The purpose of this study was to develop a self-love program in order to investigate the effectiveness of the self-love program when applied for the treatment of drug abuse. The self-love program was administerd to fourteen drug-abusing criminals under supervision by the probation office. The main topics of the self-love program include the following: understanding, "Who am I?"; care of one's body; finding quality worlds and one's self merit; planning the future when one is aware of one's true self-wish; being able to forgive others; being able to forgive one's self; praising others and themselves for merit; to comprehend the positive and negative aspects of drug abuse; the management of stress and finding new pleasures; effective relationships with others; contemplating the meaning of life; and to be able to envision a mental picture of the patients' futures. The procedures for applying this self-love program included the use of breath-counting meditation, a lecture, individual group discussions related to the above topics, the concluding impressions about the program by group members, and finally, breath-counting meditation. The group was assessed during the pre and post periods of the program in order to verify the effectiveness of the program. The results showed that the self-love program reduced drug abuser's depression and increased the subjective well being and self-esteem of the drug abusers. In addition, the program determined that drug abusers exhibited signs of self-love, self-understanding, personal relationships, and an increased desire to abstain from the use of drugs. In conclusion, it was determined that the self-love program is an effective and viable treatment for drug abusers.
The present study aims at exploring the relationships of mental representation on self and significant others with interpersonal problems which are one of the major sources of psychological conflicts and disorders. Study 1 was performed to develop the Self and Others Representation Inventory(SORI) which is a self-report measure evaluating self, mother, father, people around him/her in terms of 20 personal characteristics. Data from 370 university students showed that the SORI has four factors, namely, benevolence, capability, sociability, and obstinacy as well as good reliability and validity. In Study 2, the relationships between the factors of SORI and 8 types of interpersonal problems were explored. Data from 323 students showed that the benevolence factor of self-representation closely relates with nurturance dimension of circumplex model on interpersonal problems, whereas the capability, sociability, and obstinacy factors are related to dominance dimensions.
The present study was to investigate the utility of depression model during pregnancy. In order to examine the purpose of this study, a attachment theory of depression was compared with a cognitive-interpersonal theory of depression by using AMOS. The linear mediation model 1 assumed that the unstable attachment style would predict prepartum depression mainly by mediating cognitive variables as well as by mediating interpersonal variables. In contrast the linear mediation model 2 assumed that the negative self and the unstable attachment style independently and the interpersonal variables mediating would predict prepartum depression. Two hundred and thirty-five women(the second trimester in pregnancy) were recruited both through the obstetrics department of a large hospital and private practices. Results of multiple hierarchical regression analysis indicated that 48% of the variance in prepartum depression was accounted by intrapersonal variables(negative self-esteem, attachment style) and interpersonal variables(negative communication, marital dissatisfaction). As a result of the linear mediation model analysis, model 1 fitted better than model 2. In conclusion, the findings of the present study suggest that the attachment theory explained very well cognitive-interpersonal relationship process of prepartum depression.
This study was designed to explore whether there were developmental changes in children's productions (copy, immediate recall, and delayed recall) of the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test using Osterrieth scoring method and Waber & Holmes' developmental scoring system. Based on protocols of 160 children between the age of 7 and 11, analysis indicated that visuomotor skills and visual memory improve with age in accuracy and organization. Further analysis showed that the copy style of children's above 10 years old was different from that of children's below 9 year old and boys performed significantly better than girls during immediate/delayed memory productions. Implications of these findings were discussed.
