The present study examined the effectiveness of group therapy based on acceptance commitment therapy for women’s depression. In screening evaluation for depression, thirty one young adult females with depression were selected as participants in group therapy from volunteers. Sixteen of them attended group therapy of acceptance commitment therapy for depression, which consisted of 10 weekly 120 min sessions. The other fifteen were assigned to waiting list control. Participants completed a self-report questionnaire comprised of Beck’s depression inventory, acceptance action questionnaire, self-compassion scale, and mindfulness attention awareness scale at pretreatment, middle term, and posttreatment. In the ACT group, outcome variable (depression) and process variables (acceptance, self-compassion, and mindfulness) were assessed at two week intervals for ten weeks, as well as twice at follow up. The ACT group not only showed remarkable reduction of depression, but also process variables (acceptance, self-compassion, and mindfulness) showed significantly greater change at the time of entry. Further, their changes were maintained until follow up after a four month lapse. In particular, mediational analysis verified that change of acceptance and self-compassion mediated the effect of intervention on depression at follow up. The results of this study suggest that group therapy of ACT for depression is not only effective for reduction of women’s depression, but also contributes to prevention of relapse of women's depression because of the persisting effect of acceptance commitment therapy. Finally, implication and limitation of this study, and recommendation for a future study were discussed.
This study explored the nature of trauma memory representations and examined its relationship with posttraumatic psychological symptoms with the participation of 213 torture survivors. Participants completed self-report scales of posttraumatic stress disorder(PTSD) and depressive symptoms, and trauma memory representations were assessed using the self-report Trauma Memory Quality Questionnaire(TMQQ). The TMQQ appeared to assess the sensation-based memory representation, and it was divided into two factors by exploratory factor analysis. The here-and-now sensory reliving quality appeared to reveal the nature of the first factor, the dissociative reliving sensation-based memory representation. The repetitive and broken visual experiences reflected the nature of the second factor, the fragmented visual experience memory representation. In relationship with posttraumatic psychological symptoms, hierarchical regression analyses controlling for demographic variables and variables related to trauma experiences showed that the dissociative reliving sensation-based memory representation explained PTSD and depressive symptoms significantly. The fragmented visual experience memory representation explained PTSD reexperience symptoms only. Severe traumatic experiences such as torture can be activated into predominant sensation-based memory representations, and the TMQQ appears to reflect these qualities well. Since dissociative reliving sensation-based memory representations are related to posttraumatic psychological symptoms, including depression, results of this study suggest the need for therapeutic interventions that target the integration of these memory representations.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate a program which helps elementary school students minimize negative emotion and improve their emotional regulation competence ability and self-esteem. This program was a synthesis treatment which include a role playing game and group therapies. A total of 60 elementary school students recruited by a mental health center or elementary school in Seoul participated in the study. they were divided into an experimental group and a control group containing 30 students each. The study duration included 10 program events lasting 60 minutes each, which were held once per week. The study program included activities and observations that tested depression, state-anxiety, trait anxiety, anger, emotional regulation competence ability, and self-esteem. Results after 30 days showed that test, depression, state-anxiety, trait anxiety, and anger score had all decreased and emotional regulation competence ability, self-esteem score improved. In conclusion, the RPG-emotion regulation competence program integrated group therapy produced desirable effects for the purpose of dispelling negative emotion and improving emotional regulation competence ability and self-esteem.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the relations among life stress, meaning in life, and wellbeing of university students. Meaning in life was measured by the search for meaning and presence of meaning. Wellbeing was measured by the Subjective and Psychological well-being. Questionnaires including the Life stress, the Meaning in life, and the Subjective and Psychological well-being were implemented in 247 university students. In correlation analysis, the life stress showed significant negative correlation with the Subjective and Psychological well-being. Search for meaning and presence of meaning showed significant positive correlations with the Subjective and the Psychological well-being. In regression analysis, There were not interaction effects of search for meaning and presence of meaning between life stress and well-being. The results showed that only presence of meaning, but not search for meaning, moderate the relationship between life stress and Psychological well-being. In regression analysis, There were not interaction effects of search for meaning between presence of meaning and well-being. The results suggested that search for meaning enhance Psychological well-being. Meaning in life was classified into four groups according to levels of search for meaning and presence of meaning. ‘High presence-high Search’ group showed the highest score for Subjective well-being and the Psychological well-being. The lowest Subjective Wellbeing group was ‘low presence-high search’, and the lowest Psychological Wellbeing group was ‘low presence-low search’. Implications of these findings and limitation were also discussed.
This study attempted to investigate the relation of police officer's traumatic events and Post traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms, depression, and moderating effect of job stress. The Traumatic event scale, Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), Korean-Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Job stress scale were administered to 500 police officers working in Gyeonggi-do. To determine the relation of Police officer's traumatic events and Post traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms, depression, and interaction effects, multiple regressions and hierarchical multiple regressions were run using obtained data. Results indicated that experience of traumatic event events caused PTSD symptoms and depression. In particular, subjective amount of shock of traumatic events was a stronger predictor than the number of traumatic events in PTSD symptoms and depression. Results also showed a moderating effect of job stress in relation to traumatic events and Post traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms, depression. Finally, implication and limitation of this study were discussed.
