This study was designed to examine the effect of cognitive behavioral group therapy for high risk students of internet addiction. Fifty-five middle school students were selected based on the scores of Young internet addiction test. Among 55 students, 15 students agreed to participate in our program and 17 students were randomly selected as control group. This 6-session program consisted of internet addiction education, training of self-monitoring and stimulus-control, engagement of pleasure activities and enhancement of self-esteem. The instrument used for evaluating the treatment efficacy were internet addiction test, self-report of time engaged in internet game, self-control scale, and self-efficacy scale, which were administered before and after the treatment. Group differences were analyzed using ANCOVA. The results of this study were as followings: 1) There were significant differences between therapy group and control group in internet game time and self control; 2) There were also significant differences between two groups in internet game time during summer vacation(follow-up evaluation); 3) There were no significant differences in self efficacy and the level of internet addiction between two groups. On the basis of results, it was concluded that the cognitive-behavioral program for high risk students of internet addiction was effective in reducing internet game time and improving self control. Finally, implications of the present study were discussed.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the development of emotion decoding skills and their relationship to social adjustment. 271 4th and 5th grade children and 256 7th-8th grade children were presented with still photographs of faces with varying emotions and were asked to make pleasant-unpleasant rating and idetify appropriate emotion for each of the pictures. In addition data were collected on their social adjustment using peer nomination measures and self-reported social anxiety scale. The results indicated that 7-8th graders, compared to 4-5th graders, were more likely to make responses consistent with high frequency responses of college students, suggesting emotion decoding skills continue to develop beyond elementary school years. Among the group of 4-5th graders, emotion decoding skills were positively related to peer-rated social adjustment, while in the group of 7-8th graders, the correlations did not reach statistical significance. Self reported social anxiety and self perceived social acceptance were not correlated with emotion decoding skills. The results were discussed in terms of implications for preventive intervention for children and adolescents with poor emotion decoding skills.
The primary purpose of the present study was to investigate effects of social anxiety on emotion decoding of facial expressions in children and adolescents. A total of 527 children and adolescents(272 4-5th graders 256 7-8th graders) were given Social Anxiety Scale for Children- Revised and those with the SASC-R score in the top 20%(High Social Anxiety Group) and low 20%(Low Social Anxiety Group) in each age x sex group were compared in their pleasant- unpleasant ratings of 9 facial expressions, 3 in each of the positive, neutral and negative types of emotions. The results showed that girls with high social anxiety rated facial expressions more positively than those with low social anxiety, while boys with high social anxiety rated them more negatively than those with low social anxiety, although the group difference for boys did not reach statistical significance. The role of cognitive biases in the development and maintenance of social anxiety in children and adolescents was discussed.
The aims of this study were to investigate the incidence of posttraumatic stress disorder(PTSD), effects of accident on driving/riding behavior, to identify psychosocial risk factors affecting the severity of PTSD symptoms. Motor Vehicle Accident Interview, Clinician Administrated PTSD Scale, Impact of Event Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Scale, State-Trait Anger Scale, The Ways of Coping Checklist, Abbreviated Physical Injury Scale and Social Support Scale were administered to 47 undergraduates victims who experienced the same bus accident. The major results of study were as follows. First, the incidence of full PTSD and subsyndromal PTSD were 27.7% and 38.3%. The victims who were classified as full and subsydromal PTSD showed significantly severe riding avoidant behaviors than victims who were classified as normal. Second, the victims who were classified as full PTSD and subsyndromal PTSD were significantly more likely to have experienced a prior moto vehicle accident, to have perceived severer danger feeling during the accident than victims who were classified as normal. Third, the victims who were classified as full and subsyndromal PTSD showed significantly severer depression, anxiety and negligent guilt, derealization and decrease of awareness than victims who were classified as normal. Forth, the victims who were classified as full and subsyndromal PTSD were significantly evaluated lower possibility of returning to pre-accident functioning and to have used more passive coping mechanism than victims who were classified as normal. And the victims who were classified as full PTSD showed significantly lower present functioning and severe riding vulnerability than victims who were classified as normal, these results suggested to need quick therapeutic intervention for the victims who were classified as full and subsyndromal PTSD. The limitation of this study and cognitive-behavioral psychotherapeutic implications were discussed.
