This survey examined the clinical features and cognitive characteristics of panic disorder patients basing on the Clark's cognitive model of panic attacks(The CMP). Using the structured questionnaire & personal interview, cognitive variables which concerned main hypothesis of the CMP(e.g. catastrophic misinterpretations of bodily sensations) were evaluated. The main findings are as follows: (1) Nearly half of the panics tend to be chronic, (2) panic attack is accompanied by various symptoms & symptom severity is hyperventilation, dizziness, dispnea, and fear of death in that order, (3) the inital attacks of panics with agoraphobia tend to be related more situational factor and that of panics without agoraphobia were related to personal conflicts. (4) There is little cross-cultural difference in panic symptoms, (4) the patients reported that physical symptoms were followed by cognitive symptoms, and four distinct types of panics are identified by their initial symptom of panic attack, and (5) most panics reported subjective experiences about catastrophic misinterpretations of bodily sensations. This results were consistant with the CMP.
This study examined the interference effects of the panic stimuli on normal cognitive functioning in panics. Using a modified Stroop color-naming task, experiment I investigated the interference effects of the panic stimuli on cognitive control functions. Panics were slower to name colors printed in panic words than colors printed in positive or neutral words and the interference effect were greater in panics than normals or non-panic anxiety disorder patients. The results indicated that panic distractor words were quite disruptive for the panics to perform the color-naming task. Using a judgment task in which subjects should make categorical decisions about the target words, while filtering out the distractor stimuli, experiment 2 showed that panic patients were less able to inhibit processing of panic distractor stimuli and can not use normal cognitive strategies(e.g. the panic distractor words belonged to a single category) in performing a neutral task. Two experiments suggested that panics were unable to inhibit processing of irrelevant panic stimuli (experiment 1, 2) and fail to use efficient cognitive strategies (experiment 2). Thus, they experience the most intense physical and cognitive panic attacks. The results as shown in experiments 1, 2 are serious cognitive consequences of catastrophic misinterpretations of bodily sensations and provide strong evidence for the hypothesis of the Cognitive Model of Panic Attacks.
Marital relationship has been shown to be consistently related to women's depressive symptomatology. The purpose of this study was to delineate the role of self-esteem and marital relationship in the development of depression. It was hypothesized that both good marital relationship and high self-esteem protect women from depressive symptomatology. Two-hundred and seventy five women were recruited from 4 private obstetrics and gynecology clinics and 2 university hospitals. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). the Dyadic Adjustment Scale(DAS), and the Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale(SE) were used. At the first stage of analysis, we divided the subjects into four groups -high DAS/high SE, high DAS/low SE. low DAS/high SE. and low DAS/low SE- and examined the differences in depressive symptomatology among them. It was demonstrated that the groups with either satisfying marital relationship or high sef-esteem had lower rate of depressives. At the second stage. DAS was factor analyzed using Maximum Likelihood. varimax rotation. Four factors- dyadic consensus, dyadic satisfaction. dyadic cohesion and dyadic activity- emerged. Finally. Baron and Kenny's test of mediation was utilized to find out whether the effects of factor analytically derived subscales of DAS were mediated or moderated by self-esteem in predicting depressive symptomatology. Results indicated that dyadic consensus was mediated by self-esteem and dyadic satisfaction had a rather direct effect on depression.
The purpose of this study was to find out the gender differences in the roles of marital satisfaction and self-esteem on depression. Also, self-esteem lability was considered as a vulnerability factor for depressive symptomatology. Stepwise multiple regression analyses were used and 112 cases were put into analyses. As a result, the interaction term of marital satisfaction and self-esteem was important in predicting both men and women's depressive symptomatology. However, different aspects of marital satisfaction was important depending on gender. For women, the interaction of dyadic consensus and self-esteem was important in predicting depression, while dyadic consensus concerning enjoyment of life was important in interaction with self-esteem on predicting depressive symptomatology for men. On the other hand, these interactions did not predict the depressive symptomatology 2 weeks later. Stable self-esteem variable was especially not significant. Therefore. the concept of labile self-esteem was put into account, and depressive symptomatology was predicted. As a result. for men, self-esteem lability and its interaction with dysfunctional attitude was important in predicting time2 depression. However, for women, dyadic consensus was the most important variable in predicting time2 depressive symptomatology even after controlling the time1 BDI scores. Dysfunctional attitude alone was the second important variable, and finally, self-esteem lability was important only by interacting with dyadic cohesion in predicting depression. These results have important implication in that when men and women are dissatisfied in their marriage, the dissatisfaction may have different roots, so marital therapy should consider these differences. Also, since the lability of self-esteem was more important in predicting depression for men, gender differences in the effect of stability of self-esteem on depression may exist and these aspects should be taken into account during the process of marital therapy.
