An attempt has been made to integrate Mindfulness meditation and CBT(Cognitive Behavioral Therapy) with the Gestalt Therapy approach in the treatment of anxiety disorders. The discussion of Gestalt Therapy approach to anxiety disorders focused on the two concepts, which are unfinished business and contact boundary disturbances, which were then theorized with the Paradoxical theory of change and the field theory. The exploration about Mindfulness meditation revolved around the topic of the Four foundations of the Mindfulness, that are body, feeling, mind and dharma, where Awareness and non-attachment acceptance was explained. Also a brief introduction to Insight Dialogue Meditation was added to. A survey to CBT was done on the basis of Beck's concepts like negative automatic thoughts and dysfunctional beliefs along with symptom education, relaxation training and exposure methods. A comparison was made regarding commonalities and also differences among three methods. Finally, the author tried to establish a strategy to integrate the three on the basis of the Gestalt Therapy.
In this research, we have studied the family of origin's lasting effect on the family making of wedded couples. The path model on the influence of the family of origin was established through the retrospection of the stages before and after marriage of 188 newly-wedded couples. The verification of the model shows that the hypothesis holds for both the husband's and wife's lineages. The higher the level of family differentiation before marriage, the less anxiety adult children at the time of marriage feel about being separated from their parents. The anxiety influences the quality of relationship with their parents after marriage, and also the marital intimacy of the wedded couple. On the other hand, the newly-wedded couples' efforts to overcome the psychological discomfort with parents perceived at the time of marriage made better the quality of the relationship with parents and also influenced marital intimacy. The quality of the relationship with the parents were found to be the mediator. This study took effect under the basic assumption that a healthy individual forms a healthy family, a research was carried out to investigate the effect of the family of origin on grown-up sons and daughters. This suggest implies that the progress of one's development and the psychological progress of the family members during the family life cycle should be investigated longitudinally.
This study develops an efficient prediction model of drinking & it's problems based on Cooper et al.'s drinking motivation theory. For this, depending on previous study(Kim et al., 2001), nine determinants have been derived to represent four independent latent variables such as behavioral undercontrol (extraversion, novelty seeking), negative affectivity (anxiety, hostility), social pressure(family & peer group), drinking motivation(enhancement, coping, social motive). In doing so, authors have compared five hypothesis models through a ‘moderate regression analysis’ and ‘covariance structure analysis’ and then found the most efficient prediction model. Finally authors have tested the validation of the proposed model based on the multi group analysis. As a result, the proposed prediction model shows that behavioral undercontrol and negative affectivity factors are directly linked to social pressure and drinking motivation. Further a drinking motivation factor is a proximal determinant of drinking indulgence and drinking related problems such as vocational, behavioral and familial problems, which is triggered by behavioral undercontrol, negative affectivity and social pressure. Also the results show that the proposed prediction model can be applicable to many other groups such as male, female, university students, adults and drinking drivers. This study concludes that there are stronger causal relationship between predetermined factors and drinking problems at least in the nonclinical sets. Longitudinal studies are needed for the future to examine the predictive value of the proposed model over time.
In this study, to compare the explicit and implicit memory decline pattern of Alzheimer's disease high risk group with low group assigned by 7-minute screening test, ADAS-Cog and computerized priming task were administered to the old with subjective memory problem. At fist, there is significant mean difference in explicit memory performance but there is not in implicit memory performance between two groups. And as for low risk group, as the cognitive function measured by K-MMSE declines, the explicit memory significantly declines, too while the implicit memory maintains. As for high risk group, as the cognitive function declines, the explicit memory shows no change but the implicit memory declines. The dissociation of the two types of memory observed in this study indicates that as cognitive deterioration progresses the explicit memory declines first among the Alzheimer's disease low risk group while as cognitive deterioration progresses the implicit memory declines successively. According to this results, implicit memory can be a index indicating the severity of the Alzheimer's disease.
In an attempt to assess the stability of social anxiety in childhood and adolescence and identify variables contributing to the stability, a total of 1255 children and adolescents(364 4th-5th graders, 518 7th-8th graders, and 373 10th-11th graders) were given self-report measures of social interaction and performance anxiety, retrospective account of behavioral inhibition, traumatic experience, family environment, dysfunctional cognition, depression and interference. The same measures of social interaction and performance anxiety were repeated 6 months later. The correlation between the 1st and 2nd social anxiety scores in the 3 age groups ranged from .54-.74. and approximately half of the high anxiety group (with anxiety score 1SD above the mean) showed a drop in their anxiety scores below the criterion at the 6 month follow-up. Multiple regression analyses revealed the level of social interaction and performance anxiety at the 1st assessment, behavioral inhibition and traumatic experience to be significant contributing factors to the social interaction and performance anxiety at the 2nd assessment. In addition, internalizing behavior problems emerged as a significant contributing factor in the group of 10-11th graders. Those with high level of anxiety at both assessments had higher initial anxiety level, behavioral inhibition, and traumatic experience scores compared to those with transient anxiety. The persistent anxiety group also had higher depression and negative cognition measures.