The present studies tested the validity of structural equation models in explaining depression of middle school girls, with three primary objectives in mind. They were: First, to examine the roles of body image dissatisfaction in effect of obesity on depression. Second, to identify the relationships of obesity and binge eating and its causality on depression. Third, to specify the structural equation model that include obesity, body image dissatisfaction, binge eating and depression. The results of structural equation analyses showed that obesity might predict depression mainly by mediating of body image dissatisfaction. Also the correlation rather than casuality on relationships of obesity and binge eating were supported. The integrated model fitted the data very well when the pathway from binge eating to body image dissatisfaction were added. Because supposed other models fitted the data, the future study on obesity and clinical symptoms is desirable to simultaneously consider individual differences(attitude and traits etc.), developmental variables and pathological correlates.
The purpose of this study was to examine continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis(CAPD) patient's depression and to suggest therapeutic approach of depression by proposing conceptual model in relation with stress, coping, hopelessness and depression. The results showed that CAPD patients experience very severe depression. Their depression was better explained by psychological variables such as perceived stress, hopelessness, negative coping than demographical variables and physiological indexes. Perceived stress not only had an direct effect on depression, but also had an indirect effect on depression mediated by hopelessness, negative coping behavior. These results suggest the possibility of reducing depression through the intervention of hopelessness, negative coping. Finally, implications and limitations of this study were discussed.
The purpose of this study was to examine if insecure attachment served as interpersonal vulnerability of depression and if insecure attachment affected marital functioning of depressed patients. Participants were 31 female outpatients with depression (depression group) and 32 normal women(control group). They were assessed on the measure of depression, subjective marital satisfaction, marital relationships, attachment style and general dysfunctional attitude. Specifically, interview technique was used to evaluate marital relationship and attachment style. Results indicated that insecure attachment style was significantly more prevalent in the depression group than in the control group. Among aspects of insecure attachment, depressed patients showed a higher level of the desire for engagement and anger in relationships than women in the control group. Subjective marital satisfaction, confiding in husband, quality of positive interaction with husband and security characteristics of marriage were lower in the depression group than in the control group, and the quality of negative interaction with husband was higher in the depression group than in the control group. Achievement-oriented and dependency-oriented dysfunctional attitude were higher among depressed patients than among women in the control group. Within the depression group, patients with secure attachment and those with insecure attachment group were compared. There was a significant difference in the subjective marital relationship between two groups, and active emotional support by husband tended to be lower in the insecure attachment group than in the secure attachment group. Achievement-oriented dysfunctional attitude tended to be higher among patients with insecure attachment group than those with secure attachment. Implications and limitations of this study were discussed.
This study analyzed the diagnostic and differential diagnostic function of the PAI clinical scales. To investigate the diagnostic function of the clinical scales, scale and subscale scores of normal, depression, bipolar, schizophrenia, alcoholic, and drug offender were compared. In each group the percentage of clinical scales and subscales exceeding a T score of 65(cutoff score) were calculated. DEP and ANX scores in depression, MAN score in bipolar, PAR score in schizophrenia, ALC score in alcoholic, and DRG score in drug offender were significantly high, respectively. The percentage of these scales exceeding the cutoff scores were the highest in the corresponding group. In the clinical scales, five diagnostic discriminant factors were derived. The PAI clinical scales found out to be composed in single diagnostic discriminant factor. The hit rate of normal was 91.0%, depression was 54.3%, bipolar was 57.6%, schizophrenia was 50.6%, alcoholic was 92.9%, and drug offender was 71.6% and the overall classification rate was 73.8%. These results suggest that the clinical scales are useful to diagnose and discriminate individual disorders that are to be measure.