The aim of the present research was to test prospectively the utility of a vulnerability-stress model of postpartum depression. Three hundred and thirty women were recruited both through the obstetrics department of a large hospital and private practices. During pregnancy(before the second trimester), sociodemographic variables, depressive symptomatology, intrapersonal vulnerpersonal vulnerability variable(marital adjustment) were assessed. About a month after delivery, the second questionnaire packet assessing depression symptomatology and child-rearing stress was sent by mail, 33.8%(N=9S) of which was completed and returned. Results demonstrated that 22.3% of the sample reported elevated levels of depressive symptomatology(BDI ≥ 16). Results of multiple hierarchical regression analysis indicated that 69.2% of the variance in postpartum depression was accounted by depression history, depressive symptomatology during pregnancy, child-rearing stress and marital adjustment. Overall, results supported the stress-vulnerability model and impications for prevention of postpartum depression were discussed.
The present study investigated the effects of psychosocial characteristics and the role of coping style on depression in the middle aged woman, based on the stress-vulnerability model. 129 community women completed measures of past history, depression, and perfectionism at Time 1 and depression, stress, coping style, and social support 3 months later. In the present study, the psychosocial variables, which were defined as depressive vulnerability variables, consisted of intrapersonal and interpersonal variables. The intrapersonal variables included perfectionistic characteristics, and the interpersonal variables included social support and social conflict. There are three kinds of coping styles; that is, active-cognitive, active-behavior and avoidance coping. The present study examined the effects of these coping styles on depression. Initially, factor analysis of Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale(MPS) was done to analyze the perfectionism in the middle-aged woman. In the results, there were 3 dimensions: socially-prescribed perfectionism, other-oriented perfectionism, and self-oriented perfectionism. To examine the difference between the depressed group and the non-depressed group, difference tests were done. The two groups did not differ in demographic variables but differed in past history and depression at Time 1. Of the interpersonal and intrapersonal variables, only social conflict was significant. And the results revealed that depressed women tended to choose more avoidance and less active-behavioral coping styles against stress. Finally, hierarchical regression analysis was done to find out the depressive vunerability factors. After controlling demographic variables, past history and depression at Time 1, other-oriented perfectionism characteristics, stress and avoidance coping style turned out as strongly predicted variables on depression at Time 2. The results indicate that a woman who requests others to be perfect is depressed when she copes with stress using an avoidance coping style.
The purpose of this study was to assess social problem solving deficits in depressives and to find out the variables which would affect social problem solving. Using the MEPS test and the SPSI, social problem solving ability in both hypothetical and personal situations and social problem solving attitude were measured in nonclinical depressed, nonclinical nondepressed, clinical depressed and clinical control groups. We found out that depressives showed a problem solving deficit as assessed in hypothetical situations, reports of problem solving bahavior in personal situations, and genenal attitudes towards problem solving. However no significant difference was obtained in terms of subjective rating variables. The present results suggested that depressives either might not know effective strategies(i.e. because lack of social knowledge) or that might not be able to produce effective strategies because of cognitive distortion or negative affect. Alternatively suggested that depressives might apply different criteria for effectiveness, and therefor develop objectively less effective strategies. Some implications for social problem solving therpy of depression were discussed.
This study was conducted to investigate causal relationship between depression and social problem solving ability. In the first experiment, depressive and happy mood were induced by a modified version of the Velten mood induction procedure to 62 normal college students in order to see any relationship between depression and problem solving ability. And then attitudes toward problem situation and problem solving abilities were measured from the two different mood groups. It was found that depressive mood affects on the both qualitative and quantitative aspects of problem solving ability and it further affects on changing problem orientations. These results imply that depressive mood itself affects on problem solving regardless of social skills. In the second experiment, response to general problem situations and special problem situations were compared to see any differences exists in problem solving abilities depending on problem situations. Twenty-two nondepressed and twenty-four depressed college students were participated as the subjects. The result shows that both main effect between groups and situations and interaction effect in those two variables are statistically significant in general problem situations but in special situations. Its can be said that the same response pattern is used by depressive persons in general situation as that of undepressed persons use in special situation. The finding of this study suggest that inability to solve social problems of depressive persons may be originated from cognitive distortion at the problem orientation stage.
