The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between gratitude and altruistic behavior and mediating effect of social connectedness and social responsibility. For this purpose, questionnaires survey was conducted on 386 college students using Korean version of the Gratitude Questionnaire(K-GQ-6), Altruistic behavior scale, The Social Connectedness and the Social Assurance Scale, and Social Responsibility subscale in Character Strengths Test(CST). Collected data were analyzed by using a structural equation model. The result of this study were as follows. First, the finding in a correlation analysis indicated that gratitude, social connectedness, social responsibility, altruistic behavior were positively correlated. Second, Social connectedness showed partial mediating effect in relation between gratitude and altruistic behavior. Third, Social connectedness and Social responsibility showed partial sequential mediating effect in relation between gratitude and altruistic behavior. In conclusion, implications for counseling, limitations of the study and suggestions for future research were discuss.
구자영, 서은국 (2007). 행복의 양이 한정되어 있다는 믿음과 주관적 안녕감. 한국심리학회지: 사회 및 성격, 21(4), 1-19.
권석만, 유성진, 임영진, 김지영 (2010). 성격강점 검사 전문가용 지침서. 서울: 학지사.
권선중, 김교헌, 이홍석 (2006). 한국판 감사 성향 척도 (K-GQ-6) 의 신뢰도 및 타당도. 한국심리학회지: 건강, 11(1), 177-190.
김은영, 설선혜, 유하나, 김학진, 송현주 (2014). 강화학습과제에서의 어머니의 이타적 성향과 자녀의 공감 간의 관계, 한국심리학회지 : 여성, 19(2), 117-136.
김지영, 권석만 (2015). 성격강점과 성격장애가 안녕감과 우울감에 미치는 영향. 한국심리학회지: 임상심리 연구와 실제, 1(1), 1-19.
서영석 (2010). 상담심리연구에서 매개효과와 조절효과 검증. 한국심리학회지: 상담 및 심리치료, 22(4), 1147-1168.
송민정, 이민규 (2011). 책임감과 기억확신이 강박증상에 미치는 영향. 한국심리학회지: 임상, 30(3), 629-645.
신애자, 김용수 (2016). 감사 연구 동향 및 관련변인에 대한 메타분석. 상담학연구, 17 (1), 149-168.
이숙정 (2001). 아동의 다중지능과 친사회적 행동의 관계 연구. 숙명여자대학교 석사학위 논문.
이정미, 이윤주 (2013). 내담자가 지각한 공감 경험에 관한 질적 연구. 상담학연구, 14 (4), 2027-2048.
조효진, 손난희 (2006). 공감능력과 이타행동. 상담학연구, 7(1), 1-9.
최윤정, 추병완 (2015). 초등학생의 학교 유대감 증진을 위한 감사 연습 방안. 도덕윤리과교육연구, 48(단일호), 297-337.
최해연 (2012). 한국의 학생과 직장인이 경험하는 긍정정서의 구조. 한국심리학회: 사회 및 성격. 26(4), 73-88.
추병완. (2015). 학교 유대감 형성을 위한 감사의 기능. 초등도덕교육, 49(단일호), 67-90.
Aarts, H., & Dijksterhuis, A. (2003). The silence of the library: environment, situational norm, and social behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(1), 18-28.
Adler, M. G., & Fagley, N. S. (2005). Appreciation: Individual differences in finding value and meaning as a unique predictor of subjective well‐being. Journal of Personality, 73(1), 79-114.
Algoe, S. B., & Haidt, J. (2009). Witnessing excellence in action: The “other praising” emotions of elevation, gratitude, and admiration. Journal of Positive Psychology, 4(2), 105-127.
Arntz, A., Voncken, M., & Goosen, A. C. (2007). Responsibility and obsessive-compulsive disorder: An experimental test. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45(3), 425-435.
Aron, A., Aron, E. N., & Smollan, D. (1992). Inclusion of Other in the Self Scale and the structure of interpersonal closeness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 63(4), 596-612.
