본문 바로가기 주메뉴 바로가기


K-WAIS-Ⅳ Profile in Schizophrenia


The current study is conducted in otder to investigate the K-WAIS-Ⅳ profile, which was recently revised for patients with schizophrenia by comparing the K-WAIS-Ⅳ results of patients with schizophrenia and normal control subjects. K-WAIS-Ⅳ was administered to 44 schizophrenia patients and 220 age, gender, and education matched normal control subjects, and the group difference in general intelligence, index, and all K-WAIS-Ⅳ subtest scores was analyzed. Patients with schizophrenia showed lower performance on general intelligence and four index scores than normal control subjects. At the index score level, the performance difference between groups was greatest in processing speed index score, and was smallest in verbal comprehension index score.

K-WAIS-Ⅳ, schizophrenia, intellectual functioning, verbal comprehension, perceptual reasoning, working memory, processing speed, K-WAIS-Ⅳ, 조현병, 인지기능, 언어이해, 지각추론, 작업기억, 처리속도



김지영, 오상우 (1998). 정신분열병 환자의 지능 장애와 K-WAIS 분산도 분석. 한국심리학회지: 임상, 17(1), 285-292.


김홍근 (2002). K-WAIS의 3요인 해석을 위한 규준 연구. 한국심리학회지: 임상, 21(3), 631-645.


배재남, 조맹제 (1994). SCID를 이용한 주정중독의 병발 정신장애 연구. 대한신경정신의학회, 33(2), 383-396.


서석교, 김홍근 (2004). 정신분열병 환자의 지능. 특수교육저널: 이론과 실천, 5, 341- 356.


시준영 (2009). 만성정신분열병 환자의 증상과 인지기능이 사회적 기능에 미치는 영향. 대구가톨릭대학교 대학원 석사학위 논문.


오상우, 김현정, 채영숙 (1992). KWIS 분산도 분석에 의한 인지기능의 평가. 한국심리학회지: 임상, 11(1), 31-41.


오상우, 손정락, 강희양 (2000). 정신분열병 하위집단에 따른 지능 및 실행 기능 장애. 한국심리학회지: 임상, 19(2), 259-267.


이중서, 안용민, 신현균, 안석균, 주연호, 김승현, 윤도준, 조경형, 구영진, 이지연, 조인희, 박영환, 김광수, 김용식 (2001). 한국판 양성 및 음성증후군 척도(Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale)의 신뢰도와 타당도. 대한신경정신의학회, 40(6), 1090-1105.


정영조, 이강준 (2001). 정신분열병의 신경인지기능. 인제의학, 22, 13-27.


한오수, 홍진표 (2000). DSM-Ⅳ의 제1축 장애의 구조화된 임상적 면담. 서울: 도서출판 하나의학사.


황순택, 김지혜, 박광배, 최진영, 홍상황 (2012). K-WAIS-Ⅳ 한국판 웩슬러 성인용 지능 검사-4판 기술 및 해석 요강. 대구: 한국심리주식회사.


Albus, M., Hubmann, W., Mohr, F., Hecht, S., Hinterberger-Weber, P., Seitz, N. N., & Küchenhoff, Helmut. (2006). Neurocognitive functioning in patients with first-episode schizophrenia. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 256(7), 442.


American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text revision). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.


Aylward, E., Walker, E., & Bettes, B. (1984). Intelligence in Schizophrenia: Meta-Analysis of the Research. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 10(3), 430-459.


Bilder, R. M., Lipschutz-Broch, L., Reiter, G., Geisler, S. H., Mayerhoff, D. I., & Lieberman, J. A. (1992). Intellectual Deficits in First-Episode Schizophrenia: Evidence for Progressive Deterioration. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 18(3), 437-448.


Bowden, S. C., Saklofske, D. H., & Weiss, L. G. (2011a). Augmenting the Core Battery With Supplementary Subtests: Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Ⅳ Measurement Invariance Across the United States and Canada. Assessment, 18, 133-140.


Bowden, S. C., Saklofske, D. H., & Weiss, L. G. (2011b). Invariance of the Measurement Model Underlying the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Ⅳ in the United States and Canada. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 71(1), 186-199.


Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences. New York, NY: Routledge Academic.


Dickinson, D., & Coursey, R. D. (2002). Independence and overlap among neurocognitive correlates of community functioning in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 56, 161-170.


Dickinson, D., Ramsey, M. E., & Gold, J. M. (2007). Overlooking the Obvious: A meta-analytic Comparison of Digit Symbol Coding Tasks and Other Cognitive Measures in Schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 64(5), 532-542.


Forbes, N. F., Carrick, L. A., McIntosh, A. M., & Lawrie, S. M. (2009). Working memory in schizophrenia: a meta-analysis. Psychological Medicine, 39(6), 889


Gjerde, P. F. (1983). Attentional capacity dysfunction and arousal in schizophrenia. Psychological Bulletin, 93(1), 57.


Green, M. F., Kern, R. S., & Heaton, R. K. (2004). Longitudinal studies of cognition and functional outcome in schizophrenia: implications for MATRICS. Schizophrenia Research, 72(1), 41-51.


