Item analysis has been done on 10 Wechsler subscales using standardization data of korean version of the WAIS-R. Items in the information subtest showed relatively high item-total correlations, but they lack of some difficult items. The Picture Completion and Digit Span subtest turned out to have comparatively high item-total correlations, a wide range of difficulty level and high internal consistency. Items of Picture Arrangement showed favorable item-total correlations, cover a large range of difficulty level, and the reliability of the newly constructed items was also satisfying. Items of the Comprehension subtest were highly reliable and consistent in spite of the fact that the number of items were reduced. The subscale Block Design and Arithmetic also showed high item-total correlations, a wide range of difficulty level and high internal consistency. Item analysis of Object Assembly subtest revealed that they are composed of relatively easy items and therefore might have some difficulty in discriminating high intelligence group. Items in the Comprehension and Similarity subtest showed high item-total correlations, a wide range of difficulty level and high internal consistency, but the item difficulty indices of the scale Similarity don`t quire correspond to the order in which the items are presented.
This study analysed the standardization data of Korean Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale in an effort to examine sex differences on intelligence. Subjects were 1396 normal males and females whose age ranged from 16 to 64. VIQ, PIQ, Total IQ and 11 subscales were analized by ANOVA, MANOVA and ANCOVA. The results showed the significant differences between male and female subjects on VIQ, PIQ, Total IQ and male subjects had higher VIQ, PIQ, Total IQ than female subjects in primary school educated group. All female age groups except 20-34 yrs group performed at lower level significantly than male age groups. All female age groups had lower scores than male groups on General Information and Picture Completion scales and 16-19 female age group gained higher score than same age male group. Possible variables induced to this present results were discussed and possible complemantary stragies were suggested.
The present study attempted to investigate age associated change in IQ in adulthood by analysing K-WAIS standardization data. The results indicated that scaled scores of verbal and performance subtests declined steadily with age. When education level was controlled, the rate of decline in scaled scores was considerably reduced, but the basic pattern of decline with age remained unchanged. Multiple regression analysis with the educational attainment and age as predictors of scaled scores revealed that education accounted for 54.4%, 49.9%, and 56.5% of variance in the sum of scaled scores of the verbal subtests, performance subtests, and all subtests, respectively. Adding age as another predictor led to an increment of 13.1% of variance accounted for in the sum of performance subtest scaled scores, and 4.1% in the sum of verbal subtest scaled scores. Age increased prediction of the total sum of scaled scores was 8.1%. The results were interpreted to mean that age associated changes in K-WAIS performance could not be accounted for by educational attainment alone.
This study was investigated about cognitive functions on the Korean Wechsler Intelligence Scale (KWIS) scatter analysis. Subjects were 179 schizophrenics, 48 bipolar disorders with manic episode, 50 neurotics diagnosed by psychiatrists based on criteria by DSM-Ⅲ-R(APA, 1987). Through the vocabulary scatter analysis and verbal mean score scatter analysis, it was found that the schizophrenics scored significantly the lowest in comprehension subtest compared with the bipolar disorders with manic episode and the neurotics. In the analysis of efficiency, all group showed the highest efficiency in digit span subtest and the lowest efficiency in vocabulary subtest. The results were discussed in regard to the cognitive function of the schizophrenics and the bipolar disorders with manic episode and were described the suggestion and limitation of the results.
The present study attempts to develop a Korean version of CES-D in a preliminary level. For this purpose, two independent studies were pursued. In Study 1, employing general population, validity and reliability of a Korean version of CES-D were examined. More specifically, participants were 220 residents in diverse areas such as Taegu, Taejon, Kyongju, and Mokpo. The results revealed that (1) the internal consistency of a Korean version of CES-D was .89, that (2) a Korean version of CES-D consisted of 4 factors showing similar factor structure to that of the original CES-D (Radloff, 1977), and that (3) Pearson correlation with depression subscale of a Korean version of SCL-90-R was .69. These results, as a whole, suggested that a Korean version of CES-D was satisfactory in terms of its reliability and validity for general population. In Study 2, participants were clinical patients diagnosed by psychiatrists as depressives, schizophrenics, and alcoholics. The results revealed that depressives(M=30.7) were significantly higher than schizophrenics(M=20.8) and alcoholics(M=20.3) in terms of CES-D scores(P<.007). Thus, the results suggested that a Korean version of CES-D could be used as a convenient screening test for clinically depressed patients as well. Taken together, the results demonstrated that a Korean version of CES-D could be a valuable depression scale primarily for general population and secondarily for clinical patients. Finally, limitations of the present study are discussed and suggestions for future studies are made.