In order to investigate psychological mechanism associated with the development of social anxiety, a total of 1362 children and adolescents(765 boys and 606 girls; 407 4th-5th graders, 556 7th-8th graders and 399 10th-11th graders) were given self report measures of anxiety in interpersonal and performance situations, retrospective account of behavioral inhibition, parental attitude, and traumatic experience in social situations. The results of structural equation modeling indicated that behavioral inhibition and traumatic experience have direct influence on social anxiety but the effects of parental attitude on social anxiety appears to be primarily mediated through the correlation with behavioral inhibition and traumatic experience. Strength of the direct path from behavioral inhibition to social anxiety decreased with age while the opposite was true of the path from traumatic experience. Similarly, the direct path form behavioral inhibition was stronger for girls compared to boys, while the opposite was true of the traumatic experience factor. Methodological limitations and clinical implications of the present study were discussed.
The traditional method of scoring Digit Span Test is to sum the scores of digits forward (DF) and digits backward (DB). However, several researchers have articulated the need for scoring DF and DB separately and comparing the two. The WAIS-III accepts the view and includes a U.S. norm for the difference between DF and DB. However, no Korean norm for the difference between DF and DB has been published yet. Thus, the aim of the present study was to provide a Korean norm for the difference between DF and DB. A total of 201 Korean normal subjects were administered DF and DB. The effects of age, years of education, or FIQ on the difference between DF and DB were minimal and statistically nonsignificant. Thus, the norm for the difference between DF and DB was constructed regardless of age, years of education, or FIQ. The unit of measurement for the norm was the number of digits forward minus the number of digits backward. The difference of 3 or smaller corresponded to 35.3%ile and may be classified as normal; the difference of 4 corresponded to 16.4%ile and may be classified as borderline; and the difference of 5 or greater corresponded to 6.5%ile and may be classified as abnormal. The DF requires short-term maintenance of information, whereas the DB requires short-term manipulation as well as short-term maintenance of information. Thus, the DF is a short-term memory task, whereas the DB is both a short-term memory task and a working memory task. Viewed in this way, the difference between DF and DB could be used as an index of working memory capacity.
The traditional method of scoring Digit Span Test is to sum the scores of digits forward (DF) and digits backward (DB). However, several researcher have articulated the need for scoring DF and DB separately and comparing the two. The WAIS-III accepts the view and includes a U.S. norm for the difference between DF and DB. However, no Korean norm for the difference between DF and DB has been published yet. Thus, the aim of the present study was to provide a Korean norm for the difference between DF and DB. A total of 201 Korean normal subjects were administered DF and DB. The effects of age, years of education, or FIQ on the difference between DF and DB were minimal and statistically nonsignificant. Thus, the norm for the difference between DF and DB was constructed regardless of age, years of education, or FIQ. The unit of measurement for the norm was the number of digits forward minus the number of digits backward. The difference of 3 or smaller corresponded to 35.3%ile and may be classified as normal; the difference of 4 corresponded to 16.4%ile and may be classified as borderline; and the difference of 5 or greater corresponded to 6.5%ile and may be classified as abnormal. The DF requires short-term maintenance of information, whereas the DB requires short-term maintenance as well as short-term maintenance of information. Thus, the DF is a short-term memory task, whereas the DB both a short-term memory task and a working memory task. Viewed in this way, the difference between DF and DB could be used as an index of working memory capacity.
The present study examined if there's any difference on affect ratings for Rorschach cards in relation to the actual patterns of control related variables. The subjects were 65 volunteered undergraduate students(male 32, female 33). The Rorschach test was administered according to the standard procedure. Then the subjects were shown the Rorschach cards again one by one and asked to rate each card on 9 point scales on three dimensions; pleasure-displeasure, relaxation-tension, excitement-depression. All the responses were classified into following four groups; "responses with EA", "responses with EA-es", "responses with es", and "responses without EA-es". The results were as follows: First, subjects rated cards including "responses with es" or "responses without EA-es" more displeasing, tensive, depressive than cards including "responses with EA". Second, cards including "responses with EA-es" were rated at the middle between cards including "responses with EA" and cards including "responses with es" on all three dimensions. For the retest of the results, the Rorschach test was administered to new subjects(58 undergraduate students; male 31, female 27). Even though there were some minor differences on the statistical data, the results of the two analyses were basically same in terms of general level of hypothesis testing. Finally, limitations and future directions for the present study were discussed.
