The purpose of this study was to verify the effects of growth orientation, life satisfaction, perceived stress, positive psychological capital and interpersonal relationships in the group coaching program for the promotion of growth orientation for university students based on the model of the social-cognitive approach to motivation. The program consisted of eight topics: growth orientation, growth mindset and brain plasticity, self-directed goal setting, talent which is a product of ongoing effort, failure attitude and perspective change, positive emotion, thinking and behavior, value of growth orientation and self-coaching, respectively. The program comprised a total of eight sessions, 120 minutes each, and the final program was completed through a preliminary experiment with three university students. In order to verify the effectiveness of the program, 48 university students were divided into 16 in the experimental group, 16 in the comparative group, and 16 in the control group. The experimental group participated in the group coaching program to enhance the growth orientation based on the model of the social-cognitive approach to motivation developed in this study, the comparative group participated in a learning goal orientation improvement program based on an incremental implicit theory, and the control group did not carry out any program. Three groups were tested in pre, post, follow-up1(after 1 month) and follow-up2(after 3 months) in order to growth orientation, life satisfaction, perceived stress, positive psychological capital and interpersonal relationships. We performed analysis to confirm the homogeneity to the data of the three groups and to verify the interaction effects between times and groups. As a result, it was confirmed that the group coaching program to promote growth orientation, life satisfaction, perceived stress, positive psychological capital and interpersonal relationships had statistically significant effect and was more effective than the comparative program due to the larger effective size. Also, we confirmed that the coaching effect was sustained after the program was finished and more effectively maintained than the comparative program. Based on the results of this study, this study has academic implications because it verify the effectiveness of the group coaching for the promotion of the growth orientation by scientic method.
This study, for the first time, examined predictive validity of stress mindset-the beliefs about the effects of stress-on perceived stress and self-control in college students. To do so, 159 college students completed self-reported questionnaires on stress mindset, perceived stress, and self-control. The results indicated that compared to students who believed stress can be utilized, those who believed stress is strictly harmful tended to experience higher level of stress, which, in turn, predicted lower self-control. These findings suggest that changing college students’ stress mindset may be a good way to help them to thrive mentally and behaviorally.
The purpose of this study was to develop and examine the effectiveness of ‘Coping Resources Improvement Program’ designed for emerging adults experiencing psychosocial difficulties during college to work transition. Based on transition model of Scholossberg(1995), the program was developed to intervene in 4S (Situation, Self, Support, Strategy) required in the transition. Participants included 31 job applicants who are senior or above and were assigned to the experimental group (N=10), comparison group (N=10), and control group (N=11). Data to verify effectiveness were collected pre-, mid-, and post treatment. Results indicated that the level of coping resources and psychosocial difficulties in the transition changed significantly after the program and those changes were still maintained after a month in the experimental group. However, there were no statistically significant changes on job-search burnout and career-adaptability in all groups. The implication and limitation of the study and the suggestions for the future studies were discussed.
This study was intended to verify that the Revised PAI-A scale reflected the internalization and externalization classification of adolescence problem behavior. For this purpose, exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were conducted using PAI-A restandardization data. In addition, 31 Revised PAI-A sub-scales and SUI scale were used to identify the detailed factor structures. As a result of the analysis, the classification of internalization and externalization factors was similar to that of previous studies. In detail, the sub-scales of ANX․DEP and SUI were classified into internalization, the sub-scales of ANT and AGG were classified into externalization. It is noteworthy that each sub-scale of PAI-A was separated into internalization or externalization. For example, BOR-A, BOR-I, and BOR-N were loaded into internalization, but BOR-S into externalization. Next, in order to confirm whether the structure of the derived internalization and externalization factors can be applied to new samples, 350 samples were randomly extracted and confirmatory factor analysis was conducted, but exclusive of the samples used for exploratory factor analysis. As a result of confirmatory factor analysis, the appropriate indices of internalization and externalization classification was close to the good level. Therefore, the Revised PAI-A scales have theoretical relevance to internalization and externalization classification of problem behaviors. Based on the results of this study, it is expected that it can be used helpfully in the school settings in the future. Finally, the significance and limitations of this study were discussed.