Grimes, D. A., & Schulz, K. F. (2005). Compared to what? Finding controls for case-control studies. The Lancet, 365, 1429-1433.


Harrison, P. L., Kaufman, A. S., Hickman, J. A., & Kaufman, N. L. (1988). A Survey of Tests Used for Adult Assessment. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 6(3), 188-198.


Harvey, P. D., & Bowie, C. R. (2003). Cognitive deficits in schizophrenia: early course and treatment. Clinical Neuroscience Research, 3, 17-22.


Heinrichs, R. W., Ammari, N., McDermid Vaz, S., & Miles, A. A. (2008). Are schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder neuropsychologically distinguishable? Schizophrenia Research, 99, 149- 154.


Homayoun, S., Nadeau-Marcotte, F., Luck, D., & Stip, E. (2011). Subjective and objective cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia - is there a link? Frontiers in Psychology, 2, 148.


Kaufman, A. S, & Lichtenberger, E. O. (2005). Assessing adolescent and adult intelligence. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.


Kayman, D. J., & Goldstein, M. F. (2012). Cognitive Deficits in Schizophrenia. Current Translational Geriatrics and Experimental Gerontology Reports, 1(1), 45-52.


Knowles, E. E. M., David, A. S., & Reichenberg, A. (2010). Processing Speed Deficits in Schizophrenia: Reexamining the Evidence. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 167(7), 828-835.


Kremen, William S., Seidman, Larry J., Faraone, Stephen V., & Tsuang, Ming T. (2001). Intelligence quotient and neuropsychological profiles in patients with schizophrenia and in normal volunteers. Biological Psychiatry, 50(6), 453-462.


Kremen, W. S., Seidman, L. J., Faraone, S. V., & Tsuang, M. T. (2008). IQ decline in cross-sectional studies of schizophrenia: Methodology and interpretation. Psychiatry Research, 158(2), 181-194.


Lakens, D. (2013). Calculating and reporting effect sizes to facilitate cumulative science: a practical primer for t-tests and ANOVAs. Frontiers in Psychology, 4:863.doi: 10.3389/ fpsyg.2013.00863.


Lee, J., & Park, S. (2005). Working memory impairments in schizophrenia: A meta-analysis. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 114(4), 599-611.


Levine, S. Z., Rabinowitz, J., Engel, R., Etschel, E., & Leucht, S. (2008). Extrapolation between measures of symptom severity and change: An examination of the PANSS and CGI. Schizophrenia Research, 98, 318-322.


Lichtenberger, E. O., & Kaufman, A. S. (2013). WAIS-IV 평가의 핵심 [Essentials of WAIS-IV Assessment]. (황순택, 김지혜, 최진영, 홍상황 역). 대구: 한국심리주식회사. (원전은 2009에 출판).


Michel, N. M., Goldberg, J. O., Heinrichs, R. W., Miles, A. A., Ammari, N., & McDermid Vaz, S. (2013). WAIS-Ⅳ Profile of Cognition in Schizophrenia. Assessment, 20(4), 462-473.


Nuechterlein, K. H., Barch, D. M., Gold, J. M., Goldberg, T. E., Green, M. F., & Heaton, R. K. (2004). Identification of separable cognitive factors in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 72(1), 29-39.


Nuechterlein, K. H., & Dawson, M. E. (1984). Information processing and attentional functioning in the developmental course of schizophrenic disorders. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 10(2), 160-203.


O’Leary, D. S., Flaum, M., Kesler, M. L., Flashman, L. A., Arndt, S., & Andreasen, N. C. (2000). Cognitive Correlates of the Negative, Disorganized, and Psychotic Symptom Dimensions of Schizophrenia. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 12, 4-15.


Rund, B. R., & Borg, N. E. (1999). Cognitive deficits and cognitive training in schizophrenic patients: a review. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 100(2), 85-95.


Russell, E. W. (1979). Three patterns of brain damage on the WAIS. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 35(3), 611-620.


Sternberg, R. J. (2000). Handbook of intelligence. New York: Cambridge University Press.


Strakowski, S. M., Tohen, M., Stoll, A. L., Faedda, G. L., Mayer, P. V., Kolbrener, M. L., & Goodwin, D. C. (1993). Comorbidity in psychosis at first hospitalization. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 752-757.


Strakowski, S. M., Keck Jr, P. E., McElroy, S. L., Lonczak, H. S., & West, S. A. (1995). Chronology of comorbid and principal syndromes in first-episode psychosis. Comprehensive psychiatry, 36(2), 106-112.


Stukenberg, K. W., Dura, J. R., & Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K. (1990). Depression screening scale validation in an elderly, community-dwelling population. Psychological Assessment: A Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 2(2), 134.


Wechsler, D. (2008). Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth edition. San Antonio: TX: Pearson Assessment.


Wilk, C. M., Gold, J. M., McMahon, R. P., Humber, K., Iannone, V. N., & Buchanan, R. W. (2005). No, it is not possible to be schizophrenic yet neuropsychologically normal. Neuropsychology, 19(6), 778-786.