The purpose of the study is to find out the psychological characteristics of drunk drivers and alcoholic drunk drivers and the seriousness of drinking driving, and thus to make a effective reducing plan and to develop an effective remedial program for the drunk drivers. The ANCOVA was performed to test hypothesis about the personality characteristics, the perceived environments, and the cognitive and behavioral factors, controling the demographic variables. The results of the study are as follows: First, the drunk drivers tend to be more careless and impulsive, and showed problematic drinking and deviant behaviors than the non-drunk drivers. They reported that their peers also had a more neglected attitudes about drinking driving than those of the non-dunk drivers. Second, the 72.7% of drunk drivers were classified as alcoholic based on MAST. Third, non-drunk drivers, non-alcoholic drunk drivers, alcoholic drunk drivers were evaluated based on personality traits, perceived environment, cognitive, factors, on behavioral factors. The results demonstrated that the alcoholic drunk drivers tend to be more impulsive, deviant, isolated, sarcastic, independent-minded than non-alcoholic drivers. Alcoholic drunk driver`s peers tended to ignore the risky consequences of drinking driving, and did frequently drinking driving. In addition, the alcoholic drunk drivers tend to exhibit a very serious problematic drinking behaviors, and showed antisocial behaviors such as traffic violations. Finally, The step-wise regression analysis demonstrated that the deviant behaviors such as traffic violation was the most important variable explaining and related to drinking driving. The problematic drinking, peer`s attitudes about drinking driving, perceived possibility of having an accident and being arrested for drinking driving were significant variables explaining for drinking driving. According to the results, the development of effective remedial education program designed to deal with drunk drivers is very important and necessary as well as a legal and institutional preparation.
This study investigated the attachment style, the family cohesiveness, and the mode of family communication in paranoia. In study 1, the Paranoia Scale, the Self-report Attachment Style Questionnaire, the Adult Attachment Scale, the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Scale, the Parent-Adolescent Communication Inventory, the Self-concept Scale were administered to 560 college students, and the paranoid and non-paranoid students were selected according to the scores of the Paranoia Scale. The paranoid students showed more fearful and preoccupied attachment style and less secure attachment style than non-paranoid students. And they showed more anxiety and less dependency and intimacy than non-paranoids. In family adaptability and cohesion, the paranoid students showed low adaptability and cohesion than non-paranoids. And they showed more dysfunctional family communication than non-paranoids. In Study 2, the questionnaires were administered to 20 persecutory deluded patients, 20 psychiatric controls, and 20 normal controls. The persecutory deluded patients showed more preoccupied and fearful attachment styles than control groups. And they showed more anxiety and less intimacy in attachment. And also, they showed more dysfunctional family communication than control groups. The suggestions and the limitations of this study, and the directions of future study were discussed.
The aim of the present study is to examine relations of self-esteem and narcissism with aggressiveness. The Self-Esteem Scale, Narcissistic Personality Inventory, Aggression Questionnaire, State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-Korean version were administered to 299 university students. The main results are ; (1) students with low self-esteem showed higher Anger, Hostility, Physical Aggression and Anger-In than those with high selfesteem did, after their narcissism was statistically controlled, (2) students with high narcissism showed higher Anger, Physical/Verbal Aggression and Anger-Out than those with low narcissism did, after selfesteem was statistically controlled, and (3) when the two anger-prone groups, i.e., high narcissism group and low self-esteem group were compared, the former group showed higher Verbal Aggression but lower Hostility and Anger-In than the latter group did, whereas there was no significant difference between the two groups in Anger and Physical Aggression. These results suggest that aggressive or anger-prone people can be divided into high narcissism group and low self-esteem group for psychotherapeutic approach as well as research on aggressiveness.
This study was conducted to investigate the utility of the Korean version of the MMPI-2 in clinical assessment. MMPI-2 results of one hundred twenty psychiatric patients were compared with those of 167 college students on scale scores and item endorsement frequencies. Cross-cultural comparisons between Korean and American samples were also made. As reported in the study with Chinese and Hong Kong sample(Cheong, Song, & Zhang, 1996), elevated clinical scores among normals and moderate gap on clinical scale scores between normals and psychiatric samples were found: Korean college students showed significantly elevated mean scores on the MMPI-2 scales compared to American normative sample; Mean clinical scores produced by Korean psychiatric patients were only slightly higher than those of Korean college students, resulting partly in a small difference between Korean and American psychiatric samples. Results from item-level analyses were not clear enough to draw meaningful conclusions on MMPI-2 performance among different diagnostic groups. Limitations of this study suggest that the results of this study should be interpreted with caution and that further research is needed to explore the clinical utility of the Korean MMPI-2.
