The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of Think Aloud(TA) training on attention deficit, impulsivity, and social competency of the ADHD-prone children. Fifteen second-grader boys in the elementary school with Abbreviated Conners Teacher Rating Scale(ACTRS) score above 17 were selected. The 7 boys were assigned in the TA training group and the 8 boys were assigned in the control group. The Stratified Test of Attention(STA) for children, the Korean Child Behavior Checklist(K-CBCL) for mother, and the Matson Evaluation of Social Skills with Youngsters (MESSY) for teachers were administerd before and after the TA training. After the all training sessions, there were significant reductions in the attention deficit and the impulsivity in the TA training group. But, there were no significant differences in the social competency between the TA training group and the control group. Finally, the suggestions and limitations of this study were discussed.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate information processing bias for negative stimuli associated with depression and social anxiety. Each 20 college students were screened for social anxiety and depression and control group. Students with BDI score in the higher 15%ile but SADS score in the lower 50%ile were assigned to the Depression Group and students with BDI score in the higher 15%ile but BDI score in the lower 50%ile were assigned to the Social Anxiety Group. Students with both BDI score and SADS score in the lower 50%ile constituted the Control Group. Process-dissociation procedure was used to measure the controlled and automatic processing as Jacoby(1991) had proposed. Results showed that the Depression Group showed significantly larger bias for negative words than the Control group in the controlled processing, but not in the automatic processing. In contrast, the group differences in the automatic processing bias did not reach statistical significance although the Social Anxiety Group showed the largest automatic processing bias for negative words among the three groups. The Social Anxiety Group also showed nearly the same degree of controlled processing bias for negative words. The findings were discussed in terms of its implications for symptoms of depression and social anxiety. Finally, limitations of the present study and future directions for further study were discussed.
This study examined the nature of memory deficits in traumatic brain injury(TBI) patients compared to normal controls, using the Korean Version of Memory Assessment Scale(K-MAS). Subjects were divided into three groups; (a) mild traumatic brain injury(MTBI) group(N=46), (b) moderate to severe traumatic brain injury(M-STBI) group(N=60), (c) normal control group(N=60). Three groups showed no difference in age, education level. Current findings are as follows: (a) MTBI and M-STBI groups performed most of K-MAS subtests worse significantly than control group. (b) M-STBI group showed less total recall and recognition score, less clustering and learning effect and more rapid forgetting rate than MTBI and control groups. (c) MTBI group showed more total recall and recognition score, higher clustering and learning effect than M-STBI group. (c) But MTBI and M-STBI groups didn't differ significantly in rate of intrusion and perseveration. This finding suggests that MTBI could show substantial memory deficits as well as M-STBI. Discrimination analysis between MTBI and M-STBI demonstrated 68.9% of diagnosis precision rate. And it was confirmed that Delayed List Recall Test has high discriminating power. Finally, the clinical implications and limitations of present study were discussed.
This study investigated the characteristics of illness behavior of somatoform disorder patients using Illness Behavior Questionnaire(IBQ) and Symptom Interpretation Questionnaire(SIQ). For this purpose, we compared somatoform disorder group(n=45), mood disorder group(n=81) and anxiety disorder group(n=27) on the subscales of IBQ and SIQ. The result showed that somatoform disorder group scored higher on disease affirmation and general hypochondriasis compared with mood disorder group. Anxiety disorder group scored higher on general hypochondriasis compared with mood disorder group. There was no difference on denial and affective disturbance between three groups. In regard to symptom interpretation, somatoform disorder group and anxiety disorder group are more likely to attribute symptoms to physical cause and emotional cause than mood disorder group. To find out which variables are most relevant to somatic complaints of psychiatric patients in general, regression analysis was conducted. Two variables, disease affirmation and physical attribution, were significant. They explained 19.4% of the variance of somatic symptoms. Finally, suggestions and limitations of the study were discussed.