The present study examined the effects of positive affect and the response styles to positive affect(enhancing and dampening) on well-being. Based on Fredrickson’s (1998) ‘Broaden-and-Build theory’, we hypothesized that positive affect and response styles of positive affect predict well-being, and there is reciprocal effects between of predictors on well-being. Using a short-term longitudinal study, 147 undergraduate and graduate students completed measures of positive affect, responses to positive affect, and well-being. The results showed positive affect and enhancing positive affect predict increased well-being, but not dampening. Moreover, mediational analyses showed that positive affect and enhancing positive affect reciprocally predict one another. We discussed implications for practice of counseling and limitations of the study.
The purpose of this study was to examine the moderated mediating effect of emotional expressiveness through social-anxiety on the relationship between university student’ life stress and smart phone overdependence. For this purpose, the survey was conducted at the Southern Post using revised life stress scale for college students(RLSS-CS), social anxietyy scale(SIAS), smart phone overdependence scale(S-scale), and emotional expressiveness scale(BEQ). Data collected from 400 (200 men, 200 women) were analyzed using SPSS 21.0 and SPSS Macro. The results were as follows: first, university students’ life stress were positively associated with social-anxiety, smart phone overdependence and emotional expressiveness. Secondly, partially mediating effect of social-anxiety on the process of university students’ life stress affecting smart phone overdependence. Thirdly, emotional expressiveness also moderated the mediating effect of university student' life stress on smart phone overdependence through social-anxiety. In this study, the pathway leading to the smart phone overdependence was examined jointly, including life stress, social-anxiety and emotional expressiveness. Finally, the implications and limitations of this study were discussed with suggestions for future studies.
This study investigated how abuse and neglect experience by parents affect self-respect, relationship with teachers and variance of emotional problem. Also we verified whether self-respect and relationship with teachers mediates relation between abuse and neglect experience and variance of emotional problem. The results of this study are as follows. First, adolescents who experienced abuse and neglect appear to have emotional problems such as depression, social withdrawal, and somatic symptoms. Furthermore, youth who have abuse and neglect experience have difficulties in self-respect and relation with teachers. Second, self-respect and relationship with teachers have significant indirect effect on relation between abuse and neglect experience and variance of emotional problem. Third, although relation between abuse and neglect experience and relationship with teachers represent positive correlation, the regression coefficients in the direct path are significant in the opposite direction, resulting in a suppression effect. Finally, implications for interventions, limitations of the study, and suggestions for future research were discussed.
This study explored the lived experiences of high school students who experienced a norm-referenced evaluation with the Naesin system. The participants were 15 high school students who resided in the areas of Seoul, Gyeonggi, and Busan. This study adopted a phenomenological research method, which is developed by Giorgi. The study resulted in 370 meaning units, 71 summaries of meaning units, 26 sub-constituents, and 9 constituents. The results showed that participants experienced their relationships with classmates were centered around competitions and they experienced the sense of repeated frustration with their academic goals. Participants perceived that their personal values equated with their academic rankings and they anticipated academic rankings becoming their future social rankings. Low rankings with good performance, learning for exam, and unfair treatment in school made them realize that the education is not for learning but for differentiating students. Participants have found the ways to know better about reality and self-regulated their thoughts and emotions. Further, this study identified resilient aspects of the participants such as support from parents and teachers and hopeful thoughts. This study discussed the meaning of the findings and implications of the findings.