The present study tried to know the characteristics of BGT performance on depression and to distinguish from other diagnostic groups. The BGT copy phase of 50 depressed patients were analyzed. 50 college students and 50 brain-damaged patients were used control groups. Hurt scoring method, Psychopathological Scale and Adience-abience Scale, was adapted to score data. There were significant difference on HABGT's total score among three groups. In the most items, the depressed patients were scored secondly among three groups except some items. But the result that only 20% of depressed patients was correctely classified when use scale's total score showed that the classification by total score was not effective. In order to establish more effective norm, discriminant analysis was performed and two discriminant function were producted. Function I which differentiate college students and brain-damaged patients was characterized fragmentation, perceptual rotation, change in angulation and curvature difficulty. And function II which differentiate depressed patients and other two groups was characterized perceptual rotation, fragmentation, change in angulation and closure difficulty. A discriminant function using some items as prediction variables showed that 83.00% is successful in classifying the three groups used for criterion while 78.00% is successful in classifying the three groups used for cross validation.
The purpose of the present study was to examine the cognitive deficit and experience-dependent recovery in alcoholics. Two experiments were conducted to examine this problem. Experiment 1 was to examine the difference of performance on Stark Task between alcoholic and normal subjects. Experiment 2 was to examine the recovery pattern and the possibility of transfer on Stark Task in alcoholics. The research hypothesis of interest in this study was : (1) There will be no significant differences in error score on Stark Verbal Task between alcoholic and normal group. (2) There will be significant differences in error scores on Stark Visuo-Spatial Task between alcoholic and normal group. (3) There will be improved performance, if the alcoholics were repeatedly exposed to the original Stark Task. (4) The improved performance on Stark Task will be transfered to a new similar task. Alcoholic patient group and a matched normal control group were selected. The primary diagnosis of each patient was Alcohol Dependency. 2(alcoholic/control group)×2(young/old group)×2(verbal/visuo-spatial task) was employed as a research design in this study. The dependent variable was error scores on Stark Task. The major findings of this study were as follows : (1) There was a large difference between the alcoholic subjects' and control subjects' visuo-spatial error score. (2) There were no difference between the alcoholic subjects' and control subjects' verbal error score. (3) Alcoholic group was improved on the training task with repeated practice. (4) Enhanced performance improvement was transfered to a form of the Visuo-Spatial task with which alcoholic subjects were not yet familiar, the transfer version of the Stark Visuo-Spatial Task.
This study examined the early visual perceptual process in schizophrenic patients using tasks with variables related to perceptual organization. The results show that schizophrenic subjects organiz the unorganized visual field less efficiently than normals and their information extracting ability from visual field is impaired significantly. Distractors have significantly more influence on schizophrenic patients than normals, so patients make significantly more errors with unorganized and organized stimuli, but normals make more errors only with unorganized stimuli. It is suggested that schizophrenic's inability to organize visual field efficiently and of information extracting are due to their inability to deal with stimuli as a whole, which result in increasing informational units to be processed.
The search rate for a target among distractors may vary dramatically depending on whether the stimulus plays the role of target or distractor. The pattern of performance suggests parallel processing when the target has a unique distinguishing feature while it suggests serial self-terminating search when the target is distinguished only by the absence of a feature chat is present in all the distractors. Treisman and Souther(1985) refer to this pattern as a search asymmetry. The purpose of present study was to explore preattentive, automatic processes in schizophrenic patients. Search asymmetry in schizophrenia is similar to that in normals. But patients' detection accuracy was poorer than normals' and their error pattern was different from normal controls'. This suggests that preattentive and automatic process in schizophrenic patients funtions inefficiently. In this study, schizophrenic patients are all remitted. So, inefficient preattentive and automatic process in schizophrenics might be their trait marker.
