he purpose of this study was to examine post-event rumination, unconditional self-acceptance and social anxiety and to determine the role of post-event rumination in the relationship between social anxiety and unconditional self-acceptance. The subjects were 510 boys and girls studying in a middle school in Seoul, and surveys were implemented using the Korean version of the Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (K-SAS-A), the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory for Children (SPAI-C), the Post-Event Rumination Questionnaire (PRQ), and the Unconditional Self-Acceptance Questionnaire. Examination of the research results shows a positive correlation between post-event rumination and social anxiety and a negative correlation between post-event rumination and unconditional self-acceptance as well as social anxiety and unconditional self-acceptance. In addition, multiple regression analysis was performed to verify the mediating effect of post-event rumination in the relationship between unconditional self-acceptance and social anxiety. Results showed that post-event rumination does have a partial mediating effect on the relationship between unconditional self-acceptance and social anxiety. Examination of the influence of unconditional self-acceptance and post-event rumination on social anxiety in a little more detail verified that interpersonal anxiety and performance anxiety, both sub-factors of social anxiety, each had a mediating effect. Results showed that post-event rumination had a partial mediating effect on the relationship between unconditional self-acceptance and interpersonal anxiety, and suggested that people more prone to post-event rumination had lower unconditional self-acceptance and higher interpersonal anxiety. It was also demonstrated that post-event rumination had a complete mediating effect on the relationship between unconditional self-acceptance and performance anxiety. Examination of these results suggests that a treatment and counseling strategy to increase unconditional self-acceptance should help decrease interpersonal anxiety and that a traditional cognitive-behavioral therapy reducing post-event rumination should be more effective for performance anxiety than a method treating unconditional self-acceptance.
The purpose of the current study was to verify discrimination of the K-CBCL 11 Behavior Problem Scale, the diagnostic accuracy of the K-CBCL as a screening tools, and criteria of subtype of various diagnostic cases. The subjects were 358_(271 boys, 87 girls) 4 to 11 year old children who visited the child psychiatry clinic of four university medical centers, two psychiatric hospitals, 358 parents participated in evaluation of those children with the K-CBCL, and the K-CBCL profile was statistically analyzed with cluster analysis. Significant differences in the K-CBCL 11 Behavior Problem Scale were found in the DSM-Ⅳ diagnosed group, subscales of the K-CBCL 11 Behavior Problem Scale were closely associated with the different DSM-Ⅳ diagnosed group. In the results of cluster analysis by the K-CBCL 8 Behavior Problem Scale, the DSM-Ⅳ diagnosed group was classified according to four subtypes. The four subtypes were shown to have differentially DSM-Ⅳ diagnosed group distribution. Anxiety disorder group_(43.9%) was included in the Internalizing Disorder group_(cluster 2), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder group_(37.0%) was included Externalizing Disorder cluster_(cluster 3). The results showed that it could discriminate the DSM-Ⅳ diagnostic group according to the two classification axes of K-CBCL, Internalizing/Externalizing scales. In the result of discriminant analysis, the K-CBCL 8 Behavior Problem Scale was identified to significant variables in four subtypes, Hit Ratio was identified in 96.1%. These Findings suggest that the K-CBCL is generally accepted as an objective tool for screening in symptoms of psychopathology. Finally, clinical implications and limitations of the current study were discussed.
This study examined the effectiveness of the Internet-based self-help program for social anxiety disorder. Twenty six individuals with social anxiety disorder were assigned to eight sessions of the internet-based self-help program or to a waiting list control group. Korean version of Social Avoidance and Distress Scale (SADS), Brief Fear of negative Evaluation Scale (BFNE), Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS), Social Phobia Scale (SPS), and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were administered before, after four sessions, and after treatment to all participants. The effectiveness of the Internet-based self-help program was analyzed using repeated-measure ANOVAs. Participants in the self-help program showed significant improvement on SADS, SPS, but changes were not significant on BFNE and SIAS. In addition, there were moderate to large effect sizes (0.70 to 1.21). These findings demonstrated that the Internet-based self-help program could provide a cost effective intervention method for individuals with social anxiety disorder.