This study examined the relationships of meaning in life with subjective well-being and depression using samples of university students(n=308) and middle-aged adults(n=154). The results showed significant association of importance, consistency, and meaningfulness of meaning in life with subjective well-being regardless of age. On the other hand, consistency and meaningfulness of meaning in life showed significant association with depression and the relationship between meaning in life and depression was stronger in middle-aged adults. Next, regardless of age, participants who experienced a sense of meaningfulness from the source of self-related factors reported a high level of subjective well-being and a lower level of depression, and those experiencing a sense of meaningfulness from family relationship reported a lower level of depression. However, university students experiencing a sense of meaningfulness from friend relationship reported a higher level of subjective well-being and a lower level of depression, while middle-aged adults sensing meaningfulness from social services and contributions reported a higher level of subjective well-being and those sensing meaningfulness from partner relationship reported a lower level of depression. These findings suggest that the relationships between diverse dimensions of meaning in life and psychological health may vary by age, yet which needs to be considered in that this study is exploratory with a newly developed scale on limited samples.
Recently, with the movement from consumer-driven to provider-oriented mental health services, psychiatric patients' satisfaction is now being regarded as important. Besides, when assessing satisfaction of psychiatric patients, people are more concerned with process and quality than the structure and quantity. The present study examined the effect of ward atmosphere on inpatients' satisfaction in a closed psychiatric ward. In addition, the effects of depression and positive/negative affect which could be mixed on the level of satisfaction were controlled. A total of 53 patients in a closed psychiatric ward completed self-report scales on inpatient satisfaction, ward atmosphere, depression, anxiety, positive/negative affect two times, immediately after admission and just before discharge. In hierarchical multiple regression, depression, and positive/negative affect, and ward atmosphere(support and acceptance of staffs) explained 54.2% of total variance at the time of admission. When leaving the hospital, depression, negative affect, and ward atmosphere(support and acceptance of staffs) explained 59.2% of total variance. In particular, the support and acceptance of staffs showed significant predictive power on inpatients' satisfaction each time. However, the affect predicting inpatients' satisfaction was different with assessment time. Based on these findings, we discussed the results from the standpoint that service providers or staffs should focus on factors affecting psychiatric patients' satisfaction. In addition, the effort of hospital staff could improve psychiatric patients' satisfaction.
The current study examined the relationship between stress and depression in elementary-school children focusing on the mediating effects of dysfunctional attitudes and self-esteem, and gender difference. A total of 465 elementary-school students(236 male and 229 female) completed a stress questionnaire, dysfunctional attitudes scale for children, global self-esteem scale, and Kovacs' children's depression inventory. The data were analyzed by Pearson correlational analysis, path analysis, and multiple group analysis using Mplus. The results of correlational analysis showed correlation of stress, positive and negative self-esteem with depression in both genders. However, in correlation between stress and dysfunctional attitudes, those between positive, negative self-esteem and depression were higher in girls than in boys. T-test showed that girls were more depressed and had higher negative self-esteem than boys. The results from path analysis showed the mediating effects of dysfunctional attitudes and self-esteem model was more fitted than the moderating effect of dysfunctional attitudes and mediating effect of self-esteem model. The paths of positive and negative self-esteem to depression were the strongest. The path of stress -> dysfunctional attitudes -> negative self-esteem -> depression and that of stress -> positive self-esteem -> depression were significant in both genders, however, gender difference was also observed. That is, the path of stress -> dysfunctional attitudes -> positive self-esteem -> depression was significant only in girls. These results suggest that girls are more depressed and have stronger correlation between cognitive characteristics and depression than boys. Finally, the causes of these gender differences, need for differential intervention according to gender and future research direction were discussed.
The purpose of this study was to develop and investigate the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the Adult Self Report (ASR). Selection of a sample for the ASR (507 men and 496 women) was based on data from the 2005 Korean Population and Housing Census. Results of the confirmatory factor analysis showed that the factor structure of the original ASR can be plausibly applied to the Korean version. The Korean ASR demonstrated good internal consistency (.53~.96). The subscales of the ASR showed high correlations with its higher-order-factors, such as internalizing and externalizing. High correlation was also observed between ASR and SCL-90-R related scales. The mean differences and Cohen's effect sizes of the subscales between latent clinical and normative sample supported the scale's discriminant validity. Item and test validity were also supported by Item Response Theory. Implications of using the ASR as a clinical and research instrument are discussed.
The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of callous-unemotional traits and narcissistic personality on delinquency of adolescents on probation. A total of 295 adolescents on probation completed self-report questionnaires including the Korean Inventory of Callous-Unemotional traits, Narcissistic Personality Criterion, and Youth self-report. The results were as follows. Girls showed more delinquent problems and girls’ delinquency showed greater correlation with callousness while boys’ delinquency showed greater correlation with lack of emotional expression. The CU traits were highly correlated with narcissistic personality. Results of hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that when CU trait was controlled, narcissistic personality had significant predictive power for delinquency and this power was higher in girls. The implications and limitations of this study were further discussed.