This study estimates the effect of Relationship Focused Intervention on the cognitive and language, and Pivotal Developmental Behavior of children with developmental disabilities. A sample of 45 children and their parents were participated in early intervention. They had received Responsive Teaching(RT) Intervention as Relationship Focused Intervention for one year. The results indicated that RT intervention positively changed mother's Responsiveness and Affect interactive styles. Futhermore, it was significantly related to the increased children's cognitive and language development as well as children's pivotal developmental behavior. Particularly, increase in mother's Responsiveness style was associated with increase in children's Pivotal Behavior, and increase in child's Pivotal Behavior was effective at promoting children's developmental functioning. Pivotal Behavior should be recognised as an intervention objective in order to promote the cognitive and language development of children with developmental disabilities.
The purpose of this study was to examine the dysfunctional effects of chronic worriers' low perception of control on patterns and time to search for information. The 29 low worriers and 29 high worriers, who were selected from 158 undergraduates, were randomly assigned to two experimental conditions. These subjects performed a computerized analogies task. The results were as follows. In the controllable threat condition, high worriers did more preservative responses compared to low worriers. But in the uncontrollable threat condition, differences between two groups were not significant. These results suggested that chronic worriers' low perception of control in the controllable threat condition led to repetitive information search. Therefore psychological intervention for chronic worriers should focus upon efficient information search. Also it was suggested that time limit was important to investigate the dysfunctional effects of chronic worriers' low perception of control on problem-solving.
Excessive worry is the core symptom of generalized anxiety disorder and various anxiety- related psychopathologies. Many studies showed that anxious people were vulnerable to cognitive distortion, attentional bias, and poor probability judgment. Recently, Kwon, Yoo, & Jung(2001) reported that worriers had tendencies to make distorted appraisal in cognitive dimensions about threat(i.e., probability of threat, awfulness of threat, coping ability to threat, duty of threat control, effort to control threat, perceived controllability to threat, belief about utility of worrying). They also identified that worriers' catastrophic worrying was related to their distorted appraisals of threat and difficulties in making alternative explanations. This study assumed the reappraisal of threat as one important aspect of cognitive restructuring training and examined the effectiveness of the reappraisal of threat in decreasing worriers' state anxiety, severity of worrying, and cognitive bias related to real life worries. Results showed that worriers' state anxiety, severity of worrying, and cognitive bias are decreased by reappraising of threat valences and their own coping abilities, and by making alternative explanations which are emphasized neutral and positive aspects of threatening situations. Finally, theoretical and psychotherapeutic implications were discussed.
Recent studies found that depressed individuals had overgeneral memories to positive and negative cues. This study investigated overgeneral memory in depressed individuals and examined the Williams'(1996) hypothesis that this could mediated by childhood trauma. We assessed the autobiographical memory, clinical traits, such as, depression, history of childhood physical or sexual abuse, and stress coping strategies. Results support the general hypothesis that individuals with high depression scores reported more overgeneral autobiographical memories in negative episodes. Subjects who reported childhood physical or sexual abuse also produced more overgeneral memories in negative autobiographical memories. When levels of depression was controlled, abuse history showed few association with negative autobiographical memories. In addition, subjects with abuse history had high levels of depression, anxiety, and borderline personality tendency. They also employed wish-fulfilling fantasy strategies to stress.
This study examined the effects of children's belief in conflict control and ego-resiliency on their maladjustment under their parent's conflicts. Data of 1) severity of parent's conflict, parent's effectiveness of conflict coping, children's feeling of threat, and children's self-blame perceived by children in CPI-C, 2) children's belief of conflict control in DCCQ, 3) ego- resiliency in CCQ ego-resiliency scale, and 4) maladjustment level in KPIC rated by one of their parents were analysed by hierarchical regressions and difference tests of R2. The results were as follows: 1)Interaction effects of direct control and coping efficacy influenced to internalized problem and externalized problem; 2) Interaction effects of self-calming and coping efficacy influenced to internalized problem. Self-calming and self-blame influenced externalized problem; 3)Interaction effects of ego-resiliency and conflict intensity, and interaction effects of ego-resiliency and perceived threat influenced to externalized problem. This results show the effects of children's belief in conflict control and their ego-resiliency as moderate variables on their maladjustment under their parent's conflicts.
This study aims to investigate the effects of self-esteem on the relationship between stress and depression. 445 college students were participated to examine the moderating and mediating effects of self-esteem. Results showed that the moderating effect of self-esteem was found in males and the mediating effect was supported in both the male and the female groups. The moderating effect of self-esteem means that the strength of the relationship between stress and depression differs with the level of self-esteem. And low self-esteem acts as a vulnerable factor in the onset of depression whereas high self-esteem as a buffering factor of the effects of stress. Also, the mediating effects of self-esteem means that not only life stress influences on depression directly but also life stress lowers self-esteem that leads to depression subsequently. These results suggest that the moderating and mediating effects of self-esteem occurs simultaneously but the self-esteem affects the male and female groups in a different way.
