This study explored the lived experiences of high school students who experienced a norm-referenced evaluation with the Naesin system. The participants were 15 high school students who resided in the areas of Seoul, Gyeonggi, and Busan. This study adopted a phenomenological research method, which is developed by Giorgi. The study resulted in 370 meaning units, 71 summaries of meaning units, 26 sub-constituents, and 9 constituents. The results showed that participants experienced their relationships with classmates were centered around competitions and they experienced the sense of repeated frustration with their academic goals. Participants perceived that their personal values equated with their academic rankings and they anticipated academic rankings becoming their future social rankings. Low rankings with good performance, learning for exam, and unfair treatment in school made them realize that the education is not for learning but for differentiating students. Participants have found the ways to know better about reality and self-regulated their thoughts and emotions. Further, this study identified resilient aspects of the participants such as support from parents and teachers and hopeful thoughts. This study discussed the meaning of the findings and implications of the findings.
강태훈 (에듀인뉴스, 2016년, 9월1일). 학교평가, 제대로 이루어지고 있나? 에듀인뉴스. URL: http://www.eduinnews.co.kr/news/articleView.html?idxno=6339
김희연, 이상훈, 김군수, 신기동 (2012). 스트레스 사회 한국. 이슈 & 진단, 59, 1-26.
박서연, 윤미선 (2018). 고등학생의 사회비교경향성, 성패귀인, 성취정서의 구조적 관계. 중등교육연구, 66(1), 93-120.
베리타스 알파 (2017년, 11월 21일). PISA ‘협력적 문제해결력’ 한국 세계 4위..1위 싱가포르, 2위 일본. URL: http://www.veritas-a.com/news/articleView.html?idxno=101267
배장훈, 안성진 (2009). 교육내실화를 위한 내신 절대평가 방안에 관한 연구. 한국컴퓨터교육학회 하계 학술발표논문집, 13(2), 35-40.
서미혜 (2017). SNS 이용이 상대적 박탈감과 객관적 주관적 경제 지위 간 격차를 거쳐 삶의 만족도에 미치는 영향. 한국언론정보학보, 83, 72-95.
송인섭, 박성윤 (2000). 목표지향성, 자기조절학습, 학업성취와의 관계 연구. 교육심리연구, 14(2), 29-64.
유한구, 김형식 (2017). PISA2012와 PIAAC 분석을 통한 우리나라 청소년과 성인의 교육효율성 분석. KRIVET Issue Brief, 116. 한국직업능력개발원.
임현숙, 조혜경 (2018). 청소년기 자녀를 양육하는 결혼이주여성의 갈등 경험. 질적연구, 19(2), 90-101.
조규판, 장은영 (2009). 고등학생의 사회비교경향성에 따른 학습양식 및 성패귀인양식. 한국교육학연구, 15(2), 57-78.
Ames, C., & Archer, J. (1987). Mothers’ belief about the role of ability and effort in school learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 18, 409-414. doi:10.1037//0022-06220.127.116.119
Bandura, A., & Jourden, F. (1991). Self-regulatory mechanisms governing the impact of social comparison on complex decision making. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 941-951.
Bounoua, L., Cury, F., Regner, I., Huguet, P., Barron, K., & J Elliot, A. (2011). Motivated use of information about others: Linking the 2x2 achievement goal model to social comparison propensities and processes. British journal of social psychology, 51(4), 626-641.
Buunk, A. B., Kuyper, H., & van der Zee, Y. G., (2005). Affective response to social comparison in the classroom. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 27(3), 229-237.
Carbery, J., & Buhrmester, D. (1998). Friendship and need fulfillment during three phases of young adulthood. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 15(3), 393-409.
Chatzisarantis, N., Ada, E., Qi, B., Papaioannou, A., Prpa, N., & Hagger, M. (2016). Clarifying the link between mastery goals and social comparisons in classroom settings. Contemporary Educational Psychology. 46, 61-72.
Giorgi, A. (1997). The theory, practice, and evaluation of the phenomenological method as a qualitative research procedure. Journal of Phenomenological Psychology, 28(2), 235-260.
Giorgi, A., Giorgi, B., & Morley, J. (2017). The Descriptive Phenomenological Psychological Method. In C. Willig & S. Rogers (Eds): The Handbook of Qualitative Research In Psychology (2nd) (pp.176-192), London: Sage Publication.
Park, S., & Baek, Y. (2017). Two Faces of Social Comparison on Facebook: The Interplay Between Social Comparison Orientation, Emotions, and Psychological Well-being. Computers in Human Behavior, 79, 83-93.
Masten, A., & Coatsworth, J. (1998). The Development of competence in favorable and unfavorable environments: Lessons from research on successful children. The American Psychologist. 53. 205-20. 10.1037/0003-066X. 53.2.205.
Sullivan, H. S. (1953). The interpersonal theory of psychiatry. New York, NY, US: WW Norton & Co.
Smith, R. H. (2000). Assimilative and contrastive emotional reactions to upward and downward social comparisons. In J. Suls L. Wheeler (Eds.), Handbook of social comparison: Theory and research (pp.173-200). New York: Plenum.
Gerber, J. P., & Wheeler, L. (2018). A aocial comparison theory meta-analysis 60+ years On. Psychological Bulletin, 144(2), 177-197.
Johnson, D., Murayama, G., Johnson, R. T., & Nelson, D., & Skon, L. (1981). Effects of cooperative, competitive, and individualistic goal structures on achievement: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin. 89, 47-62. 10.1037/0033-2909.89.1.47.
Schmid C. K., Phelps, E., & Lerner, R. (2011). Constructing positive futures: Modeling the relationship between adolescents' hopeful future expectations and intentional self regulation in predicting positive youth development. Journal of adolescence. 34, 1127-35.
Tatar, E., & Oktay, M. (2008). Relative evaluation system as an obstacle to cooperative learning: The views of lecturers in a science education department. International Journal of Environmental & Science Education, 3(2), 67-73.
Wood, J. V. (1989). Theory and research concerning social comparisons of personal attributes. Psychological Bulletin, 106, 231-248.
Utman, C. H. (1997). Performance effects of motivational state: A meta-analysis, Personality and Social Psychology Review, 1(2), 170-182.