The current study is conducted in otder to investigate the K-WAIS-Ⅳ profile, which was recently revised for patients with schizophrenia by comparing the K-WAIS-Ⅳ results of patients with schizophrenia and normal control subjects. K-WAIS-Ⅳ was administered to 44 schizophrenia patients and 220 age, gender, and education matched normal control subjects, and the group difference in general intelligence, index, and all K-WAIS-Ⅳ subtest scores was analyzed. Patients with schizophrenia showed lower performance on general intelligence and four index scores than normal control subjects. At the index score level, the performance difference between groups was greatest in processing speed index score, and was smallest in verbal comprehension index score.
The current study sought to shed light on the specific mechanism by which self-compassion and life stress have influences on suicidal ideation. Based on previous studies and literatures, we hypothesized that brooding (one subtype of rumination) and depression would play mediating roles in the link between self-compassion and suicidal ideation, and life stress would moderate the effect of self-compassion on suicidal ideation. Thus, a mediated moderation model (brooding) and two alternative models, a mediated moderation model (reflection) and a dual mediation model (brooding) were proposed. A total of 340 university students completed the measures of self-compassion, life stress, rumination, depression, and suicidal ideation. Path analyses and bootstrapping were used to evaluate the mediated moderation models and the mediational effects. Results showed that the mediated moderation model (brooding) was better than the mediated moderation model (reflection), and only brooding mediated the relation between self-compassion and depression. However, the interaction of self-compassion and life stress was not significant. Path analysis showed that the dual mediation model (brooding) in which self-compassion and life stress separately affect suicidal ideation through mediation of brooding and depression fit the data very well. These results suggest that self-compassion may function as a protective factor for suicidal ideation, independently of the severity of life stress, and that brooding and depression may be mediators of its effect.
Sudden gains (SG) are the phenomena of sudden symptom improvements from one session to the next (Tang & DeRubeis, 1999). SG are known to be related to greater symptom reductions at post-treatment and follow-up session. It is also suggested that SG represent abrupt but sustainable symptom improvements which affect treatment outcome. SG are referred to as phenomena that support the cognitive modification hypothesis; cognitive changes function as a precedent factor that leads to symptom reductions in Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT). However, there is lack of consensus on the mechanism underlying SG or its effect on prognosis. Furthermore, in contrast to the growing number of SG studies on various different psychopathologies and interventions within Western culture, SG studies have been relatively scarce in Asian culture. The aim of this study was to investigate SG in Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy (CBGT) for individuals with Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) in Korea. Data were collected from 32 individuals with SAD who visited the Social Anxiety Counseling Center at Korea University. According to the results, Korean SAD participants showed comparable frequency and magnitude of SG to those reported in previous studies with Western populations. Sudden gainers, compared to non-sudden gainers, showed greater reductions in symptoms associated with social interaction anxiety from pre- to post-assessment. They also demonstrated greater symptom abbreviations in performance anxiety from post- to follow-up assessment. Moreover, the decrease in social anxiety was preceded by reduction of dysfunctional belief and catastrophic anticipation on social interactions. This study was the first to explore SG in Asian culture. In results of this study, patterns of SG in the Korean SAD sample were similar to those reported in Western culture. In addition, sudden gainers showed significantly greater symptom reductions compared to non-sudden gainers. These results support the conceptual importance of SG as both a predictor of positive treatment outcome and evidence to support the cognitive modification hypothesis. In addition, we found temporal difference in the occurrence of SG in social interaction anxiety and performance anxiety, suggesting that individually tailored assessment and intervention based on varying subtypes of social anxiety symptoms may be helpful in promoting better treatment outcome.