Bagozzi, R. P., & Edwards, J. R. (1998). A general approach for representing constructs in organizational research. Organizational Research Methods, 1(1), 45-87.
Baron, R. A. (1997). The sweet smell of … helping: Effects of pleasant ambient fragrance on prosocial behavior in shopping malls. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 23(5), 498-503.
Batson, C. D. (2011). Altruism in humans. USA: Oxford University Press.
Baumeister, R. F., & Leary, M. R. (1995). The need to belong: desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 117(3), 497.
Bebiroglu, N., Geldhof, G. J., Pinderhughes, E. E., Phelps, E., & Lerner, R. M. (2013). From family to society: The role of perceived parenting behaviors in promoting youth civic engagement. Parenting, 13(3), 153-168.
Berkowitz, L., & Lutterman, K. G. (1968). The traditional socially responsible personality. Public Opinion Quarterly, 32(2), 169-185.
Bolier, L., Haverman, M., Westerhof, G. J., Riper, H., Smit, F., & Bohlmeijer, E. (2013). Positive psychology interventions: A meta- analysis of randomized controlled studies. BMC Public Health, 13(119). 119-138.
Brewer, M. B. (2004). Taking the Social Origins of Human Nature Seriously: Toward a More Imperialist Social Psychology. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 8(2), 107-113.
Brown, S. L., Nesse, R. M., Vinokur, A. D., & Smith, D. M. (2003). Providing support may be more beneficial than receiving it: Results from a prospective study of mortality. Psychological Science, 14(4), 320-327.
Brown, S. L., & Brown, R. M. (2006). Selective investment theory: Recasting the functional significance of close relationships. Psychological Inquiry, 17(1), 1-29.
Bushman, B. J., & Anderson, C. J. (2002). Violent Video Games and Hostile Expectations: A Test of the General Aggression Model. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28(12), 1679-1686.
Cialdini, R. B., Darby, B. L., & Vincent J. E. (1973) Transgression and altruism: A case for hedonism, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. 9(6) 502-516.
Cwir, D., Carr, P. B., Walton, G. M., & Spencer, S. J. (2011). Your heart makes my heart move: Cues of social connectedness cause shared emotions and physiological states among strangers. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 47(3), 661-664.
Cicognani, E., Pirini, C., Keyes, C., Joshanloo, M., Rostami, R., & Nosratabadi, M. (2008). Social participation, sense of community and social well being: A study on American, Italian and Iranian university students. Social Indicators Research, 89(1), 97-112.
Conrad, D. E., & Hedin, D. (1981). National assessment of experiential education: Summary and implications. Journal of Experiential Education, 4(2), 6-20.
Cougle, J. R., Lee, H. J., & Salkovskis, P. M. (2007). Are responsibility beliefs inflated in non-checking OCD patients?. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 21(1), 153-159.
Cozolino, L. (2006). The social brain. Psychotherapy in Australian, 12(2), 12-16.
Duke, N. N., Skay, C. L., Pettingell, S. L., & Borowsky, I. W. (2009). From adolescent connections to social capital: Predictors of civic engagement in young adulthood. Journal of Adolescent Health, 44(2), 161-168.
Dunn, J. R., & Schweitzer, M. E. (2005). Feeling and believing: the influence of emotion on trust. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 88(5), 736.
Eisenberg, N., & Mussen, P. H. (1989). The roots of prosocial behavior in children. Cambridge University Press.
Emmons, R. A., & Shelton, C. M. (2002). Gratitude and the science of positive psychology. In C. R. Snyder & S. J. Lopez(Eds.), Handbook of positive psychology. (pp.459-471). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Emmons, R. A. (2005). Striving for the sacred: Personal goals, life meaning, and religion. Journal of Social Issues, 61(4), 731-745.
Emmons, R. A.(2007). 마음을 여는 감사의 발견 Thanks!. (이창희 역). 서울: 위즈덤하우스.
