본문 바로가기 주메뉴 바로가기

Korean Journal of School Psychology


A Concept Map of Posttraumatic Growth among Adolescents: Focusing on Loss Trauma Experience


This study is both a concept mapping study and a validity study on the posttraumatic growth of adolescents. It aims to empirically determine major contributors to the posttraumatic growth of adolescents, as a concept mapping study and a validity study. First of all, the researchers of the first study, which was a concept mapping study on the posttraumatic growth of eight adolescents, conducted interviews with the subjects, who were reported to achieve the posttraumatic growth. The researchers summarized them into 38 core components, and created a concept map with multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analysis. The result showed that two dimensions consisted of cognitive․affective-behavioral engagement and personal-sociocultural factor. The four clusters were evaluated with 5-point Likert scales (1 = strongly disagree to 5 = strongly agree) for subjects to show how important each cluster was to the individual’s context. The result referred to “willingness and responsibility of family members” as the most significant, followed by “the attainment of personal goals and a sense of achievement”, “acceptance and searching for meaning” and “social support and stress relief activities”. Next, the second study sought to validate factors of posttraumatic growth that were revealed in the concept mapping method through a new non-parametric statistics test. In this study, the 38 components of growth variables drawn from the previous concept mapping, were introduced to identify the importance to two groups, one of which consisted of an eight people of growth group, and the other an eight people of non-growth group. The result indicated that the growth group was ranked higher than the non-growth group, and the difference in the four clusters was significant between the two groups. Lastly, it presents the limitations of this study and the suggestion for further research.

청소년의 외상후 성장 상실 경험 개념도 연구 비모수 검정 타당화 posttraumatic growth adolescents loss trauma experience concept mapping cross validation non-parametric statistics test



김민영, 김영아, 오경자 (2012). 한국판 아동․청소년행동평가 척도 교사용(TRF) 표준화 연구. 한국심리학회지: 학교 9(2), 2012.8, 367-391.


김지애 (2012). 대학생의 외상 후 성장 촉진 요인에 관한 개념도 연구: 정서적 폭력을 중심으로. 연세대학교 석사학위 논문.


김현미, 정민선 (2014). 청소년의 외상후 성장 관련 변인 탐색. 교육치료연구, 6(2), 213- 228.


김희수, 윤은정 (2004). 청소년이 지각한 교사의 행동과 애착안정성이 학교 적응에 미치는 영향. 한국청소년연구, 15(20), 93- 115.


민경화, 최윤정 (2007). 상담학 연구에서 개념도(Concept Mapping) 방법의 적용. 상담학 연구, 8(4), 1291-1307


박선정 (2015a). 관계 상실 경험 대학생이 지각한 사회적 지지가 외상 후 성장에 미치는 영향: 의도적 반추의 매개효과. 학교사회복지, 30, 71-94.


박선정 (2015b). 대인외상 경험 청소년이 지각한 사회적 지지가 외상 후 성장에 미치는 영향: 적극적 대처의 매개효과. 미래청소년학회지, 12(1), 25-47.


박현선 (1998). 빈곤 청소년의 위험 및 보호요소가 학교 적응유연성에 미치는 영향. 사회복지연구, 11(1), 23-52


서영석, 조화진, 안하얀, 이정선 (2012). 청소년들의 외상사건 경험. 한국교육심리학회, 26(3), 787-816.


성미옥 (2003). 초등학생의 자아존중감과 학교생활 만족도 향상을 위한 칭찬 프로그램 개발과 그 효과에 관한 연구. 서울교육대학교 석사학위논문.


송승훈, 이홍석 박준호, 김교헌 (2009). 한국판 외상후 성장 척도의 타당도 및 신뢰도연구. 한국심리학회지: 건강, 14(1), 193-214.


오경자, 하은혜, 이혜련, 홍강의 (2001). K-YSR 청소년 자기행동 평가척도. 서울: 중앙적성출판사.


오경자, 김경아 (2015). ASEBA 아동․청소년 행동평가 척도 매뉴얼, HUNO, 7-63.


유희정 (2012). 외상후 성장에 영향을 미치는 변인들간의 구조적 관계. 부산대학교 박사학위 논문.


은헌정, 이선미, 김태형 (2001). 일 도시 지역의 외상후 스트레스 장애 역학조사. 대한신경정신의학회지, 40(4), 581-591.