The present study was designed to evaluate the short-term effects of stimulant medication on mother-child interactions and the cognitive and behavioral symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder(ADHD), to identify factors that might predict favorable response to the treatment, and also to study 6 months follow up. 15 ADHD boys(ages 5-10 years) were treated with metylphenidate(0.5 mg/kg per day) for 1 month and their mother-child interaction, as well as attention and behavior ratings were assessed before and after the treatment. The mother-child interaction patterns were recorded through one-way mirror using video tape in the playroom for 10 minute free play and 20 minute task performance period. Then the videotaped interaction were rated according to the Response Class Matrix developed by Mash, Terdal & Anderson (1973). ADHD children's sustained attention were evaluated by computer programmed Continuous Performance Task(CPT), and their behavior problems were rated by their mother using Abreviated Conners Parent Rating Scale-revised(ACPRS-R), Home Situation Questionnaire(HSQ) and Child Behavior Check List(CBCL). Result indiacted that the percentage of negative-aggressive behavior of the ADHD children and mothers during the task performance period decreased significantly after the treatment. The ADHD children also showed a significant decrease in the errors and an increase in the sensitivity level(d') and a decreasing tendency in the response criterion(β) after 4 weeks of stimulant medication. In the ratings of mothers on their children, hyperactivity and home situation behavior problems tend to decrease. These results indicate that stimulant medication is effective in improving attention difficulties and negative aspect of mother-child interaction behaviors of ADHD children, but it does not bring about overall improvement behavioral symptoms, nor does it bring the level of mother-child interaction to that of normal children. In the analysis of variables discriminating the Improved(N=6) and the Unimproved group (N=9), younger age and more severe cognitive and behavioral symptoms were associated with favorable response to stimulant treatment. The results were discussed in terms of clinical implications for the importance of early diagnosis and treatment of ADHD.
An attempt was made to understand coping mechanism based on a control theory. To begin with, a brief conceptual summary concerning control theory was presented. Then, based on a more applicable control theory to human behavior, various aspects of coping mechanism such as definition, resource, function, mode, style were explored. In addition, a comprehensive three dimensional model of coping mechanism was constructed concerning coping resources, coping functions, and coping styles. According to this three dimensional model, coping resources consisted of personal coping, social coping, and religious coping. And coping function is centered around to maximize the four basic functions of a control system : problem-solving control (effector), informational control (detector), motivational control (motivator), and decisional control (controller). Major coping styles, given the above mentioned coping resources and coping functions, include the following coping styles : (1) Personal Coping Resources ; active coping, passive withdrawal, planful problem-solving (effector); behavioral distraction, addiction, active forgetting, denial/information seeking (detector); perseverance, positive comparison, positive interpretation, accommodation, devaluation, acceptance/wishful thinking (motivator); restraint, self-criticism/indecisiveness (controller) ; (2) Social Coping Resources : Tangible support (effector), informational support (detector), motivational support (motivator), decisional support (controller) : Religious Coping Resources; religious coping. Further, similarities and dissimilarites between the present model and two other relevant models on coping(Lazarus & Folkman; Carver & Scheier) were presented. Finally, some characteristics of the present model are discussed and some implications for future studies are suggested.
An attempt, based on the subjective reasons for self-disclosure, was made to analyze functions of self-disclosure. 122 college students described self-disclosure experiences in their close relationships. Obtained data were analyzed by content and correspondence analysis. Results revealed that prototypically, (1) people disclosure their personal difficulties and negative emotions, in closed boundary context, because of distress and bitterness, (2) after self-disclosure, there was not only a sense of relief but also a sense of regret and insecurity, but, (3) after receiving others' self-disclosure, there was an intention of help and a feeling of closeness or companion, (4) seif-disclosure made relationships more authentic, and (5) according to type of relationships, there were many differences in functions of self-disclosure. Finally, implications for future study were discussed in the light of the present results.
There is some evidence which suggesting personality traits which make a person prone to coronary heart disease(CHD) different from and in some cases are, contrary to those which make a person cancer-prone. This study attempts to delineate personality characteristics of patients with lung cancer and myocardial infarction(MI) based on the hypotheses of Eysenck and Grossarth-Maticek. Specifically, hypotheses of this study are as follows. Hypothesis I, compared to MI patients and control groups, patients with lung cancer will show more extraverted, lower neuroticism and psychoticism scores and more Type 1(or cancer-prone) personality tendencies. Hypothesis II, compared to patients with lung cancer and the control groups, MI patients will show more introverted, higher neuroticism and psychoticism scores and more Type 2(or CHD-prone) personality tendencies. Korean version of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire(EPQ) and Grossarth-Maticek Personality Questionnaire were administered to three groups : 27 patients with lung cancer, 27 MI patients and 27 normal controls. In comparing the difference between the lung cancer and MI groups, the lung cancer group showed more extraverted, Type 1 personality tendency and lower neuroticism scores. In comparing the difference between two patient groups and the normal control group, the lung cancer group showed more extraverted and Type 1 personality tendency than the subjects in the MI and normal control groups. The two patient groups and the control group were classified by means of the discriminant analysis together with 6 personality variables, namely, extraversion-introversion, neuroticism, psychoticism, lie(or social desirability), Type 1, Type 2 personality. Type 1 personality along with the extraversion and neuroticism variables were selected and had been correctly classified in 64.2% of the cases. These results supported the hypotheses of this study.