Feeney, B. C., & Collins, N. L. (2015). A New Look at Social Support: A Theoretical Perspective on Thriving Through Relationships. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 19(2), 113-147.
Fehr, E., & Fischbacher, U. (2003) The nature of human altruism, Nature, 425(6960), 785-791.
Fredrickson, B. L. (2000). Cultivating positive emotions to optimize health and well-being. Prevention & Treatment, 3(1), 1a.
Fredrickson, B. L. (2001). The role of positive emotions in positive psychology: The broaden- and-build theory of positive emotions. American Psychologist, 56(3), 218-226.
Fredrickson, B. L., & Joiner, T. (2002). Positive emotions trigger upward spirals toward emotional well-being. Psychological Science, 13(2), 172-175.
Froh, J. J., Bono, G., & Emmons, R. (2010). Being grateful is beyond good manners: Gratitude and motivation to contribute to society among early adolescents. Motivation and Emotion, 34(2), 144-157.
Froh, J. J., Emmons, R. A., Card, N. A., Bono, G., & Wilson, J. A. (2011). Gratitude and the reduced costs of materialism in adolescents. Journal of Happiness Studies, 12(2), 289-302.
Froh, J. J., Sefick, W. J., & Emmons, R. A. (2008). Counting blessings in early adolescents: An experimental study of gratitude and subjective well-being. Journal of School Psychology, 46(2), 213-233.
Grant, A. M., & Gino, F. (2010). A little thanks goes a long way: Explaining why gratitude expressions motivate prosocial behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 98(6), 946-955.
Gunnoe, M. L., Hetherington, E. M., & Reiss, D. (1999). Parental religiosity, parenting style, and adolescent social responsibility. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 19(2), 199-225.
Hackman, J., Danver, A., & Hruschka, D. J.(2015). Closeness is enough for friends, but not mates or kin: mate and kinship premiums in India and U.S. Evolution and Human Behavior, 36(2), 137-145.
Hayes, A. F., Preacher, K. J., & Myers, T. A. (2011). Mediation and the estimation of indirect effects in political communication research sourcebook for political communication research: Methods, measures, and analytical Techniques, New York: Routledge.
Hoffman, M.L. (1982). Development of prosocial motivation: Empathy and guilt. In N. Eisenberg-Berg, (Ed.), Development of prosocial behavior. New York: Academic Press, 281-313.
Hruschka, D. J. (2010). Friendship: Development, ecology, and evolution of a relationship.. USA: Univ of California Press.
Jones, B., & Rachlin, H. (2006). Social discounting. Psychological Science, 17(4), 283- 286.
Langston, C. A. (1994). Capitalizing on and coping with daily-life events: Expressive responses to positive events. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67(6), 1112-1125.
Lee, R. M., & Robbins, S. B. (1995). Measuring Belongingness: The social connectedness and social assurance scales. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 42(2), 232-241.
Lee, R. M., & Robbins, S. B. (1998). The relationship between social connectedness and anxiety, self-esteem, and social identity. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 45(3), 338-345.
Lee, R. M., Draper, M., & Lee, S.(2001). Social connectedness, dysfunctional interpersonal behaviors, and psychological distress: Testing a mediator model. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 48(3), 310-318.
Leider, S., Möbius, M. M., Rosenblat, T., & Do, Q. A. (2009). Directed altruism and enforced reciprocity in social networks. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 124(4) 1815-1851.
Lenzi, M., Vieno, A., Pastore, M., & Santinello, M. (2013). Neighborhood social connectedness and adolescent civic engagement: An integrative model. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 34, 45-54.
Lenzi, M., Vieno, A., Santinello, M., Nation, M., & Voight, A. (2014). The role played by the family in shaping early and middle adolescent civic responsibility. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 34(2), 251-278.