This paper confirmed the cognitive biases of people with paranoid tendencies in either threatening or enhancing self-concept: bias in the information processing relevant to the self, attributional bias, and explicit self-concept. The hypothesis of this study was that, when their self-concepts is threatened, people with paranoid tendencies become sensitive to stimuli related to self, attribute negative events to others, and explicitly perceive themselves positively. The another goal of this study was to demonstrate that such individuals reveal these cognitive biases when their self-concepts are threatened, but in the absence of threat, they reveal these biases to a much lesser degree. Cognitive biases were investigated in three groups of college students: one with paranoid tendencies, one with depressive tendencies, and one normal control group. The students in each category were randomly assigned to one of two groups. One group was given positive feedback regarding a disguised IQ test and the other was given negative feedback about the test. The hypothesis was that the paranoid subjects in the group whose self-concept was threatened (i.e., that was given negative feedback) would show more attention bias to words related to self than subjects from the control group, would attribute failure in the task to a partner, and would rate themselves positively in self-descriptive words. Another hypothesis of this study was that the paranoid members of the group in which self-concept was threatened but given positive feedback would show these cognitive biases much less. The results of the experiment supported these hypotheses. These findings are interpreted as consistent with the recent theories that paranoia functions as a defense against low self-esteem and that the paranoid have underlying weak self-concepts and are very sensitive to threats to self. When under threat, they show so external attributional bias that they may preserve their positive self-concept. Implications and limitations of this study were discussed.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of cyber group therapy for social phobia. The setting was a closed user group on internet site in which 4-6 clients including a counselor were assigned. A total of 34 clients participated at the beginning and 2 dropped, and remaining 22 clients, 18 with social phobia as experimental group and 4 in control group, had been surveyed to the end of the study. Ten 90 minute sessions of cyber group therapy, which was primarily focused on cognitive behavioral treatment, were conducted over a 5-week period. The clients were given e-mailed reading material for review before each session and were assigned homework after the group therapy. An 24 hour accessible cyber-bulletin board was prepared for the clients to post their assignment results. Outcome was assessed on measures of Social Avoidance and Anxiety Scale(SADS), Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale(FNE), State Trait Anxiety Inventory, Dysfunctional Test, based on the client responses on a questionnaire answered at the beginning and closing of the study. After the study, the clients were also asked to answer the open-type questionnaire to evaluate the study in terms of assessment of program. The findings of the study demonstrated that change, in this cyber group therapy, was detected with a significant reduction in phobia symptoms on entire outcome measures. The clients satisfaction with the session program was also high, marking 4 in the questionnaire anchored to 5-point rating scale. The main treatment reason was attributed to easy access to psychological information, self-understanding and then generality of the study. The results are interpreted as supporting the efficiency of group therapy in cyber space, which could induce changes in cognitive, emotional, and behavioral aspects associated with social phobia. Further study is needed to examine the usefulness and a specific role of this group therapy in addition to traditional treatment method for social phobia.
This study examined the factor structure of the MMPI-A basic and content scales based on the data of Korean normal and clinical adolescent samples. Principal factor analyses were conducted on the raw score data for 13 MMPI-A basic scales and 15 content scales, respectively. Analyses of the 13 basic scales yielded a three-factor solution for boys and girls in the normal sample and for the combined normal group. The three factors were labeled general maladjustment, repression/overcontrol, and social introversion. The fourth factor, masculinity-femininity, was obtained for the combined clinical group. Analyses of the 15 content scales produced a two-factor solution for all samples. The two factors were considered as externalizing tendencies and social discomfort. These results indicate that the factor structure of the Korean MMPI-A may be seen as relatively robust and stable within and across gender and settings. Given the limitations of this investigation, the results of this study would be an important step toward establishing the factor structure of this new instrument.
This study investigated the reliability and validity of Korean Adolescent Internet Addiction Scale(K-AIAS). The scale was based on the 20-item Young(1998)'s Internet Addiction Scale and was converted to Korean adolescents. Several self-report inventories were administered to 1035 adolescents. The results showed that K-AIAS was highly reliable in terms of internal consistency, temporal stability and item-total correlation coefficients. Factor analysis revealed that K-AIAS had three factors labeled 'Dependence and 'Withdrawal', 'Negative consequences', and 'Tolerance'. K-AIAS positively correlated with hours per week, frequency per week, and Internet Expectancy Sale. On the other hand, K-AIAS negatively correlated with Self-control Scale. In conclusion, K-AIAS appears to be a highly reliable and valid measure to assess adolescent internet addiction.