This study examined the relations between Anxiety Sensitivity(AS) and pain responses in Adolescents. Anxiety Sensitivity Index(Korean version) were administered to 106 undergraduate students. They were classified two groups on the basis on high AS and low AS scores of AS scale. And they were administered to Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale and Catastrophizing subscale of Coping Strategies Questionnaire(Korean version). Also fifty students were measured by cold pains(threshold/tolerance) and pressure pain thresholds. The results of this present study indicate that students with high AS experiences greater negative effects than do low AS students. But pain tolerance was not significantly differed in two groups. These results are discussed in relation to Anxiety Sensitivity.
This study investigated the relation between dysfunctional attitudes, marital communication patterns and marital satisfaction in married women's depression and normal married women. Major findings of this study were as follows: (1) Marital satisfaction was negatively related to marital durations, age, and the number of children. (2) Depressive group showed significantly lower marital satisfaction and constructive communication patterns than normal group. Also, Depressive group showed significantly higher destructive, avoidant, demand-withdraw communication patterns and approval need, perfectionism, performance evaluation. (3) In depressive group, marital satisfaction was negatively related to avoidant, wife demand-husband withdraw communication patterns and dysfunctional attitudes. (4) In depressive group, performance evaluation influenced to avoidant communication patterns, and approval need, perfectionism influenced to wife demand-husband withdraw communication patterns. (5) Finally, limitations and implications of the present study were discussed.
The purpose of this study is to compare with cognitive error of social gambling, problem gambling, pathological gambling and investigate effect of cognitive error of gamblers to the severity of gambling problem. The objects of study were university students and gamblers who participate in unlegalized and legalized gamblings including casino, horse-racing, poker, wha-tu that representative gambling in korea. In the results of this study, cognitive error of gambling and severity of gambling problem were defined and validated as irrational gambling belief and gambling severity scale. Pathological gambler was found to have stronger irrational gambling belief than problem gambler, problem gambler was found to have stronger irrational gambling belief than social gambler. Also irrational gambling belief was found to have significant influence on gambling severity. Suggested that irrational gambling belief is the persistent and strong cognitive property of pathological gambling and the false cognitive inferences on the gambling processing and result strengthen gambling motive, as a result, gambling severity aggravate. Therefore, cognitive modification is the essential part in pre-intervention, treatment and recurrence prevention of pathological gambling.
The present study was conducted to explore the reliability and the validity of a newly constructed verbal memory test for children, the Seoul Verbal Learning Test-Children's version (SVLT-C). To develop the Korean category norms in children, 161 elementary school children were asked to say as many exemplars of a given category as they could. Three categories and 4 words from each category were selected to construct the SVLT-C based on these norms. The structure and testing procedure of SVLT-C were based on the cognitive process approach so that various processes and parameters of verbal memory could be assessed. The SVLT-C was administered to 419 (214 men, 205 women) children or adolescents living in Seoul aged between 5 and 15. The age-and sex-specific norms were developed on the 13 memory indices measured by SVLT-C. The test-retest correlations for most indices of the SVLT-C were statistically significant. The estimate of split-half reliability using the Spearman-Brown formula was .82. The construct validity of the SVLT-C was investigated by factor-analyzing the SVLT-C indices, yielding 4 factors of general verbal learning ability, response discriminability, serial position effect, and forgetting rate. It suggests that the SVLT-C is a useful tool for qualitatively assessing various verbal memory processes. It is expected that the normative data on the various indices of SVLT-C will be widely used in many fields, not only clinical situation but also school situations.
The purpose of this study was to provide initial information about reliability and validity of a Korean translation of the Adolescent Anger Rating Scale(K-AARS). Subjects were 228 Korean adolescents attending middle and high schools and 30 adolescents with conduct problems. Three subscales of the AARS(Instrumental anger, Reactive anger, and Anger control) produced high internal consistency reliabilities greater than .8 and were significantly correlated with measures of adolescents' aggression and problems at school and home. Limitations of this study and suggestions for further research were discussed.
The purpose of this study was to determine usefulness of the Trail Making Test-B for assessment of brain damage severity level, and to examine relationship of age, education and intelligence with performance time of Trail Making Test-B. The participants consisted of 46 control(mean age 38.83, mean education 11.55), 41 alcoholism group(mean age 36.94, mean education 10.69), and 41 brain damage group(mean age 36.73, mean education 10.00). TMT-B and KWIS subtests were administered. The result of this study was difference of performance time was significantly founded among group. The education was not correlated with performance time, but age and intelligence was significant correlated with performance time. In other words, the study show that severity of impairment, demographic data of age and intelligence correlated with TMT-B performance. This study suggested that the Trail Making Test was useful for assessment brain damage level.