The present study examined the short-term effects of the stimulant medication, methylphenidate, on the cognitive and the behavioral symptoms and the emotional, social, and academic adjustment of the Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder(ADHD) children. Fifteen ADHD elementary school boys were treated with methylphenidate for one and a half month, and the secondary symptoms, social skill, learning, and self-concept, as well as the primary symptoms, attention and behavior, were rated before and after the treatment. This study identified the factors that might predict favorable responses to the treatment, and found how the change of primary symptoms are related to that of the secondary symptoms. The Continuous Performance Task, the Abreviated Conners Rating Scale, the Child Behavior Checklist, a self-concept questionnaire, a Social Skills questionnaire, and the Academic Performance Rating Scale as well as percentile rank in class were examined. The short-term medication treatment resulted in clear improvement in the primary symptoms : the attentional problem, the hyperactive behavioral problems. However, in aspects of social adjustment, the self-concept, the percentile rank in class and the approptiate social skills were not significantly improved, while the academic behaviors attitudes, and the inappropriate social behaviors were improved. In addition, the children with higher self-concept, milder behavioral symptoms and the lower grades showed more favorable responses to the stimulant treatment. Therefore, the result implies that the secondary emotional, social and academic difficulties do not easily improve by the short-term medication treatment, even though the primary cognitive and behavioral symptoms of the ADHD can be reduced.
The present study was designed to test the relation of speech anxiety and self-focused attention. In preliminary study, subjects were 57 undergraduate students. Among them 32 subjects were high speech-anxious individuals and 25 subjects were low speech-anxious individuals. The results were as follows. High speech-anxious group was higher than low speech-anxious group in self-report anxiety measures, physiological respons(HR), and overt motor behavior during public speaking performance. Also high anxious speakers pay attention to their self-focused contents. These results indicated that high anxious speakers were more self-focused during their public speaking performance than low anxious speakers, which leading to less effective public speaking performance. The study was them designed to test the effects of HR biofeedback on speech anxiety and self-focused attention. The high speech-anxious individuals were assigned randomly to the HR biofeedback training group and the waiting-list control group. There were 15 subjects in each group. The results were as follows. The HR biofeedback training group was significantly reduced in the their anxiety levels(self-report anxiety measures, HR, and overt motor behavior) and self-focused attention. Finally, implications, restrictions and suggestions of the present study were discussed.
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of posterolateral amygdala(PLA) lesion on chronic ulcer induced by activity-stress(A-S) procedure. The PLA is suggested to play an inhibitory role in stress-induced stomach ulcer. Albino rats were used as subjects in the study and they were divided into two groups : PLA-lesioned group and sham-operated control group. After 3 days of adaptation, they had a limited feeding schedule of one hour per day, and except for the feeding time they were always allowed to access to the activity wheel for 7 days. Results showed that PLA-lesioned group had a tendency of increasing ulcer in the A-S procedure, which was indicated by the increased total length of ulcer. Running activity, weight loss and food/water intake, which are behavioral indices, showed little difference between the two groups. Taken together, the results suggest that the PLA lesion plays an facilitatory role in activity-stress as well as in traditional restraint procedure.
The present experiment was conducted to determine whether the paradoxical hypoalgesia induced by naloxone-heat pairings is due to fear elicited by naloxone pretreatment and the latencies with paw-lick, rearing, and jump were recored as an index of response to the pain. In the result of experiments, the rats pretreated with naloxone were tended to shorter latenceis than saline control rats in jump but, they did significantly different in the paw-lick response. However, naloxone pretreated groups were not different in the paw-lick latencies according to drug dosage. In the test of anxiolytic drug, diazepam did not influnced rearing and jump but, significantly reduced paw-lick latency in the rats trained with naloxone-heat pairings. These results were suggested that fear is important factor in the paradoxical hypoalgesia elicited by naloxone-heat pairings.