The present study was to investigate the effects of anxiety and depression on implicit and explicit memory performance. Anxious, depressed, and control subjects were presented with affectively valenced words and asked to perform a self-referent encoding task. Each subject then was assessed with both perceptual identification and free recall task which are implicit and explicit test respectively. The results that are obtained are as follows; First, anxious subjects showed significantly higher priming on anxiety-related words than depressed and neutral words in perceptual identification task, but they showed significantly lower recall on anxiety-related words in free recall test. This suggests that mood-congruent implicit memory bias may be primarily associated with anxiety. However, anxious subjects showed significantly lower baseline performance for anxiety-related words. Second, depressed subjects showed an equivalent degree of priming across the word types in perceptual identification task, but they showed significantly higher recall on depressive words in free recall task. This suggests that mood-congruent explicit memory bias may be primarily associated with depression. Third, mood-congruent memory biases in anxiety and depression are characterized by a different cognitive processing operations; that is, mood-congruent memories in anxious subjects can be easily activated whereas mood-congruent memories in depressed subjects can be easily retrieved. This apparent distinction between implicit and explicit memory is emphasized by the lack of any correlation between measures of mood-congruent memory bias derived from priming and recall scores. Therefore, there is dissociation between implicit and explicit memory performance. In conclusion, the present study showed that mood-congruent implicit and explicit memory biases are essentially independent of one another, and mood-congruent implicit memory bias had more to do with anxiety, whereas mood-congruent explicit memory bias had more to do with depression.
Children with inattention often manifest difficulties other than ADHD and that other disorders can be mistaken for ADHD. Three types of diagnosis for those 39 children in the present study were ADHD only(35.9%), ADHD with comorbid disorder(38.3%), other disorders(25.4%), respectively. Differences in developmental factors, biological factors, psychosocial factors, and family history of these groups were explored. In examining events in prenatal, perinatal and early medical history of these groups, a number of factors found to be suggestive of ADHD diagnosis with or without comorbid disorder, these factors include; medical history of Otitis media, high insistency in infancy, early beginning of crawling, delay in talking, difficulties in sibling relationship. Moreover, when compared with the siblings of non-ADHD psychiatric referrals, the siblings of ADHD children reported to have a higher incidence of attentional problems by their mother. The present study confirms rather than expends on previous findings. In diagnosing ADHD, it seems very important to give attention to and rule out above conditions that could account for the child's seemingly ADHD-type behavior.
The purpose of the present study was to compare 1) expectation of task performance and 2) the attributional style of boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder with those of age matched normal control boys. ADHD group consisted of 20 boys in the 5th & 6th grade in the elementary school with Abbreviated Conners Teacher Rating Scale (ACRS) score above 17. Another group of 20 boys in the same grade with ACRS score lower than 10 consisted Normal Control group. Two groups were given a modified version of picture arrangement subtest of KEDI-WISC in groups of 10. Following the task, ADHD & Normal Control group were divided into two groups : Success feedback group and Failure feedback group. The results showed that there were no significant differences between the two groups in the expectation of task performance. ADHD boys were less likely to attribute success outcomes to their ability than normal boys and were more likely to attribute failure outcomes to their ability and effort than their counterparts. ADHD group was also less consistent than normal controls in their attribution. These results together suggest that ADHD boys showed negative bias in their attribution, particularly following failure experience, a cognitive bias often seen among depressed group. However, unlike depressed individuals ADHD group in the present study overestimated their performance, which indicates their negative cognitive bias might not be as organized as in the depressed group.
This study was designed to evaluate irrational belief charactersics of schizotypal personality student in a university student. The schizotypal personality was assessed through Raine's schizotypal personality questionnaire(SPQ). Especially, the highest rank group of above a 10% point in SPQ score is expected to have stronger irrational belief than average score group and non-schizotypal group to be below a 10% point in SPQ score. In this result, The higher schizotypal personality trend, especially the anxious overcern and helplessness were very higher, and higher were self-expectation, social approval need, problem avoidance. On the contrary, the lower were perfectionnism and dependency. And no correlation between schizotypal personality with blame proneness & emotional irresponsibility. The factors of schizotypal personality which have high correlation with irrational belief were social anxiety and emotional constriction, and isolation-seeking, idea of reference, shrinking from interpersonal relationship. Especially, the high self-expectency, social approval need, problem avoidance were irrational belief that raise dysfunctional interact with emotional/social flinching of schizotypal personality. Also, the higher schizotypal personality, the avoidant-oriented and past-oriented belief on problem solution were higher, but the outer-oriented problem solution belief was lower. The high schizotypal personality in university students have irrational belief which increase cognitive dissonance and worsen problem solution.