A commonly held view for Wechsler intelligence scales is that they consist of 2 factors, i.e., verbal IQ and performance IQ. However, more recent evidence suggests that the scales may consist of 3 factors, i.e., verbal comprehension index(VCI), perceptual organization Index(POI), and freedom from distractibility Index(FDI). The WAIS-III, the most recent revision of Wechsler intelligence scales, accepts the Three-Factor view and provides U. S. norms for the 3 factors. However, the Three-Factor interpretation is not widely practiced in Korea, partly because Korean norms for the 3 factors have not been published yet. Thus, the present study constructed Korean norms for the 3 factors, based on K-WAIS test results of 201 Korean adults. The difference between 3 factor scores that is significant at 15%ile, 10%ile, 5%ile, and 1%ile level was 20, 23, 28, and 35, respectively. These figures were highly similar to the corresponding figures for WAIS-III norms. At 10%ie level, 14 subjects showed a significant difference between 2 factor scores, whereas 43 subjects showed at least one significant difference among 3 factor scores. These results support the view that the Three-Factor view provides a more useful framework for interpreting Wechsler test results than the Two-Factor view.
In this study, we developed Korean version of Automatic Thought Questionnaire-Positive (ATQ-P) and took a standardization study with the normative group of 1108 adults. The ATQ-P was proven to be a very reliable assessment tool. The result of factor analysis showed that the ATQ-P had a four-factor structure representing 'positive daily functioning', 'positive self evaluation', 'others evaluation of self', and 'positive future expectations'. The ATQ-P was positively correlated with positive affect, and negatively correlated with negative affect, depression, and anxiety. In the normative sample, there was a significant difference of ATQ-P score between a group which met the criteria of major depressive episode of DSM-IV and a control group. In the psychiatric patient group, the ATQ-P discriminated major depressive disorder from panic disorder and age, sex matched healthy normals. Also, the ATQ-P had a specificity for depressive symptoms. From these results, we can conclude that the ATQ-P is a very useful tool to evaluate one's positive cognition. Finally, we presented normative data of the ATQ-P and discussed the limitations of this study and the directions of future research.
If we want to assess the quality of life(QoL) in patients with schizophrenic disorder, a scale which includes various constructs of QoL and reflects subjective appraisals of the patients is needed. For those purposes, this study was designed to develop a QoL scale which includes various domains of the QoL in a sample of patients with schizophrenic disorder. The subjects were composed of 363 patients with schizophrenic disorder. A preliminary study using 43 items developed from the existing QoL scales by considering the content and the property of them was performed from the existing QoL scales by considering the content and the property of them was performed with university students. Thirty-six items selected from the preliminary study were administered to the subjects. After carrying out Explanatory Factor Analysis by using x^2-test, the best model for factor structure of the scale was selected by referring the RMSEA(Root Mean Square Error of Approximation) and ECVI(Expected Cross-Validation Index). The Rasch model, one of the item response theories was used to verify the reliability of the items and the subjects, and the fitness of the items, the subjects, and the number of categories. The results of analyses revealed that a model with five factors was best fitted. The factors were labeled as `economic domain`, `general domain`, `physical domain`, `occupational/social domain`, and `affective domain`. By the item analyses performed two times, the reliability of the items and the subjects was improved, and the fitness of the items, the subjects, and the number of categories (0, 1, 2, 3, 4) showed to be appropriate. Finally, the Happy-QoL Scale composed of five factors having five items in each (total 25 items) was developed. The risk factors predicting low reliability to the response of the QoL scale were the education level and the treatment type of the subjects, and the concurrent validity of the Happy-QoL scale with GHQ/QL-12(General Health Questionnaire/Quality of Life-12) was good. The limitations of this study and the issues for future study were briefly described.