The purpose of this study was to develop the Social Behavior Sequencing Task (SBST) measuring social-cognitive ability of schizophrenics and examine its reliability and validity. The Social Behavior Sequencing Task was developed following the format of the Schema component sequencing task used by Corrigan, Wallas, & Green(1992). The final six items of the Social Behavior Sequencing Task were selected based on the results of the preliminary study in which 10 items were administered to 200 college students. To establish the reliability and validity, the Social Behavior Sequencing Task was then administered to 42 schizophrenics attending the community rehabilitation centers and 46 normal adults. Results demonstrated that the Cronbach alpha coefficient was .87 indicating high reliability. It was also shown that there was a significant difference between the schizophrenic group and the normal group on the mean of the SBST, t(86)=-3.40. p < .01. The results of the correlational analyses indicated that the score of the SBST was significantly correlated with the score of the picture arrangement subtest of KEDI-WISC, r=.47, p < .01 but not with the vocabulary subtest of K-WAIS, r=.14, ns. The SBST was also found to be significantly correlated with two measures of social skills(r=.44 & -.58), demonstrating high validity. Implications of the results were discussed along with its limitations.
The present study examined if the anger-repression group showed defensive projection in accordance with the psycho-dynamic theory and the thought suppression theory. The subjects were 55 undergraduates(male 29, female 26) who were taking a cultural course of Psychology. They were divided into 3 groups(high anger group, low anger group, anger-repression group) by the multimethod using MMPI and the Rorschach test. The each group was asked to rate the actor having done certain violent behavior. The results are as follows. The anger-repression group showed substantially higher scores on the ratings of psychological discrimination against others under the violent condition than the other two groups. It can be interpreted that the higher the score is, the more negative the judgement is. Therefore, the anger-repression group classified by the multimethod seems to have a biased interpersonal perception, namely defensive projection. The clinical meaning of anger-repression and suggestions for psychological interventions were discussed.
The purpose of present study is to construct an index which can detect faking responses on the Rorschach test. For this purpose, this study compared the Rorschach responses of normals pretending schizophrenia with those of true patients with schizophrenia focusing on the ratio of dramatic responses variable. And the index constructed in study 1 was applied to the faking group pretending to have PTSD symptoms. This procedure was done to examine the cross validity related to the severity of symptoms. The results are as follows. First, for detecting the subject faking schizophrenia on the Rorschach test, it seems to reasonable to use the following criterion; 'the ratio of dramatic responses over .20 and the ratio of dramatic responses with form quality o over .30'. Second, there may be a better chance of detecting the subject faking PTSD with the criterion; 'the ratio of dramatic responses over .15 and the ratio of dramatic responses with form quality o over .25'. Therefore, in order to detect the faking case, the type and severity of target symptoms that the subject intends to malinger must be considered carefully. Third, the Rorschach Faking Index should be applied with flexibility in clinical settings. Finally, the implications of the results and future research directions are mentioned.
This study purported to compare the inter-rater reliability of Korean Brief Psychiatry Rating Scale-Anchored Version(BPRS; Overall, 1962) between the joint interview and the separation interview and to study the correlation between BPRS and self-report test(SCL-90). The subjects consisted of 21 inpatients in University psychiatric hospital. In the joint interview, the two 10-month experienced clinical psychology trainees rated the BPRS 18 items. In the separation interview, another licenced clinical psychologist alone rated the same patients. Also SCL-90 scales were administered to the same patients. The scores of the clinician-rated BPRS were correlated with those of the SCL-90-R, a self-report measure. The results showed that joint interview produced higher reliability than separation interview. The analysis of correlations between the BPRS and SCL-90 indicated that Anxiety, Hostile, Suspicious items of theBPRS were significantly correlated with Anxiety, Hostile, Depression, Paranoid Ideation, Interpersonal Sensitivity, Psychoticism scales of the SCL-90-R respectively. The limitations and clinical implications of this study and the recommentations for the future study were suggested.
Happy-QoL Scale was developed to assess the quality of life in patients with schizophrenic disorder and composed 5 factors(economic domain, general domain, physical domain, occupational/social domain, and affective domain). This study was intended to confirm that the factor model of the Happy-QoL scale developed by explanatory factor analysis could be fitted to the newly collected data from the subjects and to examine the responses to the QoL scale had a time stability over the different time intervals. The principally proposed model was consisted of five factors which were correlated each other. The alternative models suggested were as follows: the model supposed no correlation among 5 factors; the model supposed correlation between factor 1(economic domain) and factor 4(occupational/social domain), and between factor 2(general domain) and factor 3(physical domain). The subjects were composed of 270 patients with schizophrenic disorder. The results of χ2 difference test showed that the model supposing five factors were correlated each other was best fitted. The responses to the Happy-QoL scale had the time stability on each periods of week 1, week 2, and week 4. Finally, the suggestions of this study were briefly described.