It has been known that aversive environmental factors influence anxiety reaction, including the development of neurosis and schizoprenia. The tendency for an unpredictable stressor to produce more severe anxiety than a predictable one would seem to have considerable generality. This hypothesis, presented by Imada and Nageishi(1982), states that the animal is less stressed when shock is not only time-predictable but also locus-predictable. Answering this hypothetical question is obviously important for understanding how aversive anticipation produces anxiety. The present experiment utilized the time, locus, predictability and unpredictability design to study effects of aversive anticipation. : stress responses of animals that could predict when and where electric shocks would occur (because each shock was presented fixedly) were compared with stress responses of animals that could not prediet when and where the same shock would occur (because each shock was presented randomly). This study measured changes in body weight, stomach ulceration and heart rate in rats of two by two design groups(time, locus, predictability, unpredictability groups) and one control group (non-shock group). All these measures-weight loss, stomach ulceration and heart rate showed the same effects. Rats that received electric shock unpredictably showed greater somatic reactions than animals which received the same shock predictably. The time-unpredictable group had higher levels than time-predictable group (P<.05), but the locus-unpredictable group had not higher levels than the locus-predictable group and the difference between the locus-predictable and the locus-unpredictable was hardly significant. Experimental effect in the present study was not as great as that of Weiss(1970). As would be expected, the shock conditions raised heart rate levels. Greater rises of heart rates were seen in the unpredictable groups than in the predictable groups. After of 5 mins, 30 mins and 2 hrs, the differences were significant (P<.05), but the groups did not show significant at the end of 19 hrs. The hypothesis, presented by Imada and Nageishi(1982), about the time-predictability preference was verified(P<.05), whereas that of locus-predictability preference was not. The suggestion of these results, which await more detailed analysis, is that time condition is a more important factor in producing anxiety than the locus condition.
The influence of personality factors on coronary heart disease(CHD) is one of the most fascinating issues in the field of psychology and behavioral medicine. In this study, to find the personality factors which may be related to CHD, 43 coronary artery patients were compared with 42 orthopaedic patients(control group) in various psychological measures-Jenkins Activity Survey, Eysenck Type A Scale, Hardiness Scale, Cook-Medley Hostility Scale, and the scales which were used in the Framingham Study(emotional lability, tension, anxiety symptoms, and anger symptoms scale). The data of the two groups were analyzed by means of the statistical methods such as t-test, correlation analysis, factor analysis, and discriminant function analysis. Results indicate that the core elements of the coronary-prone personality are 'neuroticism' factor and 'time-urgency / anger-out' factor which is one of subfactors of the Type A behavior pattern(TABP), and that the former is the more important of the two. And it is indicated that 'job involvement / activity' factor, one of subcomponents of the TABP, is not related to CHD. When all subjects were divided into the four groups on the basis of their JAS scores(divided at the median) and their Hardiness Scores(divided at the median, too), high ratio of CHD patients was found only in the low hardiness / Type A group. Therefore it is suggested that all the Type As are not coronary-prone, but that only the low hardiness / Type As are the 'true Type As' who are coronary-prone.
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory was administered to 112 temporo-mandibular disorder patients. Four subgroups were formed as a result of multivariate cluster analysis of T scroes of each MMPI scales. The first subgroup(N=51) gave a normal profile while the second subgroup (N=37) showed a profile suggesting somatization disorder-depression (1-2-3 pattern). The third subgroup (N=18) was found to suggest anxiety-personality disorder (8-6-3-1 pattern) and the fouth (N=6) conversion-V(3-1-2-4 pattern). Statistically significant difference was confirmed between the four subgroups on all MMPI scales except Mf. What is important is not to try to find a psychiatric diagnosis for each profile type but find out what kind of psychotherapy is most helpful for each type of patients to alleviate their symptoms and pain.
The present study attempted to reevaluate previous schema models and examine the role of malfunctioning cognitive processing in generalized anxiety and the use of cognitive approach in treatment. Sixty four college students with high or low generalized anxiety participated in visual attention-distribution task, free recall and recognition task. Variables of interest were selective information processing patterns depending on the threatening or nonthreatening characteristics of stimulus words and self-other reference conditions. The results were as follows : In attention stage, high anxiety group responded to the neutral probes more rapidly following threatening words compared to nonthreatening words. Low anxiety group did not show any difference in reaction time to threatening and nonthreatening words. But in memory stage, there was no difference with both groups showing recall bias in favor of self-referenced and nonthreatening words. The two groups did not differ in the effect of reference conditions in both attention and memory. These results suggest that anxious subjects respond sensitively to threat cues in the initial stage of information processing but subsequently inhibit further processing. Such cognitive avoidance strategy is likely to exacerbate anxiety symptoms. In view of the present results, it was suggested that previous schema models of anxiety that assume similar biases operate at all stages of processing should be modified and more attention need to be paid to cognitive approaches for generalized anxiety.