This study aimed to develop and validate the Classroom Problem Behavior Scale - Elementary School Version (CPBS-E) measure which is unique to classroom problem behavior exhibited by Korean elementary school students. The focus was on developing a universal screening instrument designed to identify and provide intervention to students who are at-risk for severe social-emotional and behavioral problems. Items were initially drawn from the literature, interviews with elementary school teachers, common office discipline referral measures used in U.S. elementary schools, penalty point systems used in Korean schools, ‘Green Mileage’, and the Inventory of Emotional and Behavioral Traits. The content validity of the initially developed items was assessed by six classroom and subject teachers, which resulted in the development of a preliminary scale consisting of 63 two-dimensional items (i.e., Within Classroom Problem Behavior and Outside of Classroom Problem Behavior), each of which consisted of 3 to 4 factors. The Within Classroom Problem Behavior dimension consisted of 4 subscales (not being prepared for class, class disruption, aggression, and withdrawn) and the Outside of Classroom Problem Behavior dimension consisted of 3 subscales (rule-violation, aggression, and withdrawn). The CPBS-E was pilot tested on a sample of 154 elementary school students, which resulted in reducing the scale to 23 items. Following the scale revision, the CPBS-E was validated on a sample population of 209 elementary school students. The validation results indicated that the two-dimensional CPBS-E scale of classroom problem behavior was a reliable and valid measure. The test-retest reliability was stable at above .80 in most of the subscales. The CPBS-E measure demonstrated high internal consistency of .76-.94. In examining the criterion validity, the scale’s correlation with the Teacher Observation of Classroom Adaptation-Checklist (TOCA-C) was high and the aggression and withdrawn subscales of the CPBS-E demonstrated high correlations with externalization and internalization, respectively, of the Child Behavior Checklist - Teacher Report Form CBCL-TRF). In addition, the factor structure of the CPBS-E scale was examined using the structural equation model and found to be acceptable. The results are discussed in relation to implications, contributions to the field, and limitations.
This study aimed to investigate how teacher’s attitude toward violence affect students who experienced bullying victim in their role in making peer-to-peer violence deepen, and how students who experienced the bullying victim react to show aggression, and the aggression is blocked by teacher’s attitude toward violence, resulting in decrease of doing the bystander’s negative behavior. By conducing this study, this study ultimately aimed to ensure that the teacher’s attitude toward violence is very important in preventing peer bullying in the classroom. To achieve this aims, this study conducted a survey of 820 fourth, fifth and sixth graders in 40 classes at 10 elementary schools and limited only 365 of the respondents who reported experiencing peer bullying victim. This study utilized the structural equation modeling method to analyze the data. The results were as follows. First, it showed that the lower the bystander’s negative behavior in victims who experienced peer bullying, and the lower the responsive aggression reacted from the peer bullying, when the teacher shows an unacceptable attitude toward violence. Teacher’s attitude toward violence also appears to affect peer bystander’s negative behavior by mediating peer bullying victim’s reactive aggression, indicating that the teacher’s attitude toward classroom violence may reduce the aggression of students from the experience of victimization, and consequently prevent the classroom from becoming more leprosy by reducing peer bullying.
The purpose of this study was to develop a program that reduces adolescent delinquency and enhances adolescents’ social problem-solving, emotional regulation, and self-control skills and to assess the effectiveness of the program. The program was administered in the form of a role-playing game (“RPG”) to increase the participants’ motivation to participate in and the effectiveness of the therapy. The subjects in this study were 36 adolescents who engaged in delinquent behavior and their 18 homeroom teachers in middle schools located in Seoul and Gyeonggi Province. The subjects were randomly assigned to the experimental group or the comparison group. The experimental group received the proposed RPG-based cognitive behavioral group therapy while comparison group received problem-solving group therapy. Teachers in the experimental group were educated about how to guide their students following each therapy session while teachers in the comparison group did not receive any education. The dependent variables in this study were incidences of delinquent behavior and social problem-solving, emotional regulation, and self–control skill level. Each variable was assessed before treatment, immediately after the end of the full treatment program, and two months after the end of the full treatment program. At the end of the full treatment program, the experimental group engaged statistically significantly in fewer delinquent behaviors and displayed statistically significantly higher levels of social problem-solving, emotional regulation, and self–control skills than the comparison group. These differences persisted until the assessment two months after the end of the full treatment program. Moreover, the experimental group reported higher levels of satisfaction with the treatment program than the comparison group. The findings of this study suggest that this RPG-based cognitive behavioral group therapy program is effective at reducing adolescent delinquency, improving adolescents’ social and emotional management techniques and strategies for avoiding delinquency, and in motivating delinquent adolescents to engage more actively in treatment.