The purpose of this study was to test the development and effectiveness of self-love program for alcohol dependent. Three groups participated in this study, consisting of a total of 27 people with a treatment group of 19 and a alcohol control group of 8. Treatment group participated in a total of 8 sessions. Self-love program was composed of self-exploration, positive thought and behavior, planning for enhancing self-worth. All group was assessed during the pre and post periods of the program in order to verify the effectiveness of the self-love program. The results showed that the self-love program was effective in reducing alcohol dependent's depression and enhancing thought of abstinence. Finally, the limitations and the suggestions of this study were discussed.
The study examined the effects of cognitive rehabilitation program developed by process-specific approach for chronic schizophrenic patients. The essential strategy of this approach is the repeated administration of hierarchically organized treatment task that target remediation of specific cognitive areas. It's ultimate purpose is to improve level of vocational ability and independent living. The subjects were 9 patients, at the day care center in Yulrin-Maeum Psychiatry. The cognitive rehabilitation program was composed of attention training part and memory training part. Each part of the program was administered for 20 sessions, two times per week. Primarily, the result of attention training program showed that there was significant change in the scores of pre-post test on the arithmetic, block design of KWIS, and F2% of d2. Secondly, there was a another significant change in the scores on the total number, recognition of RAVLT after memory training program. The results suggest that cognitive rehabilitation program be potentially effective for remediation of chronic schizophrenics cognitive impairment. The limitations of this study and future directions for further study were discussed.
This study was designed to examine the relationship between perceived parenting behaviors and early adolescents' depression and anxiety. The depression and anxiety scores and perceived parenting behaviors scores were gathered from 1026 early adolescents. On the basis of factor analysis, three factors(warmth, intrusion, autonomy granting) were extracted from Parental Bonding Instrument. In both boys and girls, perceived parenting behaviors were more closely associated with depression than anxiety. In boys, parental warmth was the strongest predictor for depression, while for anxiety parental intrusion was the strongest predictor. In girls, parental warmth was the strongest predictor of both depression and anxiety. The finding were discussed in terms of gender differences and developmental changes in the relationship between perceived parenting and depression and anxiety in early adolescents.
To evaluate whether dimensions of anxiety symptom related to pain affect chronic pain patients' use pain coping strategies. Relations between anxiety responses, as assessed by the Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale(PASS), and coping strategies, as assessed by the Coping Strategies Questionnaire (CSQ), were examined. Results indicated significant positive correlations of each anxiety symptoms with the CSQ Catastrophizing scale. And results of the regression analysis show that anxiety symptoms combined across cognitive, motoric, and physiological response types explained for significant proportion of variance in all coping strategies except Coping Self-Statement. This investigation of anxiety symptoms to pain and pain coping strategies showed that different types of anxiety responses have differing implications for coping with pain. Possible mechanisms and implications related to clinical settings are discussed.
This study was carried out to replicate Hanjoo Lee's previous finding of two different types of obsession, using clinical population. Twenty two OCD outpatients diagnosed on the DSM-IV basis completed the ROII and other symptom questionnaires, and were asked to report their disturbing obsessions. Then, their cognitive appraisal and control strategies against each obsession were evaluated through semi-structured interviews. As a result, various obsessions from OCD patients could be reliably differentiated into autogenous obsessions and reactive obsessions, and their subsequent responses in emotional experience, cognitive appraisal, and control strategies were found to be consistently different between the two types of obsession. Relatively, autogenous obsessions are experienced as unacceptable and guilty, and their appraisal and control strategies bring the content and presence of thoughts themselves into focus. On the other hand, reactive obsessions are likely to be perceived as more realistic and probable to realize, and their appraisal and control strategies focus on the implicated negative external situations rather than the thoughts themselves. This differentiation of obsession is expected to contribute toward understanding heterogeneous phenomena of OCD.
The purpose of this study was to compare quantitatively or qualitatively naming ability between patients with language disturbance caused by traumatic brain injury and normal controls. The Korean version Boston Naming Test(K-BNT) was administered to 27 patients and 27 normal controls and then the performance of K-BNT between the two groups was compared, and cut-off scores, efficiencies, sensitivities, specificities, positive predictive powers and negative predictive powers of two separate scoring systems(total score and percentile) were calculated. Also, the error types in K-BNT responses of two groups were analyzed. The total score and percentile of K-BNT were lower in patients than normal controls. Cut-off scores of K-BNT total score and percentile were 36 and 4%ile, these two scores significantly discriminated patients from normal controls. Omission error and semantic error were more frequent in both groups. Finally, the suggestions, limitations and further issues for future study were discussed.