The purpose of this study was to measure and compare the response style on problem-solving task and subjective self-evaluation after the task performance in the depressive-obsessive group, nondepressive-obsessive group, depressive-nonobsessive group, and nondepressive-nonobsessive group. These groups were classified according to the prior studies about the relationship between depression and obsession. It was hypothesized that subjects in the nondepressive-obsessive group would regard their symptoms as ego-syntonic and have a relative confidence. On the contrary, subjects in the depressive-obsessive group would regard their symptoms as ego-dystonic, resist their symptoms, and have more disturbances in daily life. So they would have a negative self-concept and lack of confidence. Thus it was predicted that in the evaluator presence condition in which self-directed attention was induced, the depressive-obsessive group would show more lack of confidence and indecisiveness in task performance and subjective evaluation. In the nondepressive-obsessive group, it would show more confidence, less indecisveness, and overestimate their performance. The results were as follows. Subjects in the nondepressive-obsessive group showed more confidence and less indecisiveness in the evaluator presence condition than in the private task performance condition. And they overestimated their performance after they carried out their task in the evaluator presence condition. Subjects in the depressive-obsessive group showed the trend that indecisive task performance style appeared in the evaltuator presence condition more than in the private task performance condition. They overestimated their performance after carrying out their task in the private task performance condition. These results were discussed in terms of self-evaluation maintenance model, control theory, and motivation theory. In addition, the implications, therapeutic suggestions, the limitations of this study, and the directions of further research were discussed.
The present study attempted to examine attributional style of depressed children. 108 elementary school children in the 5th and 6the grades were selected as subjects. On the basis of their PNID (Peer Nomnation Inventory of Depression) and CDI (Children's Depression Inventory) scores, 56 as depressed group and 56 as nondepressed group. Half of each of the two groups (depressed and nondepressed) were randomly assigned to either success or failure feedback condition. Following completion of a task modified from the picture arrangement subtest of KEDI-WISC, subjects filled out attribution style questionnaire designed to evaluate internal-external, stable-unstable and global-specific dimension of their attribution of the outcome. The results were as follows. Depressed children tended to make internal (ability, effort) attributions for a failure outcome and external (task difficulty, luck) attributions for a success outcome. In contrast, nondepressed children made internal (ability, effort) attributions for a success outcome and external (task difficulty, luck) attributions for a failure outcome, indicating a self-serving bias. Following failure the depressed children tended to make stable attribution, while nondepressed children tended to make unstable attribution. There was no group difference following a success. There was no significant difference between the groups on the gobality dimension. The results suggest that depressed children show not only depressive behaviors but also a cognitive bias similar to what has been reported in studies of depredded adults, indicating relevance of learned helplessness theory in understanding childhood depression. Futher research in cognitive characteristics of depressed children will be necessary to understand their significance in symptom formation as well as to devise effective intervention strategies for childhood depression.
The present study. based upon a control theoretical (cybernetic) approach, examined the role of personal, social, and religious coping resources as mediators of the relation between life stress and depression. 314 (cross-sectional) and 104 (longitudinal) participants reported on life stress, coping resources, and depression. The data were analyzed using multiple regression analyses. The results indicate, in both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses that (1) personal coping resources and social coping resources buffered the effects of life stress on depression: (2) personal coping resources demonstrated their effectiveness as mediators for controllable life stress, while social coping resources for uncontrollable life stress: (3) when personal coping was subdivided into two different kinds of control perception (capacity vs. contingency), depression was only moderated by capacity control (defined as the perception that a person has the ability to control desired outcomes): (4) the "specificity hypothesis" of social support (i.e., social coping resources), that a particular kind of social support is effective only in relation to a corresponding kind of life stress, was not confirmed: and (5) religious coping resources (i.e., the perception of God as benevolent) were shown to be mediators only for believers. The discussion of these results highlights the need for a comprehensive model of coping resources, and illustrates the value of a control theoretical framework.
This study was designed to evaluate the construing of formal thought-disordered schizophrenics' personal construct system. Subjects were formal thought-disordered schizophrenic group, non-formal thought-disordered schizophrenic group, and normal group. Split-plot factorial design was used to evaluate the construing of formal thought-disordered schizophrenics. The data were collected from subjects' ranking form Rep Grids and analyzed in terms of construct intensity, construct relationship consistency, element consistency, and construct intensity variability. Integrative complexity and logical inconsistency were obtained from Coordinate Grid analysis. It was found that formal thought-disordered schizophrenics have more loossened construct system, more inconsistent element-construct relations, and more inconsistent logic than the other groups. And also, their construct relationship was less stable and their integrative complexity was simpler than the other groups. It was suggested that integrative complexity and element consistency are better indices than the other indices to assess loose construing.
This study replicated and extended Green & Walker(1984)'s study which had investigated attentional performances of schizophrenia by using digit span tasks. Schizophrenic patients were divided into three subgroups : Positive, mixed, and negative group. The results are contrary to Green & Walker's study. Negative and mixed group showed significant intrusions when compared to normal controls. The difference between non distracter and distracter conditions was significant in positive and mixed group. The results of our analysis of Covariance with anxiety as a covariate indicated that the group effect was not influenced, however, the difference between the two conditions disappeared.