This study tested the hypothesis that paranoid tendency is related to low self-esteem, negative self-concept, and defensive attributional style. The Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, the Self-concept Scale, the Attributional Style Questionnaire, the Life Event Attribution Scale were administered to 191 college students. The results showed that the paranoid tendency was related to negative self-concept, low self-esteem, and attributional styles that attribute negative events to external and stable causes. The suggestions and the limitations of this study, and the directions of future study were discussed.
Those who experienced war or other disaters have severe physical and psychological problems for several years, and their severity is so tremendous. Accordingly, studies on PTSD patients have also been achieved actively. In this study, with victims of Sampoong Department collapse accident, we attempted to identify which groups the survivors who experienced the trauma are divided into, and to find out each group's clinical manifestations and differences in personality factors. Our subjects are the survivors of Sampoong Department collapse accident - total 610 cases. We got three discriminated groups by cluster analysis, which based on the T-scores of MMPI. The first group(I) is neurotic group, which has a somatization tendency, and high level of anxiety and depression. The second group(II) is normal-reaction group, which didn't show particular symptoms. The third group(III) is symptom-complaint group, which shows uniquely elated score in the F scale and entirely elated scores in the clinical scales. The three group didn't manifest any significant difference in the demographic data, except for age. Hospitalization periods of I and III were longer than that of II, and I and III got more severe grades in the disturbance grade than II. We compared personality traits among three groups, using 16PF. The result indicates that II (normal-reaction group) is the most psychologically healthy and III(symptom-complaint group) is quite vulnerable and psychopathologic.
Present study intended to verify the psychosocial risk factors of cardiovascular disease. For this purpose, after manipulating interpersonal stress situation of anger suppressive, anger control, and anger expressive subjects, it is compared with the changes of cardiovascular response between support and control condition. The results were as follows; First, anger suppressive and anger expressive subjects showed significantly higher increase on cardiovascular response than anger control subjects. Second, control condition showed significantly higher increase on cardiovascular response than support condition. Third, the effect of social support on cardiovascular response varied with the mode of anger expression. This suggests that the buffering effect of social support on changes of cardiovascular response varies with the mode of anger expression; that is, the manipulation of social support had a significant buffering effect on anger expressive and anger control subjects, but no buffering effect on anger suppressive subjects. Fourth, anger control and anger expressive subjects showed significantly higher perception on perceived social support than anger suppressive subjects. This suggests that there was no buffering effect of social support on anger suppressive subjects, because they did not perceive social support properly.
This study was conducted to investigate the psychological characteristics of eating disorder patients. Eating Disorder Inventory(EDI-2) was administered to restrained(N=32), unrestrained eaters(N=37), overweighter(N=34) and eating disorder patients(N=38). The results of eating disorder group obtained significantly higher scores than other groups on Bulimia, Ineffectiveness, Introceptive awareness, Interpersonal distrust, Asceticism, Impulse regulation, Social insecurity. Restrained eater group obtained higher scores than unrestrained eater group on EDI subscales except drive thinness. Restrained eater group obtained significantly lower scores than eating disorder group on EDI subscales except Drive thiness, Body dissatisfaction. Most of the restrained eaters did not show any tendency to pathology and could be clearly distinguished from patients. On these traits eating disorder patients could be clearly distinguished from both restrained and unrestrainde eater(normal).
This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Korean Alexithymia Scale. The scale was based on the 20-item Alexithymia Scale and consisted of 23 items. The scale was administerd to 356 college students and 65 psychiatric patients. The results of factor analysis suggested 3 factor structures. The first factor measures the ability to identify emotion and to discriminate between emotion and somatic sensations. The second factor measures externally oriented thinking. And the third factor measures the ability to express and communicate emotion. Alpha-coefficient, test-retest reliability, and item-total correlation of factor 1 and factor 3 were high for two groups. But internal consistency of factor 2 was insufficient, particularly in psychiatric patients. The concurrent validity and the discriminant validity of factor 1 and factor 3 were high. The correlations of factor 1 with somatization scale of SCL-90-R and WI were high. And the correlations of factor 3 with somatization scale of SCL-90-R and EES were also high. But the validity of factor 2 was insufficient. Finally the implications for future study were discussed.
