This study was investigated about cognitive characteristics depend upon thought disorder of the patients with schizophrenia. Cluster analysis with 11 K-WAIS subtest measures divided the patients with schizophrenia of 84 into three group. Thought disorder index(TDI) was assessed with 4 K-WAIS subsets(information, vocabualy, comprehension, similarities) and TDI, 11 K-WAIS subtest measures, & IQ were used to analyse differences among three groups. Analysis was performed by ANOVA. According to the ANOVA results, the differences between 3 groups were significant in thought disorder. In the evaluation of thought disorder, group 2 were found significantly severe on the thought disorder level(.50, .75) compared with group 1 and 3. Severe thought disorder group(group 2) was impairment of cognitive function compared with group 1 and 3. Especially, severe thought disorder group was significantly impairment of reasonal judgement and reality-testing.
The present study investigated the social skills of schizophrenics through the use of three groups: schozophrenics, nonschizophrenic patients(alchol-dependant, mood disorder individuals) and a normals group, and their social skills results as measured on the social skills scales and semantic differential scales based upon role-enactments in mock social situations. It also analyzed the relationship between the social skills scales and semantic differential scales, and perspective of self's social behavior and perspective of socially inappropriate behavior of others. The results of the study indicated that schizophrenics rated significantly lower on the social skills measures of the social skills scales and semantic differential scales. Nonschizophrenic patients rated at an intermediate level between the normals group and the schizophrenic group. They also exhibited lowered social skills. This study found a significant correlation between social skills and cognitive ability with respect to perspective of self's social behavior and perspective of socially inappropriate behavior of others. The results of the present study suggest that an improved cognitive ability as to the perspective of self's social behavior and perspective of inappropriate social behavior of others may help toward an improvement in social skills.
Social dysfunction is generally considered as an essential feature of schizophrenia. Recent studies have found that symptom and cognitive deficits are one of the important factors in social dysfuction of schizophrenia. Present study explore what to extent these two factors are correlated with and what is the best predictor of schizophrenic patients' social dysfuction. 48 chronic schizophrenic inpatients were selected and PEI, WCST, PANSS were used for measuring social function, cognitive function and psychiatric symptom. The results show that three cognitive measurements except for persverative error and three symptom measurements are significant correlation with daily self-management and personal relationship of chronic schizophrenia. However general psychiatric symptom selected the best predictor of two social function area and negative symptom intermittently a good predictor in specific social area while cognitive measurements did not. Although the function scales are very limited to measure various function area and specific relationship or causal relationship of the variables are not found, it is noteworthy that the results support cognitive function and symptom are one of the important factors in social function of chronic schizophrenia and of them general psychiatric symptom is selected the best predictor. So more effective theraputic intervention in rehabilitation of chronic schizophrenics' social dysfunction is available.
This study was attempted to expore MMPI profile, defense mechanisms and MMPI profile types by cluster analysis and defense mechanisms in Physically Handicapped. MMPI was administered to 122 physically handicapped. So it was founded normal profile by total mean of T score of each MMPI scale. Three subgroups were formed as a result of cluster analysis of T scores each. The first subgroup (44.26%) showed a profile 6-8-7, the second subgroup (40.16%) normal (45< T score < 53), the third subgroup (15.57%) 3-1-2. The result of relation between MMPI profile type by cluster analysis and defense mechanisms were as follows. The first subgroup used more passive-aggressive behavior, projection, displacement, distortion, anticipation, dissociation, somatization, acting out, regression, evasion than second subgroup. Although second and three subgroups were not statistically significant differences, the second subgroup used more denial, sublimation. The third subgroup used more passive-aggressive behavior, projection, displacement, suppression, distortion, dissociation, somatization, acting out, evasion than the first and second subgroup. This findings suggest healthy groups used mature defense mechanisms, unhealthy groups used immature defense mechanisms.