The following are the results of interviews and psychological tests including SCT and paper Sculpture applied to 73 schizophrenic in-and outpatients and their families. It was found out that patients were looked after by different family members according to whether or not they were in hospital. In case of outpatients all of them were looked after by their parents, while inpatients were looked after more likely by their siblings than by their patents. There were many protracted inpatients who were continuing to stay in hospital due to family reasons. There existed a significant positive relationship between patients' emotional stability and their families'. The families of outpatients were emotionally more stable than those of inpatients. Patients' behaviors which their families found it very difficult to cope with before they were hospitalized were analyzed into two patterns: social withdrawal symptoms such as inactivity and refusal of meal and social embarrassing symptoms such as act of violence. It was observed that such social withdrawal symptoms were the main reasons why the families of inpatients hesitated to get the patients out of hospital.
The primary purpose of the present study was to evaluate reliability and validity of the Korean version of Abbreviated Corners Rating Scale(ACRS). 1239 elementary school children in grade 1 through grade 6 were rated by their parents using the 10 item ACRS. Of these children, 684 children were also rated with the same 10 item ACRS by their teachers. Both parent's and teacher's form of the ACRS showed high reliability but correlation between the parent's and teacher's ACRS total score was relatively low suggesting cross-situational variability of hyperactive behavior pattern. Children of fathers with relatively fewer years of education were rated as more hyperactive by their parents than those of fathers with higher level of education, but teacher rating did not reflect differences depending on the level of father's education. Boys were rated as more hyperactive than girls by both parents and teachers. Teacher's rating indicated hyperactive behavior pattern decline with age, while such age-associated change was not apparent in parent rating data. Factor analysis of teacher rating data consistently revealed two factors(conduct disorder and emotional lability), while the same analysis of parental rating data suggested a possible third factor(inattention). Two standard deviations above the mean(M+2SD) in total ACRS score which was suggested as a criterion for defining hyperactive sample corresponds to 16 for parental. rating and 17 for teacher's rating.
This preliminary study attempted to standardize the Korean version of DSFI that seems to be useful to diagnosis of sexual dysfunction. For the purpose of this study, 351 adults were selected and based on their responses, verification of reliability and validity was carried out. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was used to calculate the internal consistency of the inventory. The internal consistency coefficients of each of the subscales ranged from .49 to .97. Overall, internal consistency reliability was good for the Korean version of the DSFI. To accomplish verification of construct validity of the DSFI, principal components factor analysis on the pooled data from 351 subjects was conducted, with repetitions followed by varimax rotation. Six interpretable factors were derived from the analysis which accounted for 62 percent of the variance in the matrix. These are "appropriate heterosexual relationship", "psychological distress", "autoeroticism", "sex role", "sexual precociousness" and "sexual repression". To accomplish verification of predictive validity of the DSFI, statistical evaluation of the differences in SFI, GSSI, and subtest scores were conducted for males and females separately. In males tire comparision were among the three groups which included nonpatient normals, nonpatient sexual difficulty complainants, sexual dysfunctions. In females the comparisions were between nonpatient normals and nonpatient sexual difficulty complaints. In view of the results, significant differences among the three groups in the males were observed. Females, on the other hand, do not reveal as many significant distinctions between the two groups. Finally, the limits of this study and several issues for following ones were discussed.
Korean-American adolescents of today are different from adolescents of past generations and from adolescents in their motherland. This is not due to mutuation in their hereditary endowment but to cultural factors which did not exist in past generations in Korea and America. From the moment the Korean-American adolescent steps on the doorstep of first grade until he graduates from high school, college, or graduate school, he is exposed to taching which lauds the advantages of a democracy and stresses the evils of autocracy. He is not only permitted to think independently and to express these thoughts freely, but is encourged to do so. To parents of adolescents who were brought up to "respect their elders," this comes as a shock and after causes a real trauma. From the above outline it should be apparent that the patterns of development on their personalities and ego-identities can be grouped into three categories traditionalist(parent conformity), anti-traditional and American culture-oriented adolescents who are betwixt and between reference groups, much like a "marginal man," and Korean(or Asian) American who has a feeling of conficence that he can achieve success within his capacities but he must retain a sense of individuality and ego-identity.
It appears that for western psychologists the traits of mature personality is very important because of its noble dignity. The problem which Aristotle proposes to examine in the De Anima, no boubt is: What is the soul? For him, the first thing is to know what the essense of the soul is. Aristotle is well aware of the fact that the knowledge of the soul is of the greatest value because of its dignity, and that it is alway difficulty to look for the essence of something because for that there is no common method. The human soul is in the some sense the principle of animal life, which is acting through the body. But for him, there is the distinction between the soul itself and the soul in its function. Major determinants of human soul seem to be a set of inseity, integrality and imcommunicability.