Based on the prototype approach on the adult attachment styles and recent theory for multipliicity of internal working models in an individual, the relationships beween adult attachment prototypes and four components of internal working model, i.e., memory representation of attachment-related experiences, self- and other-representations, interpersonal wishes and needs, and representations of interpersonal coping behaviors and strategies were examined. As a result, there were distinctive and complex correlation patterns between them according to the representation content or hedonic tone and specificity of attachment object and who the objects are. It suggested that there are multiple and multilayered internal working models in an individual that cannot be identified by the categorical approach and researchers must consider within-person variation of attachment style. Theoretical and clinical implications and limitation of this study were discussed.
Positively biased asymmetry between positive and negative cognition is the basic assumption of heuristic human functioning. In this article, we described SOM(States of mind) model of cognitive balance and evaluated the goodness of this model with empirical data. The SOM model proposed five distinct states of mind that are conceptualized in terms of cognitive balance, that were ‘positive monologue(above .69)’, ‘positive dialogue(.56～.68)’, ‘internal dialogue of conflict(.45～.55)’, ‘negative dialogue(..32～.44)’, and ‘negative monologue(below .31)’. Generally, descriptive statistical analyses of 1108 normal adult sample indicated that the model fits well with empirical data. The mean of SOM ratios of 1108 adults was .62(SD=.11) in a range of positive dialogue(.618±.06) and the mean of 45 depressive participants was .44(SD=.11) in a range of negative dialogue(.32～.44). Total agreement coefficient Kappa between theoretical and empirical cluster membership was .69. Multiple regression analyses showed that positive/negative affect, depressive symptom, dysfunctional attitude, anxious tendency but not anxiety symptom were significant predicting variables for SOM ratio and changes in positive affect was significant predicting variable for SOM ratio changes during four weeks. Implications of cognitive balance and future research directions were discussed.
Positively biased asymmetry between positive and negative cognition is the basic assumption of heuristic human functioning. In this article, we described SOM(States of mind) model of cognitive balance and evaluated the goodness of this model with empirical data. The SOM model proposed five distinct states of mind that are conceptualized in terms of cognitive balance, that were 'positive monologue(above .69)', 'positive dialogue(.56~.68)', 'internal dialogue of conflict(.45~.55)', 'negative dialogue(..32~.44)', and 'negative monologue(below .31)'. Generally, descriptive statistical analyses of 1108 normal adult sample indicated that the model fits well with empirical data. The mean of SOM ratios of 1108 adults was .62(SD=.11) in a range of positive dialogue(.618±.06) and the mean of 45 depressive participants was .44(SD=.11) in a range of negative dialogue(.32-.44). Total agreement coefficient Kappa between theoretical and empirical cluster membership was .69. Multiple regression analyses showed that positive/negative affect, depressive symptom, dysfunctional attitude, anxious tendency but not anxiety symptom were significant predicting variables for SOM ratio and changes in positive affect was significant predicting variable for SOM ratio changes during four weeks. Implications of cognitive balance and future research directions were discussed.
The hypotheses were lately presented that cognitive deficit shown by patients of obsessive- compulsive order was related to the dysfunction of frontal-striatal system, so we became more interested in the strategical aspect and deficit of organizational ability in memory as well as memory impairment. We examined the impairment of verbal and nonverbal memory of patients who have a clear symptom of obsessive-compulsive disorder and then finally intended to verify the mediating hypothesis that the organizational strategy caused memory impairment. We made 20 obsessive-compulsive disorder patients and 20 persons belonging to the normal control group take RCFT(Rey-Osterrieth Complex figure Test)and HVLT(Hopkins Verbal Learning Test)and assessed the organizational strategy in RCFT. According to the results of our research, a group of patients of obsessive-compulsive disorder indicated significant impairment in both verbal and nonverbal memory. Regression analysis showed that nonverbal memory impairment of obsessive- compulsive disorder was taken place under the direct effect of organizational strategy. But we should not overlook direct effect of group difference to nonverbal memory impairment. Though the organizational strategy have the most important influence on memory impairment, these are also acting as significant factors to suggest that memory impairment of obsessive-compulsive disorder is possible to be connected with other cognitive deficits and characteristics.
This study examined the changes of executive function of the patients with temporal lobe epilepsy(TLE) after anterior temporal lobectomy(ATL) . According to the neural noise hypothesis, they were expected to show increase of executive function, especially those who have frontal dysfunction. In this study, 38 TLE patients were taken ATL and pre-post neuropsychological evaluation. The results were as follows: When all TLE patients were analyzed, there was no significant change in perseveration error, non-perseveration error nor any other indices of WCST. But when they were divided in two groups(frontal dysfunction group and intact group), there were significant interaction effects. Frontal dysfunction type patients showed significant decrease of perseverative error(p<.05) and significant increase of nonperseverative error(p<.05), but the other type patients showed no change. Findings and limitations of this study and suggestions for the further research were discussed
The present study examined the relationship of academic stress, negative affectivity, alexithymia, and perceived parenting behavior to somatization to investigate the mechanism of somatization in korean adolescents. The participants were 232 middle and high school students, and correlation and stepwise multiple regression analyses were conducted. The results showed that academic stress, negative affectivity, alexithymia, and somatization were significantly related each other and correlations between somatization and parent's neglect and abuse were also significant. Negative affectivity score best explained somatization, and father's neglect, mother's abuse, sex, father's inconsistent parenting behavior, academic stress, and self-rated academic achievement were significant factors also. Negative affectivity was explained by academic stress, alexithymia, mother's abuse, and father's inconsistent parenting behavior. And academic stress was explained by mother's over interference, mother's high expectation, academic achievement level, and mother's love. The meanings of these results and differences according to sex and age, and suggestions for improving adolescents' mental health were discussed.
