The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of two types of behavioral parent training programs for parents of children with developmental disabilities. Participants in this study were 44 mothers of children with developmental disabilities. Twenty six mothers were randomly assigned to one of two groups: theory-based training (14 mothers) and practice-based training (12 mothers). An additional nine mothers were assigned to the waitlist control group. Both treatments (theory-based training, practice-based training) consisted of 12 sessions (90~120 minutes per session). Mothers who participated in theory-based training learned basic behavior principles in depth. Mothers who participated in practice-based training learned basic behavior principles in a condensed, brief format, and were instructed to apply the skills to their children. Parent-report questionnaires were administered at the beginning and end of the training period. Direct observations of parent-child interactions were also collected. According to the results, in the practice-based training, positive child behaviors showed a significant increase compared to the control group. In both groups, negative child behaviors showed a significant decrease compared to the control group. No significant differences were observed based on the parent-report questionnaires and observed behaviors of parents. Implications, limitations, and directions for future research are discussed.
A number of studies have documented that responses to negative moods can have an impact on development and maintenance of mood disorders. Notably, Nolen-Hoeksema's Response Styles Theory (1991) which proposes that rumination in response to dysphoric moods is linked to the onset and duration of depression has received extensive attention. However, responses to positive affect have been less investigated, even though they might be equally important in research on mood disorders. The main purpose of the current study is to validate the Responses to Positive Affect (RPA; Feldman, Joorman, & Johnson, 2008), which is a recently developed self-report measure of ruminative and dampening responses to positive affect. In an undergraduate sample (N=191), the Korean-Responses to Positive Affect (K-RPA) evidenced acceptable internal consistency and two factors (positive rumination, dampening) emerged in exploratory factor analysis. In addition, the K-RPA showed convergent and incremental validity with concurrent measures of self-esteem, depressive and manic symptoms. In particular, both subfactors of the K-RPA predicted a significantly additional variance in depressive and manic symptoms, even after controlling for the influence of brooding. The current study provides the initial psychometric properties of the K-RPA and preliminary evidence indicating that responses to positive affect can be a concept of importance in future researches of mania as well as depression. Finally, limitations of the current study and suggestions for future research are discussed.
The purpose of this study is to develop a scale for measurement of cyber pornography addiction of male adolescents and to test reliability and validity of the developed scale. For this, in Study 1 158 preliminary items wereformulated from previous studies and scraps of paper articles and then 38 items were selected through testing of content validity of experts. As a result of exploratory factor analysis, 16 preliminary items with high factor loadings were selected and divided into four factors (disturbance in daily living, increase of impulsiveness and accessibility, withdrawal, tolerance). In Study 2, confirmatory factor analysis was performed among 274 male students in order to test the reliability and validity of the scale formulated in Study 1. As a consequence, four items related to factor of increase of impulsiveness and accessibility lacked consistency due to being mixed with factors with low loading, and were excluded from this study. Thus, the final scale comprised three factors (disturbance in daily living, withdrawal, tolerance) with a total of 12 items. Criterion-related validity test used the following measures: Young's Cybersexual Addiction Index (CAI); Rape myth acceptance level, which was modified and adapted by Lee Suk-jae (1999) from Burt's Rape Myth Acceptance scale (1980), and a new common notion of rape wasadded; internet addiction proneness scale-short form (KS Scale) developed by the Korea Agency for Digital Opportunity and Promotion; Correlation incorporating internet self-efficacy of Park Yun-joung (2009). A significant positive relationship was observed between Young's cybersexual addiction Index (r=.75), rape myth acceptance level (r=.49) and internet addiction proneness scale-short form (r=.42), while there was low correlation with internet self-efficacy (r=.13). This may indicate that the scale had appropriate convergent and discriminant validity. Reliability of the scale for cyber pornography addiction by sub-item was .81∼.83, while that for the whole scale was .90, showing high internal consistency. In addition Guttman split-half coefficient was .85, with re-retest reliability of .88, evidencing high reliability in general as well. In the last part of this study, its limits along with future research directions are discussed.