이선미, 은헌정 (1999). 한국판 사건 충격척도의 신뢰도 및 타당도에 관한 연구. 대한신경정신의학회지, 38(3), 501-513.


이양자, 정남운 (2009). 외상 후 성장에 대한 연구 개관: 적응과의 관계 및 치료적 적용을 중심으로. 한국심리학회지: 건강 13(1), 1-23.


임선영, 권석만 (2012). 대학생의 관계상실을 통한 성장에 관한 연구: 인지적 유연성과 인지적 정서조절 방략을 중심으로. 한국심리학회지: 일반, 31(2), 261-281.


최승미 (2008). 외상후 성장관련 변인의 탐색. 고려대학교 박사학위 논문.


Achenbach, T. M., & Edelbrock, C. (1983). Manual for the child behavior Checklist and Revised Child behavior Profile. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry.


Anderson, H., Mitchell, K. R. (1983). All our losses, all our griefs: resources for pastoral care. Philadelphia: Westminster Press.


Calhoun, L. G., & Tedeschi, R. G. (2004). The Foundations of Posttraumatic Growth: New Considerations. Psychological Inquiry, 15(1), 93-102


Carlson, C. (1978). Behavioral concepts and nursing intervention ‘Loss’ in chapter 4. 2nd ed. New York, J. B.; Lippincott. 72-112.


Clay, R., Knibbs, J., & Joseph, S. (2009). Measurement of posttraumatic growth in young people: A review. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 14, 411-422.


Danforth, M. M., Conrad Glass, J. Jr (2001). Listen to my words, give meaning to my sorrow: A study in cognitive constructs in middle-age bereaved widows. Death studies, 25(6), 513-529.


Gol, A. R., & Cook, S. W. (2004). Exploring the underlying dimensions of coping: A concept mapping approach. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 23(1), 155-171.


Giorgi, A. (1985). Sketch of a psychological phenomenological method. In A. Giorgi (Ed), Phenomenology and psychological research (pp.12-18). Philadelphia: Duquesne University Press.


Haynes, N. M. (1990). Influence of self-concept on school adjustment among middle-school students. The Jounal of social psychology, 130(20), 199-207.


Janoff-Bulman, R. (1992). Shattered assumptions: Towards a new psychology of trauma. New York: Free Press.


Kane, M., & Trochim, W. M. K. (2007). Concept mapping for planning and evaluation. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publication.


Kessler, R. C. (2002). The impact of childhood psychopathology interventions on subsequent substance abuse: Policy implications, comments, and recommendations. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70(6), 229-249.


Kilmer, R. P., Gil-Rivas, V., Tedeschi, R. G., Cann, A., Calhoun, L. G., Buchanan, T., et al. (2009). Use of the revised Posttraumatic Growth Inventory for Children (PTGI-CR). Journal of Traumatic Stress, 22, 248-253.


Kilmer, R. P., & Gil-Rivas, V. (2010). Exploring posttraumatic growth in children impacted by Hurricane Katrina: Correlates of the phenomenon and developmental considerations. Child Development, 81, 1211-1227.


Linley, P. A., Alex, J., & Joseph, S. (2004). Positive change following and adversity: A review. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 17(1), 11-21.


Milam, J. E., Ritt-Olsen, A., & Unger, J. B. (2004). Posttraumatic growth among adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Research, 19, 192-204.


Park, C. L., Cohen, L. H., & Murch, R. L. (1996). Assessment and prediction of stress-related growth. Journal of Personality, 64(1), 71-105.


Rosenblatt, P. (2000). Parent grief: Narrative of loss and relationship. Philadelphia: Brunner/Mazel


Sofka, C. J. (1997). Loss History Checklist. In J. D. Maanino (Ed), Grieving days, healing days, (p.20). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.


Taku, K., Kilmer, R. P., Cann, A., Tedeschi, R. G., & Calhoun, L. G. (2012). Exploring posttraumatic growth in Japanese youth. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy.


Tedeschi, R. G., & Calhoun, L. G. (1996). The posttraumatic growth inventory: Measuring the positive legacy of trauma. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 9, 455-471.


Tedeschi, R. G., & Calhoun, L. G. (2004). Posttraumatic growth: Conceptual foundation and empirical evidence. Psychological Inquiry, 15, 93-102.


Trochim, W. M. K. (1989). An introduction to concept mapping for planning and evaluation. Evaluation and Program Planning, 12, 1-16.

Korean Journal of School Psychology