While neuropsychological testing has been proliferating in recent years, many clinicians have some doubts about its identity. The present review addressed the issue of ‘what is a neuropsychological test?’ by way of comparing intelligence and neuropsychological tests. The basic premise underlying this approach is that both intelligence and neuropsychological tests are examples of a cognitive test and thus similar in nature. Intelligence and neuropsychological tests were compared in terms of measurement aim, measurement method, and measurement domain. The main conclusion is that intelligence and neuropsychological tests exhibit no obvious differences in measurement aim or method, but clearly differ in measurement domain. An intelligence test measures attention, language skill, and visuospatial function, whereas a neuropsychological test measures attention, language skill, visuospatial function, memory, and executive function. Thus, the main difference between intelligence and neuropsychological tests lies in the fact that a neuropsychological test is a more comprehensive cognitive test than an intelligence test. Implications for this conclusion for practicing clinicians are discussed.
This study investigated if Rorschach aggression variables(AG, S, AgC) are valid predictors of overt aggressive behaviors. 71 Rorschach protocol were randomly sampled among closed ward inpatients. Modified Overt aggression Scale(MOAS) was used for rating of overt aggression behaviors. At the result, AG was significant correlation with aggressive behavior toward self and persons, and S was significant correlation aggressive behavior toward self. Also, AG group(AG>2, S<4) and S group (S>3, AG<3) showed significantly higher score than compare group(AG<3 and S<4) in MOAS. Especially, AG group showed significantly high MOAS toward objects and persons at pre-admission periods, and S group showed significantly high MOAS toward self during admission. It was no significant correlation between Aggressive Contents and MOAS. Implications and limitations were discussed.
This study was designed to evaluate the performance of children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder(ADHD) on the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test using Osterrieth scoring method and the Developmental Scoring System. Twenty-three children with ADHD got lower score on structural and incidental accuracy recall scores, and performed at lower levels of copy Organization than did 24 controls. ADHD group committed more total errors, especially perseveration errors on copy drawing and used more frequently Outer part/Inner configuration copy style than did normal group. Additionally, discriminant analysis demonstrated 68.1% of diagnosis precision rate. Implications and limitations of these findings were discussed.
This study was to investigate the intelligence and memory disturbance of patients with traumatic brain injury. The fifty-one subjects were the patients finally diagnosed to one of the following four groups by DSM-Ⅳ(APA, 1994) criteria: Mental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified Due to Head Trauma(NOS), Postconcussional Disorder(PD), Amnestic Disorder Due to Head Trauma(AD) or Dementia Due to Head Trauma(DD). Then the K-WAIS scores and Rey-Kim Memory Test scores were compared among diagnostic groups. In addition, the scores of fourteen patients diagnosed to Adjustment Disorder(ADD) were compared to those of traumatic brain injury patients. The results are as follows. In ADD group, almost cognitive functions were maintained. And in DD group, almost all cognitive functions were impaired. In AD groups, because of memory impairment, the cognitive functions related to registration, retention and retrieval of information were impaired. In PD group and NOS group, the cognitive functions which are not affected by brain injury were maintained, but the cognitive functions which needs information processing and higher mental processing were impaired. Finally, the results were discussed and the implications for future studies were suggested.
Present research aimed to investigate MMPI response characteristic of criminal offenders who are referred to perform a psychological evaluation. The 59 criminal offenders' 383 MMPI data, that verbal IQ was above 80, were used. The cluster analysis was administered with input variable of MMPI subscales, and extracted four groups. The result showed that the group mean differences in most of the scales were significant except for Mf subscale. The first group(n=12) showed relatively a normal MMPI profile patterns. The second group(n=11) tended to overstate one's trouble in validity scale of MMPI. The third group(n=19) and forth group(n=17) were paid attention because they had clearly psychopathologic symptoms in adaptation. This result was discussed not only criminal type of each cluster group in detail, but limitations of this study and suggestions for the further research.
