The purpose of this study was to explore the cognitive aspects of patients who suffer from tinnitus. The subjects were 120 patients with constant tinnitus, who visited the otolaryngology department of Samsung Medical Center. To examine their features of tinnitus as well as emotional and cognitive features, the following scales were administered; basic questionnaire for tinnitus features and dysfunctional beliefs, Tinnitus Handicap Inventory(THI), Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale(MHLCS), Beck Depression Inventory(BDI), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory(STAI-S), somatization subscale(SOM) of Symptom Checklist 90-revised, Anxious Thoughts and Tendencies(AT&T). The results showed that the severity of depression correlated positively with the loudness of tinnitus, dysfunctional beliefs, somatization, anxiety, social and emotional handicap due to tinnitus, locus of control of chance and external except for the duration of tinnitus and locus of control of internal. Analysis of the difference of the highly depressed group from the lowly depressed group supports the above results. This result was maintained after controlling for the loudness and duration of tinnitus, and suggests other aspects except that tinnitus features affect depression. The results of hierarchical regression analysis for the severity of depression explored tinnitus loudness, dysfunctional beliefs of tinnitus, emotional handicap due to tinnitus which were important variables. In addition, the results of path analysis showed that dysfunctional belief mediates or moderates the loudness of tinnitus and emotional handicap mediates or moderates dysfunctional belief for the severity of depression. This results suggest that cognitive aspects play an important role in physical diseases, and for psychological adjustment we need to manage cognitive aspects.
This study intended to investigate impairment of visual and verbal memory, and mediating effects of organizational strategies on the impaired memory of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder(OCD) patients. In this study, Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test(RCFT) and Korean-California Verbal Learning Test(K-CVLT) were administrated to 28 OCD patients and 28 normal control subjects to assess their visual memory and visual organizational strategies as well as verbal memory and verbal organizational strategies(semantic clustering). The results showed that a group of OCD patients indicated impairment in visual memory but didn't in verbal memory over a group of normal control. And impairment of visual memory was mediated by impaired organizational strategies used during encoding visual information. In conclusion, all the results from this study conducted were consolidated and their implications, the meanings and the limitations of this study as well as suggestions for the future research were discussed.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between socio-demographic variables, especially gender, and pre-operation quality of life (QOL) in rectal cancer patients. Eighty-six recently diagnosed rectal cancer patients (51 male, 35 female) participated in this prospective study 2 or 3 days before curative surgery and completed the following instruments: Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy Scales for Colorectal Cancer (FACT-C), The Functional Living Index-Cancer (FLI-C), Brief Profile of Mood States (BPOMS), and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status rating(PSR). As a result, first, all patients reported a relatively high quality of life Second, Social/family, functional, and cancer-specific well-being were lower than physical and emotional well-being in FACT-C. Third, job, education, and gender were statistically significant variables, but stage was only statistically significant in BPOMS total score. Patients who were high school graduates had better QOL than any other groups. Housewives and farmers were lowest in all areas of QOL. Females experienced significantly worse FACT-C total scores, functional well-being, and cancer specific well-being than males. Fourth, for males, cancer specific domains significantly correlated with physical, social/family, and functional well-being in FACT-C, but emotional well-being correlated only physical well-being. For females, emotional well-being significantly correlated with physical, social/family, and functional well-being, but cancer-specific well-being did not significantly correlated with any other area. The present results indicated that socio-demographic variables were more important than clinical condition in pre-operation QOL. In Korean colorectal cancer population, gender differences exist in socio-demographic starus and pre-operation QOL. Therefore, we suggested developing a gender specific QOL measure and need to investigate a psychological mechanism underlying in the QOL of rectal cancer patients.
This study examined the effects of psychological/physical abuse on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in 177 married women. Many empirical studies have showed that psychological abuse can be as harmful as physical abuse. In order to clarify the effects of psychological abuse on PTSD, we attempted to investigate the independent effect of psychological abuse after statistically controlling for the effects of physical abuse. This study also examined shame and guilt as important affective experiences in the development of PTSD in abused women and social support as a moderator for PTSD symptoms. Result indicated that both psychological and physical abuse predicted PTSD symptoms significantly and that psychological abuse was a significantly independent predictor of PTSD symptoms even after controlling for the effects of physical abuse. In addition, psychological abuse was related to PTSD symptoms moderated by shame but not by guilt. Social support was not significant moderator between abuse and PTSD symptoms. However, support from family among social supports was negatively correlated with PTSD symptoms. Results suggest that clinician need to give a first priority to eliminating shame that abused women may have. Preventive programs focusing not only on physical abuse but also psychological abuse are need.
