .68～.85, test-retest reliability were .59～.84, .61～.80, respectively. Also, the correlation of validity indices seemed to be appropriate. Theses results are consistent with previous studies and support the utility of KIIP-C and KIIP-PD as a general interpersonal problem measure and a screening tool for the presence or absence of personality disorders.
This study investigated the psychometric characteristics of the Social Problem Solving Inventory-Revised(SPSI-R). Also this study seeks to confirm and compare 5 factor constructs in social problem solving inventory- revised. SPSI-R and PSI were administered to 400 college students. These revealed high internal consistency and high test-retest and concurrent validity. The result of confirmatory factor analysis confirmed 5 construct factors of social problem solving inventory-revised. Gender differences were found in ICS(impulsive/careless scale), as one of the five factors. Several discussions were made, analyzed about five construct factor. The limitations and suggestions for future research were also discussed.
This study was performed co develop the Korean version of Social Anxiety Scale for Children and Adolescents and confirm its reliability and validity. Grounded on translations of Social Anxiety Scale for Children-Revised(LaGreca & Scone, 1993) and Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory for Children(Beidel, Turner, & Morris, 1993), the Korean Social Anxiety Scale for Children and Adolescents was constructed and psychometric properties were evaluated. Participants were 753 students(255 in 5th grade, 221 in 7th through 8th grade, and 273 in 10th through 11th grade). The results of a factor analysis indicate that the scale consists of 5 factors: Performance anxiety, Feat of negative evaluation, Avoidance, Fear of new situation or unfamiliar peer, and Nonassertiveness. Internal consistencies for its subscales were ranged .79-.92, and construct validity was good. Both age and gender difference of scores on the Korean Social Anxiety Scale for Children and Adolescents were not significant. On the basis of this results, implications and limitations of the instrument were discussed.
This study purported to develop norms for the Computerized Dementia Screening Test (CDST) in elderly Korean population. In order to develop valid norms, effects of demographic variables on the test performance were examined as well as the validity of the test itself. Normative sample consisted of one hundred twenty elderly volunteers whose ages were between 55 and 84 living in Seoul, Kyungki-do, and Kwangju. Age and education proved to be significant factors influencing CDST performance, while gender and literacy proved to be of minimal importance. Correlation coefficient between the CDST and the K-DRS performance was .53 (p < .001). Logistic regression analysis with AD patients and normal participants matched for age and education produced superb sensitivity and specificity of 92%. A rank method was utilized to develop standardized scores that would provide cut-off scores which can be utilized to a wider range of elderly samples. These cut-off scores based on standardized scores yielded excellent sensitivity and specificity of 88%, which were superior to cut-off scores based on raw scores. A multi-component decision-making procedure introduced in this study used in conjunction with the standardized scores appear to be a more informative and valid approach for screening dementia.
Although the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) has been widely used to evaluate the frontal lobe functioning, there is no published data on normal children in Korea which results in limitation of its clinical validity in children. The present study was conducted to investigate developmental trends of normal children`s performance on the WCST. The computerized version of WCST (Heaton, 1991) was administered to 160 elementary school children aged 7 to 11 years. Their Full Scale IQs measured by the Korean version of WISC-R ranged from 80 to 138 (M=111.02, SD=11.77). Children did not differ in FSIQ, VIQ, and PIQ when compared based on age. However, very moderate correlations were found between FSIQ, VIQ, and PIQ scores and the scoring variables. Out of the 10 WCST scoring variables, 9 variables except Failure to Maintain Set showed age effect, but sex difference was not found in any variables. There was also no significant interaction effect between age and sex. Important differences in developmental trends were found among the 10 WCST scoring variables. The nature of these differences was effectively explained by the three factors. From the principal axis analysis with oblique rotation using the 10 WCST scoring variables, three factors with eigenvalue greater than 1 emerged, interpreted as conceptual formation (Factor Ⅰ: accounted for 60.24% of variance), perseveration (Factor Ⅱ: 18.52% of variance), and ability to sustain attention (Factor Ⅲ: 12.12% of variance). The growth curves for the 5 scoring variables constituting Factor Ⅰ(Total Number of Corrects, Nonperseverative Errors, Conceptual level Responses, Number of Categories Completed, and Trials to Complete First Category) showed significant improvement from age 7 to 8, suggesting a developmental spurt during that period. By contrast, Perseveration Errors included in Factor Ⅱ significantly decreased from age 9 to 11, while Failure to Maintain Set included in Factor Ⅲ showed no age effect. These results suggest that the WCST performance requires multiple cognitive functioning with different developmental trends.
This study investigated the subtypes of paranoia with the core variables of paranoia, such as the self-concept, the other-concept, and the attributional style. The Paranoia Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Hostility Scale, the Self-concept Scale, the Other-concept Scale, the Social Self-concept Scale, and the Attributional Style Questionnaire were administered to 223 college students, and the paranoid students were selected according to the score of the Paranoia Scale. Using the K-means Cluster Analysis two subgroups were extracted. And also, the paranoid group was divided into two groups according to the level of the self-concept. The subgroup with relatively high self-concept was showed more high social self-concept and less depression, and attributed the positive events more internally than the subgroup with relatively low self-concept. There were no differences in hostility and other-concept. The suggestions and the limitations of this study, and the directions of future study were discussed.
The Aggression Questionnaire(Buss & Perry, 1992) is often being used to measure anger, hostility, aggression which are major symptoms of mental disorders. To develope the Aggression Questionnaire- Korean version, a battery of scales was administered to 565 university students. Exploratory factor analysis showed that two items of anger subscale had higher loadings at other factors than targer factor. So after omitting the two items, exploratory factor analysis was done again. The results revealed that 4 factor model was adequately supported by omitting 2 items. Based on this results, the Aggression Questionnaire Korean-version was constructed and the reliability and validity of this questionnaire was investigated. Internal consistency was acceptable, and test-retest reliability was high, so the AQ seemed to be stable over time. Correlations with other aggression inventories supported consistently validity of the AQ, particularly subscales of the AQ seemed to be measure target traits.