With the recent emphasis on cognition in psychopathology, there is an increased need for the assessment of cognitive contents in the study and treatment of social anxiety. In this context, the present study is purported to construct the Korean version of Social Interaction Self-Statement Test(K-SISST) and to examine its reliability and validity. SISST was translated into Korean, and several self-report inventories including K-SISST were administered to 278 college students. The results show that K-SISST is highly reliable in terms of internal consistency, split-half reliability, and test-retest reliability, and that it has good concurrent validity. Total score, two subscale scores, and most individual items of K-SISST have excellent ability to discriminate between social anxiety-high and social anxiety-low groups, and it is highly likely to assess thought contents specific to social anxiety and directly unrelated to the level of depresson; therefore, these support good discriminat validity of K-SISST. Factor analysis reveals that K-SISST has five factors labeled 'Fear of Negative Evaluation', 'Self-Efficacy of Social Exchange', 'Anticipation of Positive Consequences', 'Expectation of Failure and Desire for Avoidance', and 'Rational Coping'. In conclusion, K-SISST appears to be a highly reliable, valid measure to assess cognitive contents of social anxiety.
This study attempted to develop the Korean version of the SAD(K-SAD) and the FNE (K-FNE), which are most widely used among the social phobia sacles, and to investigate the psychometric properties of them. The scales were administered to 433 college students, 189 normal controls and 33 social phobic patients. The results showed that the K-SAD and K-FNE have high internal consistency, temporal stability, and item-total correlation coefficients. The difference of the means between three groups were significant. And the scales correlated with cognitive symptoms higher than somatic symptoms of anxiety. Factor analysis suggested that K-SAD has two factors and K-FNE has single factor structure. Finally, we discussed the cut-off scores for diagnosis and subject screening.
With a perceptual task of which difficulty was varied by the ambiguity of stimulus, a new diagnostic technique for testing the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder(ADHD) children was developed and tested for its validity. As the stimuli of the new diagnostic tool, a pair of simple target and nontarget figures were administered across three different levels of task difficulty. The task difficulty was controled by the vividness of the stimuli made of random dots. The target and nontarget were, respectively, a square of 3×3 cm and a triangle of 3.5cm base and 3.5cm height presented in the middle of a 6×6 cm background square. The target and nontarget stimuli appeared on a computer screen in a random order. The clinical group consisted of 22 ADHD children and the control group 22 normal children who were matched to the clinical subjects in terms of sex and age. When a target appeared on the screen, a subject had to press the space bar. If the stimulus was a nontarget, a subject must not respond. The data of this study were analyzed on correct responses, commission error, omission error, mean response time, standard diviation of response time, multiple responses, anticipatory responses, d', β based on signal detection theory. The result showed that the inattention and impulsivity, the two distinctive characteristics of ADHD, were effectively captured by the new diagnostic test. Especially, it was found that the clinical subjects who did not show difference with the control group at the lower levels of task difficulty showed a differential response tendency as the level of task difficulty went up. This result suggests that the new test could make up the weak points of the existing continuous performance tests(CPT) by allowing the assessment of the degrees of ADHD symptoms.
The Purpose of present study was to explore the specific psychological features of psychiatric patients who draw the opposite sex first in Draw-A-Person test. Among 690 patients who have accomplished full-battery psychological tests at Hanyang Univ. Hospital neuropsychiatric department last 2.5years, 83(12%) OS subjects(drawing opposite sex first in DAP) were identified in psychological test records. 63 SS subject(drawing same sex first in DAP) and 15 transsexual patients' test records were collected for reference data. In the ratio of OS subjects, it was confirmed that in DAP drawing a opposite sex first is a exceptional case except for transsexual subjects. OS subjects were distributed in every ICD-10 diagnostic category, though they were focused in psychotic and neurotic category. Pd scale of OS group is higher than SS group. Hs, Hy, Si scores of OS-male group are higher than SS-female group, It can be concluded that drawing opposite sex first in DAP may occurred in overall psychiatric patient, but without any severe psychotic symptoms, it represents sexual identity related problem.