The aim of the current study is to identify the latent subgroups of inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity problems and to investigate the predictors of temperament (novelty seeking, persistence, reward dependence) and parenting behavior (warm, aggressive/hostile, neglect/indifference parenting) having an influence on those subgroups. Parents of 515 children in two elementary schools in Gyunggi province participated in the study: Children’s attentional problems were measured three times with five month intervals and children’s temperament and parenting behaviors were measured once, only at the first time-point. Cohort sequential design, general growth mixture model, and multinomial logistic regression methods were used for analyses. The results were as follows. First, three subgroups of both inattention and hyperactivity were identified: low (53.6%), moderate (34.0%), and high (12.4%) subgroup for inattention problems and low (56.1%), moderate (31.1%), and high (12.8%) subgroup for hyperactivity-impulsivity problems, respectively. Second, high scores for novelty-seeking and reward dependency and low persistence in temperament as well as high scores for hostile parenting can predict the possibilities belonging to the high-risk inattention subgroup against the subgroup with low inattention problems. Third, high scores for novelty-seeking and low persistence in temperament and high scores for hostile parenting as well as gender (being male) can predict the possibilities belonging to the high-risk hyperactivity-impulsivity subgroup against the subgroup with low hyperactivity-impulsivity problems. Suggestions for future research were discussed, along with the limitation of the current study.
The primary goal of the study was to examine the question of whether the resilience would reduce the risk for suicidal behavior among adults with history of traumatic life events. Out of 1550 participants who completed a web-based survey, the study included 629 adults ages 18 to 60 who reported having experienced at least one traumatic life event. All participants completed the Korean version of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (K-CD-RISC), Posttraumatic stress Diagnosis Scale (PDS-K), and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), with responses to questions about lifetime history of suicidal ideation and attempt. Results of multinominal logistic regression analysis showed that after controlling for sociodemographic factors, frequency of traumatic life events, PTSD and depressive symptoms, the total score on the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (K-CD-RISC) was negatively associated with lifetime history of suicide attempt but not with lifetime history of suicide ideation. Among four subfactors of the K-CD-RISC, positive acceptance of change and secure relationships (factor 3) was the only subfactor predicting both suicidal ideation and attempt after adjusting for risk factors. Resilience measured by the total score on the K-CD-RISC showed the moderating effect in the relationship between PTSD symptoms and suicidal ideation. However, the buffering effect of resilience did not exist when PTSD symptom level was high. Specifically, individuals with low resilience were more likely to report suicidal ideation regardless of the level of PTSD symptoms while those with high resilience were less likely to report suicidal ideation only when PTSD symptom level was low.
The purpose of the study was to investigate relations among sociocultural impact(parents, peers, media) about thinness, body dissatisfaction, coping, dichotomous thinking, restriction, and bulimia. Males (N=223) and females (N=438) participated in this study. Sociocultural influence, stress coping, body dissatisfaction, restrained eating, bulimia behaviors, and dichotomous thinking were assessed. Each participant's height and weight were collected. The results of this study are summarized as follows. In the results for female's, media and parent pressure for thinness showed a significant association with body dissatisfaction. In addition, a higher level of body dissatisfaction showed an association with higher levels of both restriction and bulimia. Problem-focused coping significantly moderated the influence of body dissatisfaction on restriction, whereas emotion-focused coping did not have a significant moderation effect on relation between body dissatisfaction and bulimia. Dichotomous thinking moderated the influence of restriction on bulimia. In the results for male's, parent pressure for thinness showed a significant association with body dissatisfaction. In addition, a higher level of body dissatisfaction showed an association with higher levels of both restriction and bulimia. Problem-focused coping significantly moderated the influence of body dissatisfaction on restriction. Emotion-focused coping moderated the influence of body dissatisfaction on bulimia. Dichotomous thinking moderated the influence of restriction on bulimia. Finally, the clinical implications and limitations of the study were discussed.