We developed Korean version of Anxious Thoughts and Tendencies scale(AT&T) to evaluate catastrophizing thoughts and took a standardization study. The normative group consisted of 1106 adults. The results showed that item-total correlation coefficient was .92 and test-retest reliability coefficient was .85. The AT&T scale was found to have theorectically assumed uni-factor structure and significant positive correlations with other depression and anxiety measures. The AT&T scale discriminated well between age, sex matched healthy normals and psychiatric patients but there were no significant differences among psychiatric patient group(major depressive disorder, somatoform disorder, panic disorder). From these results we can recognize that the AT&T scale represents well general cognitive vulnerability for anxious experience. Finally, we presented normative data of normal group and discussed the directions of future research.
This study is proposed to construct VRIN and TRIN scales and to suggest the best strategy for detecting random responding in MMPI Korean version. The MMPI restandardization sample of 4202 cases was used to construct VRIN and TRIN scales. For validating these scales, the data of 131 college students and 705 psychiatric inpatients were gathered. Random responding protocols were gained from the same 131 college students. VRIN and TRIN scales had been composed of 61 and 21 item-responding pairs respectively. The distribution tables of these scales were presented, and hit rates were compared with those of other indices for detecting random responding. This study provides a comprehensive solution for detecting random responding and clarify the characteristics of VRIN, TRIN, F and NF. Since the logic and nature of VRIN and TRIN scales are applicable to other tests, the utility of this research is expected to be good in the field of psychological testing. To clinicians, it offers a pragmatic help to screen invalid protocols on MMPI.
The purpose of the present study is to develop the questionnaire that measure the beliefs facilitating alcohol use with Alcohol dependent patients. Through the initial study, twenty one items were finally selected and the psychometric properties of the questionnaire were evaluated. Factor Analysis reveals that the questionnaire has three factors and internal consistency was .73. In the examination of the relations between each factor and alcoholic severity, the 'denial of alcoholic problems' factor was correlated negatively with alcoholic severity. The 'denial of alcoholic problems' factor and the 'helplessness' factor explained the about 39.5% of variances of alcoholic severity. The suggestions and the limitations of this study, and the directions of future study were discussed.
The purpose of this study was to explore how the sign of a psychological test could be manifested in the other test. The subjects groups consisted of following: High ego strength group(n=20, Es>60T), middle ego strength group(n=20, 40T<Es<60T), low ego strength group(n=20, Es<40T). The copy phase of HABGT was administered and reproduction was scored by the psychopathology scale and the adience-abience scale. The following results could be obtained. First, there were significant differences between groups in the total score, use of space, closure difficulty, curvature difficulty, change in angulation, and redrawing of the total figure individual scale of the paychopathology scale. Second, there was not significant difference between groups in the total score of the adience-abience scale, but there were significant differences between groups in closure difficulty, rotation, simplification individual scale of the adience-abience scale. Suggestions and limitations of this study and directions for the future study were discussed.
The purpose of this study was to examine factor structure of a Korean version of the BDI for clients with psychological disorders using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Six models about factor structure of the BDI reported in previous studies were evaluated with CFA on the data of 295 clinical samples. A hierarchical three-factor model was considered to be most appropriate as well as parsimonious in describing the data. Additionally, it was inappropriate to assume that there is no correlation between the factors of the BDI. The results indicate that the hierarchical three-factor model developed and validated using Western nonclinical samples can be generalized to Korean clinical samples. Furthermore, they support the construct validity of the Korean version of BDI.
This study was attempted to identify MMPI profile characteristics of social phobic patients. Also it was investigated to find the differences between offensive type and non-offensive type for social phobia. Fifty-seven social phobic patients were selected based on DSM-III-R and DSM-IV criteria, and their MMPI responses were analysed. The results showed that the specific codetype was not found for the whole social phobic patients, but showed elevated scores on the 7, 2 and 0 scales over 60T score. Compared offensive type with non-offensive type, both profile pattern was similar but had differences in the L, 2 and 7 scales. Especially, the 2 and 7 scales were elevated scores on 70.0T and 69.4T score in offensive type. These results suggest that 2-7 codetype might be a specific codetype of offensive type. The clinical implication and limitation of present study were discussed.