The purpose of this study was to classify subtypes of the Korean Personality Inventory for Children(KPI-C) profiles for heterogeneous learning disabled children(LD) in terms of emotion and behavior. KPI-C is an instrument which is concerning children's development, emotion, behavior, and social relation and so on completed by their parents. The KPI-C 12 scales(Ego Resilience scale and 11 clinical scales) from 23 learning-disabled children between the ages of 6 and 12 years were investigated using cluster analysis. The nine of LD sample were classified as LD subtype 1 and appeared to be well-adjusted with mild language-delay, attention-deficit. This subtype was named "well-adjusted subtype". LD Subtype 2 contained only 3 subjects showed a pattern of developmental delay, autism, attention-deficit, and hyperactivity. This subtype was named "developmental delay and hyperactivity subtype". LD subtype 3 contained 10 subjects characterized as emotional problem with social withdrawal. This subtype was named "depressive and social withdrawal subtype". The proportion of maladjusted LD in this study was higher than in other study, which suggest that LD children in Korea suffer from psychological troubles more frequently than in other society. Generalization for KPI-C profile subtypes classified in the this study need to be cross-validated with many other LD children.
This study was designed to investigate the typology of problem patterns which were manifested by disturbed children and adolescents, on the basis of empirical analysis of profiles of the Korean Personality Inventory for Children (KPI-C). The KPI-C is a multidimensional inventory that measures development, affect, behavior, and interpersonal relationship of children. The KPI-C is completed by parents and consists of 16 scales which are made up of 255 items. The samples of this study included 326 children and adolescents, aged 4-15, was referred for various emotional, behavioral, and cognitive problems. A cluster analysis was done with scores from Ego Resilience scale and 11 clinical scales(Verbal Development, Psychomotor Development, Anxiety, Depression, Somatization, Delinquency, Hyperactivity, Family Relations, Social Relations, Psychosis, Autism). Cluster centroids were obtained by hierarchical clustering procedure. Using this centroids as seed points, K-means cluster analysis was done to derive clusters. Six profile types were identified, which classified 93.6% of the sample. Profile type 1 represented diffuse, mixed pathology. Profile type 2 suggested behavioral problems with negative effects on adjustment. Profile type 3 implied the presence of moderate problems among these children or defensive attitude among parents of these children. Profile type 4 reflected internalizing emotional problems. Profile type 5 suggested depressive mood and interpersonal relationship problems. Profile type 6 showed developmental problems with various other problems. It is expected that results of this study could be used as fundamental data in interpreting the KPI-C obtained from clinical settings. Further studies are needed to compare the results of this study with the KPI-C profiles of nonclinical samples and to examine relationship between the KPI-C profile types with various external criteria.
The purpose of this study was to identify psychological characteristics of schizophrenic patients whose scores on scale 8(Sc) and BIZ(Bizarre Mentation) scale were less than T-score 70. Also, the relationship between chronicity of schizophrenia and reported bizarreness on the MMPI. Subjects were 48 patients who were diagnosed as schizophrenia by a clinical psychologist and psychiatrists based on the cirteria of DSM-IV(APA, 1994). There was no significant relationship between chronicity of schizophrenia and reported bizarreness on the MMPI. When compared with schizophrenic patients showing scores at or above T-score 70 on scale 8 and/or BIZ scale, the patients with non-bizarreness on the MMPI showed better performance in Vocabulary subtest of KWIS and normal profile tendency on the MMPI, but exposed perceptual inaccuracy in the Rorschach test. The results suggest that non-bizarze schizophrenic patients had better verbal ability remained, which made them be able to show less mental disturbances in verbally structured tests such as MMPI and KWIS. However, the non-bizarre group did not show the obvious signs of thought disorder but the signs of failure of perceptual integration and inaccuracy on the Rorschach test which is less structured. The results were discussed integratively, and suggestions for a future study were proposed.
This study examined differences in the subscales on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory according to attachment styles and attachment to mother, father and peers in high school girl adolescents. One way ANOVA revealed that avoidant attachment group seemed to have more maladjustive possibilities than secure and anxious/ambivalent groups. Also attachment to mother and father seemed to be significantly related with alodescent's maladjustive dispostion, but attachment to peers not related to their maladjustment. Although all profiles of MMPI were within the normal range, the results of this study suggest that the maladjustive inclinations of the adolescents seem to begin very early in their life.