The primary aim of this study was to examine the relative impacts of cognitive defusion treatment on anxiety responses to a public-speaking situation, the emotional discomfort and believability of self-referential thoughts, and the degree of attentional bias, as compared to a thought distraction treatment. A secondary aim of the current study was to explore the role of psychological flexibility as a moderator in these treatment effects. University students were randomly assigned to either cognitive defusion(n=27) or thought distraction(n=23) conditions. As expected, under the cognitive defusion condition, a greater decrease was observed in subjective anxiety responses to an impromptu speech situation and the emotional discomfort and believability of negative self-referential thoughts when compared with the thought distraction condition. Next, the partial effects of the cognitive defusion treatment on diastolic blood pressure and pulse immediately after relaxation period were moderated by the levels of psychological flexibility. Moreover, psychological flexibility was shown to moderate the efficacy of the cognitive defusion treatment on the believability of negative self-referential thoughts immediately after the speech. In addition, under the cognitive defusion condition, the extent of cognitive interference on a modified Stroop task showed a greater reduction when compared with the thought distraction condition, when controlling for treatment expectancy and psychological flexibility. In conclusion, the results suggest that cognitive defusion is a useful intervention for reducing speech anxiety responses and the emotional discomfort and believability of negative self-referential thoughts, and that psychological flexibility may emerge as a moderator of the relative efficacy of cognitive defusion.
This study was conducted in order to examine the effects of cognitive processing style and eye movements on an intrusion of similar trauma scenes. To do this, cognitive processing style was manipulated with data-driven processing and conceptual processing, and eye movements were manipulated with horizontal and vertical eye movements. Participants were college students without trauma experiences. In experiment 1, difference of intrusion was examined in each group after showing trauma film. According to results, more intrusions occurred in the vertical eye movement group than in the horizontal eye movement group. No difference was observed between cognitive processing style groups. However, it was not clear whether this result was caused by the cognitive processing style or by eye movements. In addition, it suggested the need to examine, how aspects of intrusion would be shown in the horizontal eye movements with passage of time. Accordingly, in experiment 2, the question of how cognitive processing and passage of time would have an effect on aspects of intrusion in the horizontal group was examined. According to the results, more intrusions for 1～3 days after the experiment occurred in the data-driven processing group, however, more intrusions for 4～6 days occurred in the conceptual processing group. These results suggest that although data-driven processing occurs when suffering from trauma, horizontal eye movements can serve as a reduction of intrusion. Finally, limitations of this study and suggestions for future study were discussed.
The purpose of this study was to examine how horizontal eye movements, a component of the EMDR(eye movement desensitization and reprocessing), influence the level of state anxiety and performance on working memory task. Among college students with higher average score on Test Anxiety Inventory-Korea, 41 subjects were randomly assigned to the horizontal eye movement (n=19) and the eye fixed group (n=21). As a way to trigger state anxiety, the participants were subjected to a mathematical examination prior to the assignment. State anxiety was measured on both pre- and post-treatment. Finally, participants performed a 3-back task. According to the results, the horizontal eye movement group showed a more significant decrease in state anxiety than the eye fixed group, suggesting that horizontal eye movement could be helpful in reducing the level of anxiety. However, no significant difference in the accuracy rate of 3-back task performance was observed between the two groups. Limitations of the current study and suggestions for future research were discussed.
The current study examined the factor structure, reliability and validity of the Korean Version of the Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire(K-MASQ). K-MASQ, BDI-Ⅱ and BAI were administered to 553 adults in the general population. The results of explanatory factor analysis showed that a 3 factor model was adequately supported by omission of 13 items: “general distress”, “somatic anxiety” and “positive affect”. Based on the results, the goodness of fit-index of the confirmatory factor analysis is as follows: NNFI=.80, CFI=.80, RMSEA=.06. The reliability and validity of the K-MASQ was evaluated. Internal consistency was high, and the convergent and discriminant validity of the K-MASQ were acceptable. In conclusion, these results suggest that the K-MASQ is a reliable, valid tool for assessment of mood and anxiety symptoms. Finally, the implication and limitations of the current study and suggestions for the future research were discussed.
The purpose of this study was to examine validity of the K-WAIS-IV short forms and to investigate psychometric features of short forms. Four subtests form, two subtests form were constructed from K-WAIS-IV factor analysis in a standardization sample. Regression equations were used for calculation of estimated IQ. According to criteria of validity(Resnick & Entin, 1971), highly significant correlation was observed between Estimated IQ and full scale IQ. Mean difference between two IQs was not statistically significant, and effect size was also negligible. The percentage of agreement between short form and full scale in classifying subjects according to IQ categories was not high. The results were similar to those when divided by age groups and IQ levels. Psychometric features of short forms were examined. Subtests constructing short forms showed positive correlation with estimated IQ. Absolute error within 95% between two IQs was ±10, ±16, suggesting that K-WAIS-IV short forms should be used with caution.