This study was conducted to investigate the cognitive-neuropsychological characteristics of the learning disorder(LD) subtypes. We defined three LD subtypes by their clinical manifestations, our criteria for diagnosis, and deficient performances on the parts of KEDI-WISC and the Basic Achievement Test. As the result, we found the Verbal type(VLD), Nonverbal type(NVLD) and attention problem combined type (LD+ADD), and then compared their neuropsychological, intelligence, and academic achievement test data. The results supported the view that LD subtypes are related to specific assets and deficits in neuropsychological functions. The VLD type and LD+ADD type revealed primary problems in reading and spelling, and in the phonological coding of written language. The NVLD types had specific problems in hand-writing and spatial cognition. They showed deficits in visual-spatial-perceptual organization, complex tactile perception, complex motor skills, and social cognition. The LD+ADD type showed attention deficits and more severe reading and spelling errors than VLD type. Discriminant analysis indicated that overall percentage of correct classification was 60%. TPT and Spelling test scores were highly correlated with Function 1 which discriminate NVLD type from other types. And CPT and Purdue Pegboard scores were very effective discriminants for the LD+ADD type. For successful classification of LD subtypes and clinical implication, convergent and discriminant validity of a particular subtype and limitation of present study were discussed.
The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of punishment and reward on performing problem-solving task among impulsive groups and non-impulsive group. Hypotheses were that impulsive groups will show rapid and inaccurate performance on task in reward condition rather than punishment condition. Suject classified four groups including student impulsive group(n=20), student non-impulsive group(n=25) and delinquent impulsive group(n=17) by the combination of the scores of extraversion/introversion and neuroticism of Eysenck Personalty Questionnaire Korean version. Inspection time, inspection frequency, response latency time, order of inspection and rate of hit response on performing task were measured by computer program. Subjects performed under two incentive conditions including punishment only and involving reward and punishmint. No signigicant effects were found in the inspection time, response latency time and order of inspection. But rate of hit response showed significant interaction effects of Group*Condition. Student non-impulsive groups performed best and delinquent impulsive group performed worst. The result indicate that in contrast to non-impulsive group, impulsive group are activated by the availability of reward, and suggest that the training program will focus the accurate response rather than speed on performing problem-solving task.
This study is to explore eating and dieting style of college women. Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire(DEBQ) and other scales of dietary restraint were administered to 290 female college students in Seoul. The cluster analysis of DEBQ data showed three patterns of eating group; the Normal eating group, the Emotional/External eating group, and the Restrained eating group. The proportion of each group was 50%, 18.6%, and 31.4% respectively. The Normal eating group obtained under-average scores on the three subscales; Restrained Eating Scale(R); Emotional Eating Scale(EM), External Eating Scale(EX) of DEBQ. The Emotional/External eating group showed higher scores than other groups on EM and EX, but lower score on R. The Restrained eating group obtained higher score than other groups on R, but lower scores on EM, EX. It is found that 25.3% of the all respondents are undergoing current restrained dieting. The proportions of current dieting in each group were 4.9%, 25.5%, and 57.8% respectively. The Emotional/External eating group seemed to have a tendency to binge eating. The Restrained eating group seemed to have high motivation on weight loss. The correlation coefficient (r) between DEBQ-R and TFEQ-CR was .85; and that between DEBQ-R and RS was .64.
This study investigated the reliability and validity of the Relationship Beliefs Scale(RBS), which was developed for measuring the beliefs concerning what makes close relationships(particularly, marital relationship) successful. RBS was administered to 230 subjects(male=66, female=164; 53% were married). A factor analysis revealed the four-factor structure which was very similar to the factor structure of the original scale. RBS has sufficient internal consistency reliability, from .55 to .90. The convergent and discriminant validity of RBS also were adequate: The belief factors were not strongly, or moderately, correlated with relationship satisfaction, and were generally related in the predicted fashion to love attitudes. Finally, some limitations of this study and future research uses for the RBS are discussed.
The purpose of this study was to identify three subfactors of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale(BIS) - Cognitive, Motor, and Nonplanning Impulsiveness - in Korean university students. In addition, this study was done to test the gender differences. The BIS was administered to 189 male and 165 female university students. Results of the factor analysis of the BIS scores showed seven factors which suggest the variety of impulsivenss of the subject group. When the number of factors was limited to three to compare with Barratt's original scale, the items of the subfactors were confounded with each other. These results were interpreted that the impulsivity of Korean students did not differentiate more than Americans. In the result of one way analysis of variance to test the gender difference, the male group showed significantly higher scores on the Motor and Cognitive subfactors than the female group. But in the comparison of the Non-planning subfactor, gender difference was not significant. The structure of the subfactors in the male and female group showed smiliarity only in female group to the structure of the BIS. It was suggested that it is desirable to consider the gender differences in interpreting the scores of the BIS.