This study investigated the construct validity of WCST(Wisconsin Card Sorting Test), by using the statistical method 'factor analysis' of the 10 subcategories in WCST. The subjects were 53 chronic schizophrenic patients, who had been engaged in rehabilitation programs in rehabilitation ward of mental hospital or community mental health care center. And it studied the relations of the scores of WCST factors, KWIS subtests, and BPRS subscales, in order to identify the criterion-related validity of WCST. In the results of 'factor analysis' of the 10 subcategories in WCST, the 4 factors, the failure of concept formation, perseveration, learning ability, the difficulty of sustained attention, were extracted. The explanation percent of the failure of concept formation was 52.5%, and it was highest explanation percent among theirs. In the result of studying the ralations of the scores of WCST factors, KWIS subtests, and BPRS subscales, the first factor, the failure of concept formation was significantly negatively related to total I.Q, arithmetic scores, vocabulary scores, similarity scores, assembly scores of KWIS, and significantly positively related to the disorganization symptom scores of BPRS. And the second factor, perseveration was not related to any subtests of KWIS, and significantly positively related to the disorganization symptom scores of BPRS. The third factor, learning ability was significantly positively related to comprehensive scores of KWIS, and significantly negatively related to positive symptom and anxiety of BPRS. Finally the fourth factor, the difficulty of sustained attention was significantly positively related to comprehensive scores of KWIS unexpectedly, and significantly negatively related to similarity scores, block design scores of KWIS. The meaning of this study was first, the subjects were korean chronic schizophrenia, and second, it investigated the construct validity and the criterion-related validity of WCST.
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder is the childhood disorder characterized by severe inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, and can lead to the dysfunction of academic, occupational, social performance in adolescent and adulthood. We discussed ADHD by developmental history taking, interview, behavioral rating scale of teacher and parents, and individual psychological assessment. The psychological assessment include intelligence test, neuropsychological test, and continuous performance tests. T.O.V.A. and GDS are a sort of compueterized CPT. The purpose of this study is to find the effectiveness of T.O.V.A. & GDS to assess ADHD group. The Subjects are consisted of 19 ADHD and 21 non-ADHD(40 boys and girls aged range 7 to 14, and above 80 in I.Q.). In ANOVA, half 1, half 2, and total reaction time, half 1 RT variability, and half 1 D Prime show significant difference between ADHD and non-ADHD. In discriminant analysis, hit-ratio is 75% and this discriminant function effectively differentiate two groups. RT variability and anticipatory response is most effective in T.O.V.A. and Vigilance Task is most effective in GDS.
As a normative study of the Raven Colored Progressive Matrices (CPM), the booklet form of the CPM was administered to 357 healthy individuals (181 males and 176 females) who were selected by stratified sampling procedure reflecting the recent Korean census data in terms of major demographic variables, such as sex, age, education. Although there was no difference of the CPM scores between men and women and between urban and rural, it was found that age and education influence the CPM scores. Therefore, normative data were provided for age and education group separately. The internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) of the CPM was .90. The construct validity of the CPM was investigated by factor-analyzing the 36 items, yielding 3 factors that were congruent with the original 3 subsets. A significant correaltion (r=.65, p<.001) was found between the CPM and the Vocabulary score of the KWIS, indicating that the CPM is a valid measure of intelligence.
As a standardization of the K-CVLT (Korean version of the California Verbal Learning Test: Kim & Kang, 1994), the present study examined the K-CVLT performances of 357 neurologically intact individuals (181 men and 176 women) who were selected by stratified sampling reflecting the recent Korean census data in terms of major demographic variables, such as gender, age, and education. Normative data were developed on the 22 memory indices seperately for gender and age group. The present study also replicated our previous work which had confirmed the reliability and the validity of the K-CVLT (Kim & Kang, 1994). The estimate of split-half reliability using the Spearman-Brown formula was .97. The validity of the K-CVLT was reconfirmed from the results of factor-analysis on the 19 K-CVLT variables, yielding 6 factors of general verbal learning ability, response discriminability, proactive interference effect, serial position effect, retroactive interference effect, and learning rate. The present result of factor analysis is also consistent with the original factor analytic study of the CVLT. The present results indicate that the K-CVLT is a useful tool for qualitatively assessing a complex cognitive function of verbal memory comprising multiple processes and parameters. We believe that our normative data on the K-CVLT`s various memory indices will be used widely in many fields, such as clinical neuropsychology, experimental cognitive psychology, and neuroscience.