We conducted confirmatory factor analysis(CFA) to examine if the factor structure of a Korean version of the BDI(K-BDI) is invariant across undergraduate and clinical samples and if the factor loadings are equal across these two samples. In Study 1, six models about factor structure of the BDI reported in previous studies were evaluated with CFA on the data of 412 undergraduate samples. A hierarchical three-factor model was considered to be most appropriate as well as parsimonious in describing the data. Additionally, it was inappropriate to assume that there would be no correlation between the factors of the BDI. In Study 2, metric invariance across undergraduate students in Study 1 and clinical samples in our recent study was tested. Partial metric invariance across samples was confirmed after 5 first-order and one second-order estimates proving to be nonequivalent were not constrained. The results indicate that both factor structure and most factor loadings of the K-BDI are invariant across undergraduate and clinical samples.
This study was conducted to find out the agreement between the parent's and teacher's ratings about the behavioral and emotional problems of the children with ADHD(Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) and Depression/Anxiety. 14 ADHD children and 35 Depression/Anxiety children among the psychiatric referred children were selected for this study. The agreement between their parents and teachers was studied through the measures of CBCL(Child Behavior Checklist) and TRF(Teacher's Report Form), and the correlations were calculated for the subscales. The rating of the parents and teachers about problem behavior of the children with ADHD showed lower correlations for the all subscales. Especially the attention problems subcales which are related to ADHD core symptoms also showed lower correlations. Depression/Anxiety children were included in the study in order to examine the differences between parent‘s and teacher’s ratings according to the symptoms of children's mental disorder. The rating of the Depression/Anxiety children's parents and teachers showed significant correlations, which were different from the ADHD children‘s results. This study points to the importance of using multiple informants - both parents and teachers - when assessing and diagnosing ADHD.
In this study, we examined the reliability and validity of Korean Negative Affect Self-Statement Questionnaire(NASSQ) which was developed to assess negative self-talk of depression and anxiety in youth. The NASSQ was proven to be a very reliable assessment tool. The result of factor analysis showed that the NASSQ had a four-factor structure representing 'depressive self statement', 'negative self evaluation', 'anxious self statement', and 'positive self statement'. This factor structure is quite different from the original three subscales of the NASSQ. The NASSQ was positively correlated with depression and anxiety and showed high correlation with children's negative automatic thoughts. Among normal group, there was a significant difference of the NASSQ score between high-depression group and low-depression group. This same result also applied to high and low anxiety group. In the psychiatric patient group, the NASSQ discriminated depressive disorder from age, sex matched healthy normals. But, there was no significant group difference between anxiety disorder and normal controls. The results of this study and the directions of future study were discussed.
The Specific information on sexual attitude, impulse, behavior, and knowledge is vital to develop and evaluate sex counseling and education on adolescents. Sexuality Inventory for high school students was developed based on preliminary version of Sexuality Inventory for Adolescents by Park and Chun(2001), and the reliability and validity were examined. Items were selected by item analysis on Sexual Knowledge Scale and factor analysis on Sexual Attitude, and Sexual Impulse Scale. Final set of items was selected through item analysis in which item difficulty and item-total correlation of the Sexual Knowledge Scale and factor structure of the Sexual Attitude and were examined on 465 high scool students. Reliability and validity of the final inventory were examined in the second analysis on 1,081 high school students. Internal consistency coefficients of scales ranged from .82 to .95 except for the sex knowledge scale and Internal consistency coefficients of all the subscales presented over .74. Factor analysis indicated 5 factors (liberalism, tolerance on deviant sexual behavior, acceptance of abortion, lack of prevention, positivity on masturbation) in Sexual Attitude Scale, 4 factors (sexual deviation impulse, masturbation anxiety, addictiveness, sexual behavior anxiety) in Sexual Impulse Scale. High Correlations between sexual behaviors and scores on related scales were obtained. There were significant differences between scores of each grade and between boys and girls in most scales.