Distress tolerance(DT) is an important transdiagnostic construct that has been implicated in the development and maintenance of psychological disorders. In the absence of a clear standard many self-report measures of distress tolerance have been developed from different theoretical backgrounds and applied inconsistently. The absence of a consistent assessment strategy has limited the ability to compare across studies. The Distress Intolerance Index(DII) is an important measure in the aspect that it tries to resolve this problem of existing measures of DT. It was developed through evaluation of the latent factor structure of existing measures of DT and examining which items best capture the core construct. This study was conducted for development of the Korean version of the DII(K-DII) and for examination of the psychometric properties of the measure using non-clinical college students. Results of confirmatory factor analysis provided support for a single-factor latent structure of the K-DII. The internal consistency, test-retest reliability, convergent and divergent validity, and the criterion validity of the K-DII were good. These findings suggest that the K-DII is a reliable, valid measure for assessment of DT.
The purpose of this study was to verify the validity of the C-SSRS in depression patients. A total of 100 depression patients participated. C-SSRS, Beck’s Depression Inventory, Scale for suicide ideation was used to measure the depression and suicide risk of depression patient. The result was that internal consistency coefficient was good ranging from 0.62 to 0.88. In order to verify construct validity of the C-SSRS, exploratory factor analysis was conducted, and as a result, a factor structure with two sub-factors was identified in the suicidal ideation severity scale. Correlation analysis between the C-SSRS and other scales was conducted in order to look at convergent validity and discriminant validity of the C-SSRS. The convergent validity and discriminant validity of the C-SSRS were proved and the C-SSRS was verified to have predictive validity for suicide attempts.
The purpose of this study was to produce a preliminary study for development of the Korean Version of Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales Second Edition(VABS-Ⅱ). The objective was to analyze the significant items and variables and to identify age-related changes in adaptive behavior. Participants were 195 general individuals aged birth through 89 years 11 months. The results of the study are as follows: First, the level of item difficulty was confirmed to maintain the original version so that item average was lowered gradually from early to latter. Second, the result of item discrimination using the correlation between item scores showed good discrimination between individual’s ability. The internal consistency of domain and item was investigated using Cronbach’s α. The coefficient alpha for each was higher than .90. Third, there was a cycle in adaptive behavior; infants and toddlers have rapid development of adaptive behavior. On the other hand, the older group showed a decrease in adaptive behavior in all domains. Last, as a result of examining the differences between individual variables, the interaction effect between residence(capital/local, city/rural) was confirmed in all domains. In conclusion, this study can provide some basic materials for standardization of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-Ⅱ.
In this study we tried to evaluate the effects of a mindfulness-based course on personal development of the university students by cohort design. The 3 credits course was opened based on mindfulness training to improve emotion-regulation and interpersonal relationships for 15 weeks. The effects of the mindfulness course have shown that the students(n=66) of the mindfulness based course were higher on the level of mindfulness, self-esteem than those of the compared and at least equal to an ability to emotion-regulation. Although the mindfulness course increased social connectedness, but it made no positive effect on self-compassion. This results showed that mindfulness could be integrated into a course for the personal development in the university. It was discussed about a way of providing courses based on the various kinds of mindfulness training for different purpose of personal growth. We have proposed an additional evaluation of teacher's personal characteristics and abilities leading course, and weekly evaluation based on syllabus for subsequent studies.
This study examined mediation effects of parenting between temperaments and internalizing/externalizing problems in adolescence and tested moderated mediation effects of parenting by gender using a phantom variable. A total of 1,608 middle school students participated in the study, and study variables were measured in 6-month intervals. Temperament was measured in Time 1, perceived parenting was measured in Time 2, and problem behaviors were measured in Time 3. In a relationship between harm avoidance and internalizing behavior, mediation effects of warmth and intrusion were significant in boys, and mediation effects of warmth, autonomy granting, and intrusion were significant in girls. Girls showed higher mediation effects of warmth. A relationship of novelty seeking and externalizing behavior was significantly mediated by warmth, autonomy granting, and intrusion in both boys and girls. However, girls showed higher mediation effects of warmth. This study clearly demonstrates a causal relationship of temperament, parenting, and problem behaviors in adolescence based on longitudinal data. It is apparent that mediation effects of parenting are moderated by gender. The results of this study were further discussed.