Recognition memory and the dissociation of immediate and delayed recognition in schizophrenic patients were investigated using event-related potential (ERP) and a continuous word recognition task. Fourteen schizophrenic patients and 14 age and gender matched control subjects participated. Among 240 stimulus words, 40 words were not repeated, 100 were repeated immediately and 100 were repeated after 5 intervening words. Both schizophrenic and control groups responded faster to words repeated immediately than to words repeated after a delay and to first-presented words. However, schizophrenic patients responded less accurately to words immediately and to words repeated after a delay than the controls. In terms of ERP, schizophrenic patients showed significantly reduced N200, LPC and N400 amplitudes, and a more frontally distributed N200 topography than the controls. For controls, immediate repetition was associated with a large LPC amplitude and the absence of N400, while delayed repetition was associated with a small LPC amplitude and the presence of N400. However, this association between immediate and delayed repetition was not observed in schizophrenic patients. All of these results indicate that schizophrenic patients have recognition memory impairment, the cause of which may range from early encoding, and memory search to late retrieval.
The present study investigated social understanding and behaviors in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder(ADHD). Measures of social understanding included perspective taking, empathy, social context understanding, and concern to distress. Measures of social behavior included prosocial behaviors, potential aggression, and externalized aggression. In social understanding measures, children with ADHD showed less perspective taking, empathy, and concern to distress competence than children with non-ADHD. The measure of social context understanding was not significantly different between children with ADHD and non-ADHD. In social behavior measures, children with ADHD showed less prosocial behavior, and more aggressive behavior than children with non-ADHD. The measure of social context understanding was not significantly different between children with ADHD and non-ADHD. Consequently, children with ADHD showed impairment of social understanding and behaviors. Finally, clinical implication and limitations of this research were discussed, and the suggestions for further research were discussed.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of personality characteristics, gender, job-seeking stress and mental health in 2,530 college seniors. 79% responded that they had job-seeking stress. The results from mean comparison, correlation, and multiple regression showed that degree of stress differed according to personality characteristics and gender. That is, the more neuroticism and negative self-esteem, and the less ego-resilience, positive self-esteem, extraversion, agreeableness, openness to experience they had, the more job-seeking stress and negative mental health such as depression, anxiety, and social maladjustment they experienced. And women experienced more job-seeking stress and negative mental health than men. Suggestions for this study and further research about longitudinal study were discussed.
This study investigated the reliability and validity of Korean Children's Somatization Inventory (K-CSI) and somatic symptoms in elementary school children. Subjects were 266 5th and 6th grade children. K-CSI produced high internal consistency reliability and test-retest reliability. K-CSI was significantly correlated with Children's Depression Inventory and Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children. Factor analysis revealed somewhat different results compared to those of antecedent researches. No differences were found in gender and grade. Most commonly reported symptoms were headaches, stomach pain and dizziness. These symptoms were correlated with adjustment problems such as problems in academic achievement and peer relationships. The implications, imitations of these findings and suggestions for further research were discussed.
The purpose of this study was to develop the Korean college women's norms of Restraint Scale(RS) and Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire(DEBQ). The subjects were female college students(n=396). All subjects performed the RS and the DEBQ. And the T-scores of theirs were presented. The Bulimia Nervosa patient(n=11) performed the RS and the DEBQ, too. Female college students were divided into the diet group(n=168) and the nondiet group(n=228). There were significant differences between diet group and nondiet group in the RS and the DEBQ restrained eating and emotional eating scale. But, there was not significant difference between diet group and nondiet group in the DEBQ external eating scale. The RS and the DEBQ scores of the Bulimia Nervosa patient(n=11) were presented. The limitations and the application of the study were discussed.
The authors developed the 'Geriatric Quality of Life scale(GQOL)' to assess the quality of life in the geriatric group, considering the quality of life domains specific to the geriatric group and the limitation in the cognitive functioning of the geriatric group. The present study was intended to standardize GQOL and to testify the reliability and validity of GQOL. The standardization sample was composed of 340 old people who were all over 55 years of age and physically and mentally normal. In the results, the internal consistency such as Cronbach's α and item-total correlation was good, and the test-retest reliability revealed the stability across time. Criterion validity was revealed by high correlation between each item and global quality of life item, and adequate correlation between GQOL and scales assessing cognition, psychological wellbeing, behavior and activities of daily living included in this study according to the quality of life profile convinced convergent validity. In the result of factor analysis, 4 factors with a variance percentage of 48.7% were extracted, and factors were termed by physical health, psychological health, social relationship/economic state, and environment. When GQOL was administrated to normal old people, there were significant differences according to sex, age, educational level and region, and the norm considering sex and age was framed. In this study, it was confirmed that there is no difficulty for old people to carry out GQOL, and this is suggestive that GQOL will be useful in research and clinical practice.
