After Witmer's establishment cf psychological clinic at the University of Pennsylvania in 1896 and publication of Psychological Clinic, a Iot of changes oecured in the role of clinical psychologists. In the initial stage of development, the majority of clinical psychologists engaged in clinical work. They put special emphasis on helping school children who were suffering from social and academic adjustment problems. In 1949 APA Boulder Conference declared the role of clinical psychologists. According to it, first of all, they should be fully qualified as psychologists, and then two roles, as a practicing clinician as well as a researcher, were required. Unfortunately, there was a growing split between two required roles; Practicing clinicians who engaged in (work at) clinical settings neglected the clinical researchers' findings. They solely depended on trial and error methods or clinical insight in the clinical practice. On the other hand, Researchers were unlikely to engage in research which could influence practicing clinicians, As a result their research findings were incompatible with clinical realities. Recently APA Vail Conference had offered a new professional degree system for practicing clinicians, which might suggest the official full acceptance of seperated two roles rather than integrated ones. Realistically as well as idealistically, two roles should be integrated into one with two different aspects. In practice and conducting research, clinical psychologists have to realize the paramount importance of the single subject, N=1. This does not mean one of radical changes but a renaissance in the field of clinical psychology.
The present study is to examine the clinical validity of MMPI, KWIS, Rorschach test and test battery consisted of these 3 tests. The sample in this study was a group of 210 subjects, 165 high school sophomores in Seoul area and 45 adolescent psychiatric patients in Hanyang university hospial. Tests were administered and analized by 8 psychologist-2 qualified psychologists and 6 master level trainees with a minimum of 1 year psychodiagnostic training. Clinical diagnoses were performed by 7 psychiatrists-2 psychitric specialists and 5 residents with at least 2 year residency training. In order to get validation measure, contigency coefficient was calculated and significance test was done with Chi square method. The results were as followings. 1. As concurrent validities among tests, contingency coefficients of MMPIS with KWIS and Rorschach were negligibly low as 0.43 and 0.48, where as that of KWIS against Rorschach was significantly high as 0. 73. In addition, those of MMPI, KWIS and Rorschach against test battery were 0.46, 0.84 and 0.8 respectively. 2. Against the criterion of clinical diagnoses, validity coefficients of MMPI, KWIS, Rorschach and test battery appeared to be significantlyh ig has 0.49, 0.65, 0.65 and 0.74 respectively. From these data, it was strongly sueggested that not only each test in this study possibly had a different function to contribute diagnostic judgement of test battery, but also the test battery appeared to be most effective procedure for clinical diagnosis.
In this study, attempts were made to evaluate clearly the nature of the concept of ego-strength, to construct the more valid scale of ego-strength in terms of item analysis of the existing ego-strength scale, which enable to differentiate among diagnostic groups and to measure the outcome and the improvement of counseling or psychotherapy, and to examine the possibility of measuring the ego-strength in terms of the use of the short form (383 items) of MMPI. For this purpose, three groups of students were used; ① self-referred counselees who aware of their inner conflicts and problems in personality area and consulted a counselor, ② normals(S), who, they felt, had severe personalily problems, bu tneeded not to consult a counselor, ③ normals(N), who regarded their personality problems as trivial. The findings of this study were as follows: ① Ego strength suggested the strong motivations and latent potentialities or forces in which they aware of their inner conflicts and tried to read just themselves with the professional help and indicated the defensiveness. ② 42 items were drawned from item analysis, two of which were reversed in the direction of the scoring. The result of item analysis showed that 42 items functioned better in the direction or differentiating normals and abnormals than 68 full items. ③ High correlation between first 46 items included in the short form (383 items) of MMPI and 68 full items suggest the possibility of the use of the MMPI short form, in measuring the ego-strength.