This study was conducted in order to examine the contributions of demographic and psychosocial variables to the prediction of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity in a sample of victims of man-made disaster. Seventy eight participants(36 men and 42 women) who are victims of the artillery attack on Yeonpyeong island by North Korea, completed the Korean versions of the Post-traumatic Diagnostic Scale, Perceived Trauma Severity Scale, Peri-traumatic Experiences Scale, Post-Traumatic Cognitions Scale, and Post-Traumatic Social Support Scale. Results showed that 73 (93%) of total respondents met the DSM-IV criteria for traumatic experiences. Past medical history, physical damage due to trauma, peri-traumatic dissociation and psychological distress, perceived trauma severity, perceived low social support, and posttraumatic negative cognition showed significant correlation with PTSD symptom severity. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that peri-traumatic dissociation and perceived trauma severity each contributed significantly to the PTSD symptom severity after controlling for all of the other relevant predictors. These results suggest the importance of considering the role of peri-traumatic dissociation and perceived trauma severity for more effective prevention and treatment of PTSD symptoms in victims of artillery attack.
The dissemination of evidence-based practices (EBPs) has made relatively slow progress over the past few decades. To understand and inform dissemination efforts in Korea, levels and correlates (“predictors”) of knowledge, attitudes and use of evidence-based practices among 300 graduate student, internship trainees, licensed psychology professionals, and professional school counselors in the Korean mental health field were examined. Results revealed that professional school counselors had the lowest levels of knowledge of empirically-supported treatments (ESTs) compared to all other groups. Professional school counselors also held the most negative views of both evidence-based assessments (EBAs) and ESTs. Across all groups, structured diagnostic interviews and ideographic assessment were used the least frequently. Significant correlates of EBP knowledge, attitudes and usage included practitioner age, years of clinical experience, hours of supervision per week, monthly assessment caseload, and monthly treatment caseload. Study limitations and implications are also discussed, including training efforts needed in Korea to increase the perception towards and usage of EBPs in both clinical and school settings.
The purpose of this study was to analyze the research trend of clinical psychology. A total of 1154 articles Published in the Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology. In the past 50 years(1967∼2013) were analyzed with regard to affiliation of author, research contented and statistical analysis methods were analyzed for a 10-year period. From this analysis, most researchers belonged to university(71%) and hospital(23%). In analysis of research fields, we found that assessment(35.6%) and mental disorder(33.2%), were the most popular areas while personality and addiction were those of least concern. Analysis of variance(39.5%) and analysis of regression(31.8%) were the most frequently used statistical methods. Based on these results, implications for future research were discussed.
The aim of study was to evaluate the quality of randomized controlled trials (RCT) of psychotherapy published between 1961 and 2014 in Korea using the Randomized Controlled Trial-Psychotherapy Quality Rating Scale (RCT-PQRS). On-line searches were performed using the key words, “psychotherapy” or “psychological training” through the RISS and KISS. A total of 75 RCTs of psychotherapy were selected as finals, and independently rated by three researchers. Results showed that 65% of the selected 75 studies were published in the Korean Journals of Psychology such as the Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology. Only nine of the 75 studies were rated 24 or above (the cut-off for a “reasonably well done” study), and eight of the nine studies were published in the Korean Journals of Psychology. Overall, the results showed that the quality of RCTs was rated lower than those reported in previous RCT-PQRS studies targeting RCTs conducted in North America and Europe. Finally, the quality of RCTs was similar between studies using active and inactive controls. Even though RCTs reported in the Korean Journals of Psychology appear to be more rigorous than those reported in other Korean Journals, education within psychology is urgent for improving the quality of the psychotherapy RCT methodology and execution in Korea. Future directions, implications and limitations were discussed.