MMPI Content Scales help clarifying communications between testee and tester and they are construct-oriented scales which refine MMPI interpretation. The purpose of this study is twofold ; The one is to establish norms for Korean version of the Content Sclaes which consists of 15 scales and the other is to investigate feasability for clinical implementation basing on data gathering from college students who have visited our couseling center. New norms were generated for gender and education level based on MMPI standardization sample for the interpretation of MMPI Content Scales. Applying this new norms, it was also investigated whether the Content Scales provide any supplimentary information to Clinical Scales or it is an independently useful scale which describes personality characteristics of the normal group. Finally, the various methods of implementation in clinical settings and research, and contributions in the prediction of personality and psychopathology by MMPI Content Scales were discussed.
The present study investigated characteristics of adolescent MMPI responses who have psychiatric problems. Subjects of this research were psychiatric patients visited Severance Hospital from March, 1995 to February, 1996. They were in total 46, evenly divided between in-patient and out-patient group. Among them 13 were middle school students and the other 33 were high school students. High proportion of in-patient group were diagnosed as Schizophrenia, conduct disorder, mood disorder compared with mood disorder, conduct disorder, adjustment disorder were frequently found to be out-patient group. The data was statistically processed through cluster analysis. By cluster analysis 4 subgroups were extracted, and specific MMPI profiles were revealed. Relations of mood disorder and conduct disorder of male adolescent patients and implications for treatment were discussed.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the factor structure of the K-WAIS in a sample of patients with schizophrenia. Subjects were 154 patients with schizophrenia(male; 100, female; 54) who admitted department of neuropsychiatry in Wonkwang university hospital(ages 16 to 54). General factor in a sample of patients with schizophrenia was abstracted from the K-WAIS factor analysis. Variance of general factor was 58.7%. All subscales of K-WAIS showed above .70 loadings on general factor. Specially, information, vocabulary and similarity of K-WAIS showed above .83 loadings of general factor. Finally significances, limitions and suggestions of this study were also discussed.
To examine the clinical validity of the Korean Personality Factor Test(KPFT), this study compared the factor structures of KPFT in psychiatric patient group to normal group. This study also tried to identify the different factors among normal, generalized anxiety disorder, major depression, bipolar disorder manic, somatization disorder and schizophrenia groups, and to investigate the relationships between these factors and symptoms to examine the validity of KPFT in its clinical application. The result of this study was : first, the factors extracted from the patient group was similar to those of the normal group in extracted sequence and factor structure, which suggested this applicability for the patient group. second, the group differences in factor analysis were B, C, N, O, Q1, Q4, EXT, ANX, SUP, IND, CRE factors, and the accuracy rates of classification by discriminant analysis were considerably high in normal group(57.6%), schizophrenia group(46.6%), bipolar disorder manic group(41.6%), and generalized anxiety disorder group(51.2%), and were a relatibly low in major depression group(28.5%) and somatization disorder group(29.7%). The result of this study suggests that the psychiatric symptoms can be understood in terms of the dimensional personality structure of KPFT.
The purpose of this study was to confirm differcences the degree of anxiety and factorial structure of Korean Beck Anxiety Inventory(BAI) in various groups which was developed by Beck(1988) originally to measure the degree of anxiety. Korean BAI was administrated to 130 inpatients and 224 non-patients. The results revealed that the means on BAI score are significantly different in patients and nonpatient, in various psychiatric types and in sex. but are not significantly different in age. The factorial strucre is same in patient group and non-patient group. These results suggest the necessity of cautious interpretations according to the type of psychiatric disorder, sex, and age.
To present the descriptive statistics of temporal epileptics, neuropsychological tests were administrated. Neuropsychological tests were the Wechsler Intelligence Scale-R, the Wechsler Memory Scale, the Wisconsin Card Sorting, the Token Test, Ward Fluency Test, Sequences Learning(Hebb Digits and Corsi Blocks), Design Fluency Test, Object Naming Test during two days. To compare with the results of the epileptics(N=42), functional patients(N=20) and organic brain disorders(N=22) were administrated with same tests. The results were differentiated the epileptics from the functionals. The functional patients performed more than epileptics and organic brain disorders. However, epileptics who have damages or foci on left temporal lobe would not differentiated from those who have on right temporal lobe. Afterwards, more discussion and studies will be required to help the patients.