This study is to compare psychoanalysis, personcentered counseling, and Buddhism (especially, Mahayana Buddhism) with their views on man and on his problems. In psychoalysis, man is viewed as a being which is oriented to maximize his instinctual gratification while minimizing punishment and guilt. His behavior is the result of compromise between his instinctual needs and the social demands which are usually in conflict. His personality pattern is regarded as reflection of his early conflicts and defences against them. The psychological problem (or maladjustment) means that one is in a state where he seeks to gratify his repressed (or fixated) infantile desires through his infantile behavior patterns. In person-centered counseling, man is regarded as a being to actualize his inherent potentialities. His behavior results from his free choice in his phenomenal field, and his choice reflects whether his self-concept is congruent with his organismic experience. He is said to have psychological problem when he feels difficulties in actualizing his inherent potentialities, which occurs when his self-concept is threatened by his incongruent experiences. In Buddhism, man is viewed as a potential Buddhar but at the same time as an ignorant being. When he is enlightened into his True Mind and lives accordingly, he becomes a Buddha; when he is ignorant, he is merely a sentient being. Man's behaviour reflects his state of mind. His psychological problem results from his attachment to small-self and objects, both of which are believed to be illusory in nature, due to ignorance. These three points of view are similar in that they all place more emphasis on personality than on environment. However, they differ in their views on man's basic motivation and the nature of defences. According to psychoanclysis, man is basically animalistic being which behaves mainly for his instinctual reeds that are quite the same as those of animals. His defences are unavoidable and at the same time necessary for the avoidance of not only punishment from without but also guilt from within. In contrast, from the viewpoint of person-centered counseling, man is a positive being which strives to actualize his inherent, growth-oriented, organismic potentialities. The actualization of his potentialities is good for the society as well as for himself. Defenses, which distort or deny his organismic experiences to maintain and actualize his self-concept, are the main blocks to the actuaization of his potentialities. In Buddhism, man is assumed to possess both the humane and alturistic side and the egoistic side. Ignorance, which makes one attached to illusory selfand world, is the fundamental human condition and can be overcome only by enlightenment on his True Mind.
This study is to compare psychoanalysis, personcentered counseling, and Buddhism (especially Mahayana Buddhism) with their ways of dealing with psychological problems. The goal of psychoanalyis is to reconstruct the patient's personality, in other words, to modify his infantile needs and adjustment patterns to more realistic and more appropriate ones. This goal can be achieved by making the patient conscious of, and working through, his repressed conflicts and his infantile needs, impulses, and coping mechanisms related with those conflicts. A psychoanalyst makes use of therapeutic alliance, transference, and free association to accomplish this goal. A psychoanlyst interprets his patient's transference and resistance to make his patient understand the patient's repressed infantile needs and his unconscious defences, guilt, and fear. A psychoanalyst takes an analytic attitude as no more or no less than a therapist during the treatment. Person-centered counseling aims at a client's actualization of his inherent potentialities which have been distorted or denied. This goal is achieveved only when, the client gets an insight into his experiences and changes his self-concept accordingly. Such undrstanding and changes are possible through therapeutic atmosphere of congruence, acceptance, and empathic understanding from a counselor. In Buddhism, the solution of psychological problem lies in enlightenment. Such enlightenment is achieved by getting insight into one's True Mind or Buddha Nature, and living up to it. For this, a disciple must believe in and understand his True Mind, and must cultivate it by practising six paramita; charity, keeping the commandments, patience under insult, zeal, meditation, and wisdom. A disciple is given a Wha-doo (or Koan) and stimulated by his master to devote all his energy to it in Gan-wha Sōn, which is a kind of meditation and is usually considered in Korea the representative way of cultivating one's mind among the six paramita. A Wha-dco is a puzzle-like problem, which seems to be pointing at. the disciple's essential attachment (upādāara) and ignorance (avidya). A master is a guide, who pays his attention only to his disciple's progress in the solution of the Wha-doo, but gives no explanation hint about it. Psychoanalysis, person-centered counseling, and Buddhism are similar in their emphases on insight into one's mind and on the importance of therapeutic relationship beween a therapist (a counelor, or a guide)and a patient (a client, or a disciple). However, they differ greatly in the folliowing respects. First, the contents of insight are different. In psychoanalysis, repressed infantile wishes and adjustment mechanisms are understood, while repressed potentialities for growth (or actualization) are awakened in person-centered counseling. In Buddhism we can find both sides. Second, they differ in their placement of insight along the whole process. In psychoanalysis and person-centered counseling, a patient's (or a client's) intellectual/emotional insight into one's own mind is the consequence of the successful treatment (or counseling). However, in Buddhism, the intellectual insight and the belief in one's own True Mind are the prerequisite for the successful practice of cultivation. Third, their views on the nature cf the relationship during the treatment process are different. In psychoanalysis, the frustration of patients' transference needs is emphasized, while the healthy relationship which satisfies clients' needs for growth is regarded important in person-centered counseling. Buddhism seems to have both aspects, that is, frustration of egotistic impulses and satisfaction in the form of hope and belief in his True Mind.