A study was conducted to examine the distribution of intermanual differences on 5 performance tests commonly used in neuropsychological assessment and to investigate the validity of the "10%" criterion in Koreans. The subjects were 141 right-handed college students. They were evaluated on 1-hour test battery that included the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory, the Dot-filling Test, the Finger Tapping Test, the Purdue Pegboard Test, the Grooved Pegboard Test, and the Grip Strength Test. The results showed that the atypical patterns of performance indicating equal or better performance with the nonpreferred hand and large intermanual differences that exceed 10% are common in the normal Korean population. It was also found that there are larger intermanual differences in Koreans than in Canadians (Bornstein, 1986). These data strongly challenge the validity of 10% criterion in Koreans. It suggests that when manual performance tests are conducted, criteria applied to Koreans in the "restrictive" culture should be different from those applied to the people who were raised in the "permissive" culture as far as the handedness is concerned.
This study was conducted to provide practical guideline to the clinicians who are assigned to differentiate malingerers precisely from patients with brain injury in clinical setting, searching for the unique patterns of performance of malingerers on each BNA subtest in comparison with those of patients with brain injury and controls. The subjects were 47 malingerers, 98 patients with brain injury and 144 controls(normal adults). 1) The result of the analysis of total level of performance on each subtest showed that malingerers scored significantly lower(or higher) in total score(or total score of error) than controls on all of 12 subtests. In total score malingerers scored significantly lower than patients with brain injury on remaining 9 subtests excepting Temporal Orientation, Serial Digit Learning and Line Orientation. The frequency of normal performance of malingerers was very much lower than that of controls and patients with brain injury on 10 subtests excepting Temporal Orientation and Serial Digit Learning. 2) In the result of analysis of the difference of performance according to the order of items, malingerers showed poor performance on Serial Digit Learning at earlier trial but got more score as the trial was repeated, while patients with brain injury was not improved to the end at up to 12 times-repeated trial. Malingerers tended to have significantly higher rate of failure on the easiest items(1-6) of Facial Recognition, the easiest items(1-6) and the most difficult items(13-16) of Visual Form Discrimination. In Right-Left Orientation, Phantomime Recognition, Finger Localization and Motor Impersistence, malingerers inclined to fail significantly more than patients with brain injury on the most of the items. 3) Malingerers revealed most patterns of error excepting some types of errors belonged to Three-Dimensional Block Construction significantly more often than controls and patients with brain injury. When summarizing the results of this study, it is turned out that malingerers showed worse performance in whole than controls and patients with brain injury on most motor and perception test excepting some subtests belonged to orientation and learning test. Finally, the limitations of this study and suggestions for the following studies were discussed.
Korean-Dementia Rating Scale(K-DRS) has been developed for the Korean elderly population. It is the translated version of the Mattis` Dementia Rating Scale (Mattis, 1988). The study examined the performance of Korean normal elderly population whose age ranged from 55 to 84. It was predicted that the performance of the Korean population would be different from that of the U. S. counterpart, mainly due to their difference in language, culture, and education. Normal Korean elderly people from the Seoul-Kyongki region(n=143) participated in this study. Two age norms were developed: 55~64 years and 65~84 years. The effects of age, gender, and education was examined, which yielded significant education and age effects. The norms were further specified, accordingly, in terms of years of education: less or equal to 6 years, and more than 6 years. The normative data of the K-DRS are expected to be utilized for research purposes, such as basic, clinical, epidemiological studies, as well as for clinical purposes, such as, diagnosis and assessment of the progression of dementia.
Task performance and noise may be stressors. Stressors activate the Sympathetic Nervous System. The present study was designed to examine task performance and noise effects on physiological responses such as SCR, HR and PPG as well as on behavioral performance during visual vigilance detection tasks. The effects of 75-80dB noise was also examined. We investigated the effects of conifer needle odor and soundguard on physiological responses and task performance. 76 college students participated in this experiment. Noise presented during task performance increased SCR and HR and decreased PPG compared to basal period(no noise, no task). We found that task and noise acted as stressors. The effects of noise during task performance increased HR, decreased PPG and did not affect SCR and behavioral performance compared to no noise during task performance. These results suggest that physiological responses are more sensitive indicators than behavioral performance is. The effects of essential oil from conifer needles are not significant, and soundguard increased behavioral performance and, in male subjects, decreased HR during task performance without noise compared to basal period. These results suggest that soundguard can loosen high-tension and increase behavioral performance.