The Digit Span Test is a neuropsychological test in most common use for measuring attention- concentration and working memory. It has been popularly used for assessing the elderly, especially the demented elderly, since it is easy to be administered. The Digit Span Test consists of digit span forward (DF) and digit span backward (DB). Three scores, DF, DB, and DF-DB, are used as measures of it. This study was conducted to present normative data for DF, DB, and DF-DB in 451 healthy Korean elderly ranging in age from 55 to 80. Means on DF, DB, and DF-DB were 5.44 (SD=1.41), 3.52 (SD=.92), and 1.94 (SD=1.22), respectively. Only educational level was associated with DB and DF-DB, whereas educational level and age were associated with DF. Sex was not associated with any of them. The norms of DF, DB, and DF-DB broken down by educational level were presented.
This study was performed to develop the short form of KIIP-C and identify it's reliability and validity. Applying two-parameter graded IRT model to adult standardization sample of KIIP, we calculated item discrimination, location parameter, and item information. Five most appropriate items from each scales, based on these three estimates, were identified and total 40 items composed KIIP-SC. Internal consistency reliability, test-retest reliability, and circumplex property of KIIP-SC was examined on university and adult standardization sample. Internal consistency reliability, .61～.89, and test-retest reliability, .58～.78, were both in proper range. Inter-correlation of 8 scale scores and the factor analysis results of individual ipsative scores showed that the circumplex property of KIIP-SC is appropriate. These results suggest the utility of KIIP-SC for measuring the interpersonal problems in settings where brevity is important and in situations involving the screening purpose.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the PAI profile of inmate group and develop the criminal-behavior prediction index. PAI mean profiles of normal adult(N=229) and inmate(N=229) groups were compared. Discriminant function analysis was performed on 18 mean scale scores to compose the index that differentiate inmate group from normal adult group. In the mean profile of inmate group, ANT scale was the most elevated scale, and then, DRG, ALC, BOR, AGG. The discriminant function that differentiate both group was composed with DRG, ANT, MAN, SCZ, RXR, BOR, STR. Classification rates of analysis and holdout samples were 83.92% 79.39%, respectively, and the overall percentages of cases correctly classified in two samples was 81.66%. Theses results indicate that PAI can be useful in criminal population and other related settings.
The aim of this study was to develop the Korean Children's Automatic Thoughts Scale(K-CATS) and examine it's reliability and validity. The Korean translation of CATS, CDI, and Korean Social Anxiety Scale(K-SAS) were administered to 809 children and adolescents between Grade 4 through Grade 11. Factor analysis of the Korean translation of CATS yielded the following four factors; depression, hostility, social anxiety, and physical threat. The final version of the K-CATS consisted of 32 items which were selected from the original pool of 40 items in the CATS, leaving out 8 items with low factor loadings. The K-CATS showed internal consistency coefficient of .94, and moderate to high correlation was obtained between the Depression subscale and CDI as well as the Social Anxiety subscale and K-SAS, suggesting good concurrent validity.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship among the degree of using internet adult-only sites, various psychological factors and sex behavior. The degree of using internet adult-only sites in past and present, various sex behavior, sexual opinions, the frequency and discomfort of sexual thoughts, extroversion, openness to experiences, guilty, and social desirability were examined through t-test, correlation and regression. As a result, male students visit internet adult-only sites more frequently and do more sex behavior than female students. Male and female students, who often use internet adult-only sites, have frequent sexual thoughts and positive sexual opinions. Also they have low degree of discomfort over sexual thoughts and they are extrovert. Neither guilty nor social desirability had any correlation with the degree of using internet adult-only sites. Only male students showed that the present degree of using internet adult-only sites affects sex experiences. The implication and limitations of this study and future directions for further study were discussed.