This experiment investigates the factors influencing on the recall of short-term memory in schizophrenics. Thirty-six seven-nonsense syllable lists, varing in degree of information stimulus, were presented to 30 women schizophrenic and 30 women normal subjucts for free recall. Half of the lists were auditory presentation, the remainder being visual presentation. A third of the lists were random sequences, a third were organized consonant vowel sequences, and a third were nonsense syllable sequences being a meaningful word in combination. The findings resulting from this study are as follows; 1. Schizophrenics gave significantly lower recall than did normals 2. Schizophrenics showed no significant differences between the auditory lists and the visual lists, but normals produced a more recall in the visual lists than the auditory lists. 3. Schizophrenics showed no significant differences among the random × the organization × the meaningful interaction at the auditory presentation, but the visual presentation produced a large increament in the recall of the meaningful stimulus (the random × the meaningful, the organization × The meaningful interaction). Normals produced a significantly higher recall increament in the meaningful list than the organization list and the organization list than the random list from the both of the visual and the auditory presentation. 4. In the amount of the performance confusion spouses, schizophrenics also gave significantly higher recall than did normals. 5. In the effect of serial position, auditory presentation. indicated that both schizophrenics and normals had higher recalling in the early and the last serial position from the random and the organization lists, while meaningful list h.ad lower recalling in the last item than the early items. Visual presentation showed that both groups had higher recalling item in the early serial position, while revealed lower recalling item in the early serial position, while revealed lower recalling in the last item from all information stimuli (random, organization, meaningful).
Study on Boundary score in Rorschach Test. The purpose of this study is to verify the validity of boundary score in Rorschach test. Specifically, this study is designed to examine the usefulness of ego boundary by dividing it into Barrier score and Penetration score. The study sample is consisted of 39 persons drawn from three different groups, i. e, normal, neurotic and psychotic groups. The Rorsehach test was administered to sample, and subsequently, boundary score was obtained from the test results. The research findings are the following: 1) Among the psychotic group, when compared with normal and neurosis groups, B score was relatively low, while P score was high. This indicates the disintegration cf ego-boundary among the psychotic groups 2) When the content analysis was applied to the Boundary score, the result revealed that the each group seemed to have their own clinical ego boundary. In cum, Boundary score can be regarded as a more dynamic index for ego boundary within the context, a new potential of Boundary score is realized.
As the concept of traditional marriage is affected by historical, social, and cultural factors, the number of problem families is gradually increasing in today's society. It is becoming even clearer, with the increasing recognition of the importance of family, that marital relations play a pivotal role in the relations and mental hygiene of the family. Since marital therapy is still in the beginning stage and practice is more advanced than theory, this research is thus a general survey of the developmental stage. With emphasis on basic concepts, therapy development, therapy format, and treatment stages, a comparative-analysis was conducted of the psychoanalytical, behavioral and systems theory approaches to determine their contributions to the marital therapy.
It has been customary to interpret the code patter n of the short form of Korean MMPI according to the cookbook of MMPI. But there are problems in this approach. For example, in 1,3 type, there are 3 conversions, 6 schizophrenias, and 1 drug-abuse among 10 cases. As a result cf the present study, it was concluded that we need a new interpretation method ether than present cookbook approach for the short form of Korean MMPI.
Three theories of attentional deficit were tested by means of card-sorting choice reaction time task in which stimulus complexity and response complexity were varied independently. An individual's choice reaction time was divided into movement time and decision time by regression analysis. It was found that stimulus complexity, response complexity, and movement speed were associated with significantly greater impairment in schizophrenic groups. In addition, the regression line relating decision time to response complexity was significantly steeper than the regression line relating decision time to stimulus complexity, indicating that response selection was more difficult than stimulus analysing for the schizophrenics. These finding supported Broen's (1968) partial collapse of response hierarchies, and also provided some support for McGhie's (1970) defective filter theory. But Yates' (1966) theory could not be confirmed by these results. The effect of chlorpromazine on choice reaction time performance of schizophrenia, the merit of choice reaction time task, and homogeneous grouping of schizophrenia were also discussed.
An individual has his own mode of perceiving, memorizing, and thinking. Since this mode was named Cognitive style' by Klein, it was thought that cognitive style makes an individual's behavior expressed in a consistent way, affects noncognitive behaviors and determines the styles of adjustive behaviors. Typical among the studies of cognitive styles was Witkin's research on the field dependence-independence. In. this article, the concept and measurement of the field dependence-independence satisfying the basic assumptions about cognitive style was reviewed, and the relationships between field dependence-independence & adjustment mechanisms were discussed. Finally, the implication that field dependence-independence, a particular cognitive style, would be an effective tool for understanding psychopathology was considered.