Lopez, S. J. (2011) 인간의 번영 추구하기. (권석만, 임영진, 신우승 역). 서울: 학지사
Lopez, S. J. (2011) 정서적 경험 활용하기. (권석만, 임선영, 김기환 역). 서울: 학지사
McCullough, M. E., Emmons, R. A., & Tsang, J. A. (2002). The grateful disposition: a conceptual and empirical topography. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82(1), 112.
McCullough, M. E., Kilpatrick, S. D., Emmons, R. A., & Larson, D. B. (2001). Is gratitude a moral affect?. Psychological Bulletin, 127(2), 249.
Pancer, S. M., Pratt, M., Hunsberger, B., & Alisat, S. (2007). Community and political involvement in adolescence: What distinguishes the activists from the uninvolved?. Journal of Community Psychology, 35(6), 741-759.
Park, N., Peterson, C., & Seligman, M. E. P (2004). Strengths of Character and Well- Being. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 23(5), 603-619.
Peterson, C., Seligman, M. E. P (2004). Character strengths and virtues: A classification and handbook. New York: Oxford University Press.
Rachlin, H., & Jones, B. A. (2008). Social discounting and delay discounting. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 21(1), 29-43.
Ramaswamy, T. S. (2006). Your god my god: Journey of the quivering heart. Philadelphia: Xlibris
Rushton, J. P., Chrisjohn, R. D., & Fekken, G. C. (1981). The altruistic personality and the self-report altruism scale. Personality and Individual Differences, 2(4), 293-302.
Schuyt, T., Bekkers, R., & Smit, J. (2010). The Philanthropy Scale: A sociological perspective in measuring new forms of pro social behaviour. Social Work & Society, 8(1), 121- 135.
Schwartz, S. H. (1994). Are there universal aspects in the structure and contents of human values?. Journal of Social Issues, 50(4), 19-45.
Seligman, M. E., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2000). Special issue: Positive psychology. American Psychologist, 55(1). 5-14.
Seligman, M. E., Steen, T. A., Park, N., & Peterson, C. (2005). Positive psychology progress: empirical validation of interventions. American Psychologist, 60(5), 410.
Snyder, C. R., & Lopez, S. J. (2009). Oxford handbook of positive psychology. New York: Oxford University Press.
Steele, W. R., Schreiber, G. B., Guiltinan, A., Nass, C., Glynn, S. A., Wright, D. J., & Garratty, G. (2008). The role of altruistic behavior, empathetic concern, and social responsibility motivation in blood donation behavior. Transfusion, 48(1), 43-54.
Strombach, T., Jin, J., Weber, B., Kenning, P., Shen, Q., Ma, Q., & Kalenscher, T. (2014). Charity begins at home: Cultural differences in social discounting and generosity. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 27(3), 235-245.
Tsang, J. (2006). Gratitude and prosocial behavior: An experimental test of gratitude. Cognition and Emotion, 20(1), 138-148.
Twenge, J. M., Baumeister, R. F., DeWall, C. N., Ciarocco, N. J., & Bartels, J. M. (2007). Social exclusion decreases prosocial behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92(1), 56.
Watkins, P. (2014). Gratitude and the Good Life: Toward a Psychology of Appreciation. New York, NY: Springer.
Waugh, C. E., & Fredrickson, B. L. (2006). Nice to know you: Positive emotions, self–other overlap, and complex understanding in the formation of a new relationship. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 1(2), 93-106.
Weiner, B. (1985). An attributional theory of achievement motivation and emotion. Psychological Review, 92(4), 548.
West, S. G, Finch, J. F., & Curran, P. J. (1995). Structural equation models with nonnormal variables: Problems and remedies. In R. H. Hoyle (Ed.), Structural equation modeling: Concepts, issues, and applications (pp. 56-75). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Wood, A. M., Joseph, S., & Maltby, J. (2009). Gratitude predicts psychological well-being above the Big Five facets. Personality and Individual Differences, 46(4), 443-447.