This study was performed to develop the Korean version of Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General(FACT-G), which was designed to evaluate quality of life of cancer patients. Korean FACT-G was constructed on the ground of translations of FACT-G(Cella, 1997). To confirm its validity and reliability, questionnaire battery including FACT-G was administered to 349 cancer patients. Factor analysis proposed 5 factor solution, which does to match original 4 subscales of the questionnaire. Although physical, emotional and functional subscale of FACT-G seemed to be constructively valid, social/family subscale items were divided on two different factors. For social/family subscale items concerning family support were loaded to different factor from items concerning friends/neighbor support, and this was exactly same replication of previous factor analysis findings. Internal consistency for this Korean FACT-G was .86, its correlation to other questionnaire of quality of life was significantly high, and the change of QOL according to cancer stage or performance status was well reflected by this scale. On the basis of this results, implications and limitations of the instrument were discussed
In this study we observed differences in four subject groups: mild head injuries, moderate to severe head injuries, malingering simulated head injuries, and normal subjects, using the Korean version of Benton Neuropsychological Assessment. In particular we focused on performance differences between mild head injury subjects, and malingering simulated head injury subjects, which need special care when examined. The traumatic brain injury group is divided into mild head injuries, and moderate to severe head injuries, which depends on loss of consciousness and extent of lesions appearing on the brain images. The subjects of moderate to severe head injuries number 37, and the subjects of mild head injuries number 74. The subjects of malingering simulated injuries number 47 female university students, and the normal group numbers 91. Amongst the four groups, age and years of educations are significantly different. The statistical method used in this study is ANCOVA, and discriminant analysis. The results are that there are significant differences appearing in every subtest and performance of these four groups, descending in order from normal group, to mild head injuries, moderate to severe head injuries, and then to malingering simulated subjects. Malingering simulated subjects and mild head injuries offer significant differences in every subtest except serial number learning. The malingering simulated group offers a significant increase in error rate in contrast with that of mild head injury subjects. The correct rate of discriminant analysis is 97.5%. In conclusion, K-BNA can be used as a neuropsychological tool to discriminate mild head injuries from malingering simulated subjects.
This study purported to develop norms for the Modified Trail Making Test(TMT) in the elderly Korean population. In order to develop valid norms, we examined the correlations of demographic variables with the test performance. We also investigated the construct validity of the Modified TMT. Triangles and squares were substituted for letters, to minimize the effects of literacy. Normative sample consisted of one hundred and twenty elderly volunteers whose age were between 55 and 84 living in Seoul, Kyungki-do, and Kwangju. Age and education proved to be significant factors influencing the response time of the Modified TMT, but not the number of errors. Gender and literacy didn't affect the performance on the Modified TMT. Correlational analyses of the Modified TMT and the subtests of K-DRS and CDST supported that Modified TMT is valid as a test for visual attention, cognitive flexibility, and general cognitive measure. Analyses on the response time and the error rates suggest that the Modified TMT-C demand more cognitive effort and is more difficult than the A and the B test. Normative data of the time and error rates, which were stratified by age and education, were presented. This study provides basic data necessary for further research on and clinical assessment of the aged Korean population.
Despite several factor-analytic studies of the Beck Anxiety Inventory(BAI), the number of factors and the specific items composing them are not entirely consistent. This study evaluated the fit of six competing models to data provided by a sample of 203 psychiatric patients to examine the factor structure of a Korean version of the BAI using confirmatory factor analysis. The modified hierarchical four-factor model fit the data well, whereas the other existing six models didn't. The finding suggests that the Korean BAI, like the original BAI, is hierarchically structured, with correlated first-order factors of subjective, neurophysiological, autonomic, and panic symptoms loading on a single second-order factor of general anxiety. It also indicated that they may be slightly different in the constellations of symptoms that make up the first-order factors. The reasons for the difference were discussed in terms of both the way Koreans experience or interpret anxiety and the possible errors in translation of some BAI items into Korean.