The material-specific memory impairment(MSMI) assumed to be found in temporal lobe epilepsy patients(TLE) provides the rationale to lateralize the seizure focus. Based upon it we tried to determine to what extent memory assessment can lateralize epileptogenic focus in TLE. From patients who were referred for presurgical neuropsychological assessment 41 right and 49 left TLE cases were selected according to inclusion criteria, one of which was that the subject should have hippocampal sclerosis. The results were analyzed in two ways. One way, it was tested whether the performance in Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised(WMS-R) according to memory material interact with the seizure laterality. Another way, it was analyzed to what extent WMS-R subtests discriminate between the left and right TLE. As assumed, memory material did interact with seizure laterality significantly. In verbal memory the left TLE was significantly inferior to the right TLE. But in visual memory tasks the two groups did not perform differently. That is, concerning MSMI hypothesis, only one half(verbal memory deficit in left TLE) was confirmed, but the other half(visual memory deficit in right TLE) was not. Therefore, to the question whether memory assessment can lateralize the seizure focus, the answer is that it can do by half. On the other hand, in the discriminant function analysis, WMS-R diagnosed the focus of seizure laterality correctly in the 73.9% of cases. This level of discrimination is higher than that of previous research. These findings lead to the conclusion that WMS-R, though only half-valid in the perspective of MSMI hypothesis, significantly contributes to the lateralization. At the end, the reasons why impairment of visual memory wasn't found in right TLE were discussed and alternative methods to detect visual memory deficit were listed.
The Korean version of Sociocultural Attitudes towards Appearance Questionnaire(SATAQ) was administered to 360 Korean female university students. Exploratory factor analysis revealed a 4 factor model is fit for data, but, scree plot and interpretability of factors supported a 2 factor model. Correlation between SATAQ and other measures of body dissatisfaction and eating disorder symptoms were significant. Mean score of the SATAQ was higher in the present weight-control group, the group with more experiences of weight-control and the high eating disorder symptom group than the no weight-control group, the group with less experiences of weight-control and the low eating disorder symptoms group, respectively. So, the SATAQ seems to be an adequate assessment tool for identification of risk factors and prognostic indicators of eating disorders.
The purpose of this study, SPSI-R(social problem solving inventory-revised) was validated to demonstrate it's discriminant validity. That is, alcoholics and normals investigated difference in two aspects of problem-orientation and problem-solving proper. MAST and SPSI-R were administered to 60 normal persons and 70 alcoholic patients. Alcoholic patients were selected according to the MAST score. The results were validated to demonstrate it's discriminant validity. That is, five subscale scores of SPSI-R were found to successfully separate alcoholics from normals. Specifically, alcoholics and normals significantly differed in two aspects of problem-orientation and problem-solving proper. The suggestions and the limitations of this study, and the directions of future study were discussed.
In this study, we examined the reliability and validity of Korean Positive and Negative Affect Schedule(PANAS) which had been developed to assess positive affect and negative affect by Watson et al(1988) and translated into Korean by Lee(1994). The PANAS were shown to have high internal consistency coefficient of .84, with the two factors largely uncorrelated. The result of factor analysis showed that the PANAS had a two-factor structure representing 'positive affect' and 'negative affect' each. This factor structure is quite same as that of the original PANAS. However, the 'alert' item which belongs to the positive affect factor in the original scale was included in the negative affect factor in this study. To confirm the construct validity and external validity of PANAS, we administered the correlation analyses between PANAS and the POMS and SCL-90-R. The PANAS PA scale is negative correlated with 'depression-dejection factor' and 'fatigue-intertia factor' of the POMS. Also it is positive correlated with 'vigor-activity factor' and 'friendliness factor' of the POMS. The PANAS NA scale is positive correlated with 'tension- anxiety factor', 'confusion-bewilderment factor' and 'anger-hostility factor' of the POMS. The result showed that the PANAS can reflect the emotional characteristics of positive and negative affect very well. The implications of this study and directions for future study were discussed.
The purpose of this study is to construct inconsistency scale and two impression management index of Korean Inventory of Interpersonal Problems(KIIP). First, pairs of items with high correlation were identified and as a result, inconsistency scale, which consisted of eight pairs of items, was developed by considering location and meaning of items. Second, two impression management index were derived by employing stepwise discriminant analysis. Index of negative and positive impression management were composed of 2 scales (BC, PD2) and 4 scales (DE, LM, PD3, PD4), respectively. Overall classification rates of these two discriminant functions were 98.2%, 80.3%, respectively. Third, descriptive statistics and their norms of inconsistency scale and two impression management indices of university and adult normative samples were presented in order to make interpretation of inconsistency scale and impression index easier. Finally, the meaning and limitation of this study was discussed
This study investigated the probabilistic judgments and the accidentality-intentionality judgments for positive and negative future events in persecutory deluded, depressed, and normal subjects. Twenty persecutory deluded patients, 20 depressed patients, and 20 normal controls were asked to rate the probability and the accidentality-intentionality for 14 positive and 14 negative events. The persecutory deluded patients rated positive and negative events as occurring more frequently to themselves in comparisons to the depressed patients or the normal controls. They rated negative events as occurring more frequently to others in comparisons to the depressed and the normal controls. The depressed patients rated positive events as occurring less frequently and negative events as occurring more frequently in comparisons to the persecutory deluded or the normal controls. They rated negative events as occurring more frequently to themselves in comparison to the others. The normal controls rated positive events as occurring more frequently than negative events. They rated positive events as occurring more frequently to themselves in comparison to the others, and rated negative events as occurring less frequently to themselves in comparison to the others. In accidentality-intentionality judgments, the persecutory deluded patients rated negative events as occurring more intentionally in comparisons to the depressed and the normal controls. The suggestions and the limitations of this study, and the directions of future study were discussed.